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Full text of "Seamen's Journal (Jan.-June 1936-1937)"

i 



CALIFORNIA 

STATE LIBRARY 



u 



California State LiarT^ ^ 




A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 




Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto : Justice by Organization 



Vol. L, No. 1 



SAN FRANCISCO, JANUARY 1, 1936 



Whole No. 2064 



RESUME OF GENEVA CONCLAVE 




HE questions of hours of work on board ship 
in conjunction with manning, and of holidays 
with pay for seamen, were considered by a 
Preparatory Maritime Conference held in 
Geneva under the International Labor Office 
(League of Nations) from November 5 to 
December 6, 1935. 
In preparation for the meeting, the International 
Labor Office distributed two 
"White" Reports, embody- 
ing information on the pres- 
ent law and practice in the 
different countries with re- 
gard to the two questions 
to be discussed, followed 
by a comparative review of 
this information, and con- 
cluding with suggestions as 
to the lines along which in- 
ternational regulations might 
be drafted. 

The work of the confer- 
ence was, to a large degree, 
carried on by committee 
meetings in which nearly all 
the members participated. 

Hours of Work and 
Manning 

The Report of the Com- 
mittee of Hours of Work 
and Manning, which was 
adopted by the conference 
as a whole, summarized the 
preliminary general discus- 
sion as follows: 

Seamen. — The Seamen's 
Group urged the need for international regulation of 
hours and manning on grounds of justice, humanity, 
safety and international competition. The regulation 
of hours of work in shore industries had made great 
strides during the last sixteen years, nationally and in- 
ternationally. The 48-hour week was laid down by the 
Washington Convention in 1919, and was now wide- 
spread in industry, including land transport, and this 
was now already giving place to the forty-hour week. 
In these developments seamen had been entirely neg- 
lected. They had been waiting for fifteen years for 
some international regulation and they hoped that at 
last the opportunity of succeeding had arrived. Their 
position as regards conditions of work had not im- 
proved in some countries; and in the desire for econ- 
omy during the crisis of the last few years, there had 
been a tendency to resort to undermanning in quantity 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Officers and Members, 

District and Local Unions and Branches, 

International Seamen's Union of America. 

Brothers: 

Acting under authority of the Executive Board of 
the International Seamen's Union of America, I have 
arranged for the establishment of a western division 
of the International Secretary-Treasurer's office at 
64 Pine Street, San Francisco, California, with 
Organizer S. A. Silver in charge. The office will be 
known as the "Pacific District Office of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America." 

While the establishment of the western office had 
become immediately necessary because of the difficul- 
ties which I had encountered for some months in 
maintaining official contact with the unions and their 
officers and members on the Pacific Coast, I believe 
that, as a matter of organization policy, we should 
eventually establish similar offices in the other districts. 

With all good wishes, I remain, 



Fraternally yours, 



Chicago, Illinois, 
January 3, 1936. 



and quality, to the danger of crews and the public in 
general. 

The claims to international regulation were based 
on humanitarianism and could not be determined 
solely by immediate economic considerations. The 
regulation of manning, which was a question of safety 
of life, justice for the seamen, and a matter of public 
interest, was not entirely dependent on economic and 
financial considerations. Fi- 
nancial and economic con- 
siderations had always been 
urged in opposition to all 
social reform. If it were ar- 
gued that the question of 
wages was bound up with 
the problem of hours and 
manning, the seamen's reply 
was that certain countries in 
which high standards of 
wages prevailed had never- 
theless already gone ahead 
on their own in establishing 
equally high standards of 
hours and manning. In or- 
der to avoid international 
competition at the expense 
of the seamen, it was desir- 
able that similar standards 
should be set up in other 
countries, and this could 
only be done by interna- 
tional regulation. The pres- 
ent, moreover, was an excel- 
lent opportunity for working 
out an international agree- 
ment, as it was likely that 
during the next few years a 
very considerable amount of new tonnage would be 
built, and it was desirable that this tonnage should 
contain provision for accommodation for increased 
crews. The representative of Indian seamen also 
urged that, as so many Indian seamen were employed 
in ships of foreign registry, their protection could only 
be insured by international measures. 

Shipowners. — On the shipowners' side the British 
representative said that as the committee would be 
well aware, British shipowners were opposed to any 
international regulation of hours and manning inde- 
pendently of wages. The fundamental object of the 
International Labor Organization was to diminish 
international competition by way of unfair conditions 
of labor. Any shortening of hours of work or any in- 
crease in manning might be offset nationally by re- 
ductions in wages; further, any increase in manning 



VICTOR A. OLANDER, 

Secretary-Treasurer, 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January 1, 1936 



or overtime would simply increase the existing dis- 
parity in working costs between different countries — 
in other words, increase rather than decrease inter- 
national competition, and so defeat the primary object 
of the organization. As, however, it was impracticable 
at present to regulate wages internationally, the only 
statesmanlike course was to leave hours and manning 
to be regulated nationally, by whatever method each 
country might consider best suited to its own con- 
ditions, viz., legislation, or, as the British shipowners 
preferred, by collective agreement. This did not mean, 
however, that the British shipowners were against 
international labor conventions on any subject. As a 
matter of fact, they had voted in favor of six of the 
eight existing maritime conventions. As the British 
shipowners did not think that hours and manning 
without wages were a fit subject for international 
regulation, they would take no further active part in 
the discussions, except in regard to the economic as- 
pects of any shortening of hours or increasing of 
manning. 

Other shipowners referred to the advisability of 
adopting the methods of collective agreements and 
pointed to the economic and financial difficulties in 
which the shipping industry had been carrying on dur- 
ing the last few years and which would make it diffi- 
cult to introduce such reforms as the Seamen's Group 
demanded. No doubt there was disparity in working 
conditions between different countries, but the object 
of any international regulation should be rather to 
bring up the backward countries to the standard of 
the more advanced than to lay a still heavier burden 
on the more advanced. Other shipowners' representa- 
tives expressed their readiness to negotiate on the 
problems before the committee, but considered that 
the legislation, agreements and practice in their own 
countries represented the furthest extent to which they 
could go in international regulation. In any case, 
hours of work at sea could not be regulated on the 
same lines as hours of work on shore (e. g., as regards 
the weekly rest), and the special conditions of the 
shipping industry must be taken into account. The 
French shipowners' representative intimated that he 
would cooperate in working out an international con- 
vention on hours of work which he considered was the 
only means of creating equality between the different 
countries. 

Governments. — Among the majority of the members 
of the Government group there appeared to be a feel- 
ing that it was time and that present circumstances 
were more suitable than in the past for arriving at 
some international agreement. The Spanish Govern- 
ment representative supported the Seamen's group in 
their demand for such an agreement on grounds of 
safety and social considerations, and in order to equal- 
ize the conditions of competition between the mari- 
time countries. He pointed out that most questions 
of safety at sea had already been regulated interna- 
tionally, and considered that hours of work and man- 
ning should now be dealt with in the same way. The 
French Government representative emphasized that a 
limitation of hours of work on board ship and regu- 
lation of manning were also required in order to off- 
set the unemployment among seamen caused by the 
technical transformations which were being made in 
the building and running of ships, e. g., the increasing 
use of oil at the expense of coal, the greater speed of 
modern ships, and the growing tendency to build 
bigger ships. Moreover, shipping could now be said 
to be slowly recovering from the economic crisis, and 
if shipowners could organize as they had done in vari- 
ous instances (e. g., the tanker pool) for improving 
the economic side of their business, it should not be 
beyond their ability to organize internationally the 
labor conditions of their employees. 

Points to Be Considered. — The report next sum- 
marized the discussions on the detailed "points" with 



regard to manning, number of watches and hours of 
work. It proceeded: 

It is possible to deduce from the above summary 
the principal points which it would appear desirable 
that the International Labor Office should take into 
consideration in drafting proposals to lay before the 
1936 special maritime session and in consulting the 
governments in accordance with the resolution quoted 
above. 

These points are as follows: 

1. Number of officers and men to be carried on 
deck. 

2. Number of officers and men to be carried in the 
engine-room and stokehold. 

3. Number of catering staff. 

4. Number of wireless operators. 

5. The qualifications required for deck and engine- 
room subordinate staff. 

6. Limitation of number of boys, apprentices, etc. 

7. The employment of members of the above staffs 
in a dual capacity. 

8. Number of watches for officers and wireless 
operators. 

9. Number of watches for deck hands. 

10. Number of watches for engine-room and stoke- 
hold. 

11. Number of working hours per day and/or week 
for deck officers, wireless operators and deck hands: 
(a) at sea, (b) in port, (c) on arrival and sailing days. 

12. Number of working hours per day and /or week 
for officers and other ratings in the engine-room and 
stokehold: (a) at sea, (b) in port, (c) on arrival and 
sailing days. 

13. Number of working hours per day and/or week 
for catering and clerical staff: (a) at sea, (b) in port, 
(c) on arrival and sailing days. 

14. Definition of hours of work. 

15. General conditions of work on board ship, such 
as working coal at sea, etc. 

16. The employment of a doctor in ships over a cer- 
tain tonnage and duration of voyage. 

17. Weekly rest or compensation therefor. 

18. Prohibition of the employment of young per- 
sons at night. 

19. Concurrent provisions regarding wages, accom- 
modation, food scales, and other conditions of employ- 
ment. 

20. Measures to be taken to secure observance of 
regulations concerning hours of work or manning 
scales. 

21. Joint committees, national and/or international, 
to deal with any matters arising out of any inter- 
national regulations on the foregoing. 

22. General and special exceptions. 

It would also appear (the report concluded) from a 
consideration of the summary of the discussion which 
has been given in the preceding pages of this report 
that that discussion has served an extremely useful 
purpose, and that in some of the views expressed by 
members of all three groups there are to be found cer- 
tain common elements which indicate that a basis of 
agreement on the question of hours and manning is 
beginning to emerge. 

Holidays With Pay 
The report of the Committee of Holidays with 
Pay summarized the discussions on the several 
"points.'' As regards Point 1 — "Desirability of inter- 
national regulation of holidays with pay for sea- 
men" — it gave the following account of the debate: 
Shipowners. — The shipowners' group made a decla- 
ration which maintained that the idea of holidays with 
pay was inconsistent with the fundamental condition 
of the seamen's contract of employment, which was 
for a voyage or for a fixed term. They also considered 
that it would be illogical for the question to be dealt 
with internationally so long as wages remained un- 



January 1, 1936 t 8J5<J88t HE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



regulated internationally. The whole problem of holi- 
days with pay could be reduced to a question of 
wages. Moreover, the fact that holidays with pay ex- 
isted in numerous countries did not mean that the 
shipowners of all those countries were in favor of an 
international convention on the subject; they preferred 
that the matter should be dealt with by national col- 
lective agreement. 

Seamen. — On the seamen's side it was maintained 
that the fact that holidays with pay were in force in 
some 75 per cent of the European countries, for ex- 
ample, either for officers and seamen or for officers 
only, showed that the idea of international regulation 
of the problem was neither illogical nor impracticable. 
Moreover, the fact of the existence of high wages in 
certain countries had not prevented these countries 
from also having good conditions for holidays with 
pay. It was also urged that humanitarian consider- 
ations and the conception of social justice made the 
extension of this reform long overdue. Besides, it was 
clear from the existing law and practice on holidays 
with pay for seamen that the special nature of the sea- 
man's contract of employment was no obstacle to ex- 
tending to seamen the benefit of holidays with pay. 
The fact that there was no active expression of dis- 
content among the seamen in connection with this 
subject should not be taken to mean that it was not 
a matter of vital concern to them. The object of the 
International Labor Organization was surely to pre- 
vent the conflicts which might break out nationally 
if the question were not regulated at Geneva. 

Governments. — The Danish, Japanese, and Nether- 
lands Government delegates expressed themselves in 
favor of international regulations. They suggested, 
however, that certain exceptions should be made. 

Other Problems Involved. — The report went on to 
indicate the trend of the discussion on each of the 
succeeding points — form of regulations, scope, qualify- 
ing service, rate of leave, continuity of leave, pay dur- 
ing leave, payment in lieu of leave, etc. 

In conclusion, the report said: In the discussions 
which have been summarized above, the committee 
proceeded on the basis that its work on holidays with 
pay for seamen would, as in the case of the question 
of hours of work and manning, constitute a first dis- 
cussion of the problem. It consequently assumed that 
the discussion to be held at the special maritime ses- 
sion of the International Labor Conference in 1936 
would be the second and final discussion. 

Both Committee Reports Adopted 

At a full sitting held on December 6, the reports of 
the committees on hours of work and manning and 
on holidays with pay were adopted unanimously. 

On the recommendation of the General Purposes 
Committee, it was decided to transmit the reports to 
the governing body of the International Labor Office 
as constituting the report of the meeting itself on the 
questions referred to it. 

In closing, the Secretary-General (E. J. Phelan, As- 
sistant Director of the International Labor Office, 
replacing Harold Butler, who had left Geneva for the 
conference at Santiago de Chile) joined in the recog- 
nition of the work done by the President and acknowl- 
edged the tributes paid to the staff. Summing up the 
results of the meeting, he said the seamen could go 
away with an absolute guarantee that the maritime 
questions now pending before the International Labor 
Organization would be dealt with finally in 1936. Fur- 
ther, substantial progress was marked by the con- 
clusion of the report on hours and manning that a 
basis of agreement on this question was beginning to 
emerge. Finally, the meeting had revealed a new 
atmosphere in the discussion of maritime questions. 
In short, it was impossible to deny that the meeting 
had been a success. 

The meeting was then formally declared closed. 



COURTS UPHOLD SEAMEN'S 

RIGHT TO DISCHARGE 

AND WAGES 



Following is a brief summary of the issues 
raised by the crew of the steamship Texan of the 
American Hawaiian Steamship Company and the 
rulings of the United States Circuit Court of 
Appeals and the United States Supreme Court. 

On June 2, 1934, out of a crew of twenty-nine, 
twenty-two left the steamship Texan while she 
was lying along a dock in the port of New York. 
The crew presented a petition to the master, de- 
manding that they be paid for overtime which 
they were required to work on the vessel. The 
crew then presented their claim for wages to the 
Shipping Commissioner in the port of New York. 
This claim was presented in the presence of offi- 
cials of the American Hawaiian Steamship Com- 
pany. The Commissioner refused to award wages 
to the seamen. 

An action was then instituted in the United 
States District Court for the Southern District 
of New York, in which, among other things, the 
claim was made that the watches of the seamen 
were broken, in that water tenders and wipers, 
instead of working in the engine department, were 
required to engage in day work. Another claim 
was made that the seamen were required to work 
on Sunday while in the port of Norfolk, Virginia, 
and that they were required to do more than nine 
hours' work while loading cargo in ports along 
the Pacific Coast, and discharging cargo in the 
port of New York. 

The seamen claimed that Section 673 of Title 
46 of the United States Code Annotated was 
violated. This statute provides as follows: That 

(a) if the master fails to keep on duty successively 
two watches on deck and three watches below, or 

(b) if seamen are required to work alternately in 
the fireroom and on deck, or those shipped for deck 
duty are required to work in the fireroom or vice 
versa, or 

(c) if, while such vessel is in a safe harbor, a sea- 
man is required to do any unnecessary work on Sun- 
day or certain specified holidays, or 

(d) If, at any time, while such vessel is in a safe 
harbor, seamen are required to work more than nine 
hours inclusive of the anchor watch, 

then the seamen are entitled to their discharge and 

wages earned. 

At the end of the trial the District Court handed 

down the following decision holding to the effect 

that "the charges that watches were broken and 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January 1, 1936 



that some members of the crew of the Texan were 
required to work overtime are sustained." The 
seamen were awarded a decree granting them the 
wages due to them on the day they left the vessel, 
plus interest to date. 

The American Hawaiian Steamship Company 
appealed from this decision to the United States 
Circuit Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. 
On appeal, the American Hawaiian Steamship 
Company claimed that the seamen had "en- 
deavored to make a revolt aboard the steamship 
Texan, and combined and/or conspired and/or 
confederated each with the other to make a revolt 
on board the Texan, and solicited, incited and 
stirred up the other members of the crew to dis- 
obey and/or resist the lawful orders of the master 
of the steamship Texan." 

This appeal was heard by three federal judges 

in the Circuit Court, which court handed down 

the following decision: 

". . . The allegations that they attempted to make 
a revolt and deserted so as to forfeit their wages 
under 46 U. S. C. A., Section 701, were not sustained 
in the District Court and we do not find more than 
the making of demands, some of which were ill- 
advised. . . . Accordingly, as we accept the findings 
as to the character of their conduct, we agree that 
they are entitled to wages earned.'" 

Not satisfied with this decision by the Circuit 
Court, the American Hawaiian Steamship Com- 
pany, on August 17, made an application to the 
United States Supreme Court, asking that the 
United States Supreme Court review the decision 
of the Circuit Court below. This the United 
States Supreme Court refused to grant. 

The decision in the Circuit Court of Appeals 
and the subsequent denial of the writ by the 
United States Supreme Court lays down the rule 
that any seaman who is required: 

(1) to stand more than two watches in the deck 
department or three watches in the engine depart- 
ment, or 

(2) is required to work alternately in the fireroom 
and on deck, or those shipped for deck duty are re- 
quired to work in the fireroom or vice versa, or 

(3) if while such vessel is in a safe harbor the sea- 
men are required to do unnecessary work on Sun- 
day, or 

(4) if while the vessel is in a safe harbor a seaman 
is required to work more than nine hours, inclusive 
of the anchor watch, 

may demand his discharge and wages earned 
up to the day of the discharge. 

Attorney William L. Standard of 291 Broad- 
way, New York City, represented twenty-two 
seamen in the above action, and requests that they 
call or write for the money due them. 



INSTRUCTIVE RADIO TALKS 



The United States Department of Commerce 
has inaugurated a series of thirty-minute radio 
broadcasts over the Columbia Broadcasting Sys- 
tem every Monday afternoon. 

In outlining the series, Secretary Roper said : 
"Officials of the department will present to our 
radio audience a description of the work of the 
ten bureaus in the department. It is our hope that 
through these programs the public may become 
better acquainted with the Department of Com- 
merce, relating as it does to the lives of all our 
citizens. 

"In order to encourage and develop business 
at home and abroad, a vast number of interrelated 
and interdependent services have been instituted. 
When we consider that the Department of Com- 
merce is charged with the responsibility of the 
conservation and protection of the fur seal herd 
on the far off Pribilof Islands of Alaska, and the 
care of the natives living there, to the maintenance 
of South Point Lighthouse on the southern-most 
tip of the Island of Hawaii ; of the directional 
guidance for the course of an airplane speeding 
across the continent in a few hours, to the study 
of earthquake safeguards; and of the investiga- 
tion and reporting of trade possibilities in far off 
Johannesburg, Africa, to the enumeration and the 
compilation of a census of religious bodies in the 
United States, the wide scope of the great variety 
of activities of the department are very vividly 
realized." 

On alternate programs music will be furnished 
by the U. S. Army, Navy, and Marine bands. 



OLD MAN OF THE SEA 



A correspondent wants to know whence came 
the term "Old Man of the Sea." In the 
Arabian Nights story of Sinbad the Sailor, the 
Old Man of the Sea climbed up on the shoulders 
of Sinbad and clung there for many days and 
nights, much to the discomfort of Sinbad, who 
finally released himself by making the Old Man 
drunk. Hence, any burden, figurative or actual, 
of which it is impossible to free oneself without 
the greatest exertions is spoken of as an Old Man 
of the Sea. 



You cannot stop people from thinking. The job 
is to get some of them started. — Hugo. 



January 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



FURUSETH'S ADDRESS TO 
GENEVA CONFERENCE 



Andrew Furuseth, president of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America, delivered the 
following opening address at the Geneva Pre- 
paratory Maritime Conference, held under the 
auspices of International Labor Office: 

Mr. President and members of the conference : 
This meeting, being the first Maritime Labor Con- 
ference in which the United States is officially 
present, it has occurred to me, as the labor repre- 
sentative, that it might be appropriate to submit 
at its opening the substance of the grievances for 
which we seamen seek redress, and also to bring 
to your attention a difference between the policy 
of the United States and the policy of Europe, 
which is fundamental and of which there can be 
very little consideration of change. The United 
States came into the family of nations bringing 
with it something that was so old that it was con- 
sidered new. In Europe, through the changes of 
a thousand years, sovereignty has been lodged in 
the king, or in the immediate representative of 
the king. The United States vested its sovereignty 
in the whole people. 

This, of course, has its influence upon the sea- 
men's situation, and has been made actual to the 
extent that the seamen of the United States, and 
the seamen coming to the ports of the United 
States, automatically become free because they 
are legally admitted to free soil. The United 
States, in its thirteenth amendment to the Con- 
stitution, decided that there can be no slavery or 
involuntary servitude within its jurisdiction, and 
this was explicitly embodied in the Seamen's Act. 
Freedom, therefore, in the United States is a 
fundamental law, while in Europe it is a matter 
of grace. We seamen come to you praying that 
we may be made free men, we and our descend- 
ants, and that we may be relieved from the bitter- 
ness of soul that too often attaches to him who 
knows and feels that his body is not his own. 
We are all aware that this is not on the agenda 
of this meeting; we bring it again to your atten- 
tion because you considered it once at Genoa, and 
then decided that freedom ought to be extended 
to seamen; and in order that the managing com- 
mittee may at a very early date see its way 
clear to set a time for the serious consideration 



of this important and most fundamental question. 
The agenda deals with the question of manning. 
There can be no adequate manning of vessels 
unless, first of all, the men employed have the 
skill needed to be at all times and under all con- 
ditions capable, and willing to obey the orders 
which under circumstances and conditions appear 
to the master of the ship to be wise. Second, 
that skill must be at all times immediately avail- 
able, and provisions must be made for sufficient 
rest between ordinary working periods for the 
seamen to recuperate, and be in the best possible 
condition to perform the duties for which they 
are on board. When we come on board the vessel, 
she is supposed to be seaworthy; it is our duty 
to keep her seaworthy, safe, and sanitary ; then to 
meet all the innumerable exigencies which the sea 
creates. The fact that we cannot do that, under 
existing conditions, has largely deprived us of our 
self-respect. We seek to restore conditions under 
which we can gradually recapture this, which is 
one of the fundamentals of human life. It was 
once thought that comparatively few men were 
fitted for the sea; our status has so degenerated 
that it is now generally felt that all men are good 
enough, and most men too good, for the sea. We 
pray that the necessary steps be taken to bring 
about again the condition in which it was thought 
most men were unfitted, and comparatively few 
men, fit for employment at sea. What the average 
opinion of the seaman is is perhaps best indicated 
by a scene that took place in a police court in 
San Francisco some years ago. A young man was 
on trial for an offense in which the judge had 
the choice of sending him to prison or sending 
him to sea, and while he was meditating as to 
which place he ought to send the boy, the boy's 
mother — her Irish accent was distinctly notice- 
able — went up to the judge and said, "Oh, for 
God's sake, your Honor, don't send my boy to 
sea !" We pray that the necessary steps be taken 
to so change conditions that we may gradually 
recapture the popular sympathy and esteem which 
once were ours. 

In order to get proper manning there is a third 
question immediately pressing: there must be 
enough men on board the ship to permit of all 
the crew, exclusive of the catering department, 
being divided into three watches, as nearly equal 
as possible. Without such division, experience has 
proved that sometimes a man, having worked ex- 
( Continued on Page 12) 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January 1, 1936 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



The representation of the shipping industry in 
the new British Parliament is not so strong as it 
was in the last one. There are eleven members 
directly or indirectly associated with shipowning 
or some directly related business. There are no 
representatives of seamen in Parliament. 

A Japanese shipmaster who was fined at Liver- 
pool for offering a bribe to a customs officer, 
pleaded that he had been in the habit of giving 
gratuities to customs officers in various foreign 
ports. With his pocket considerably lighter on 
leaving the police court, he no doubt reflected 
sadly, A utres pays, a litres douanes. 

:■- * * 

A conference of representatives of the Spanish 
Seamen and Fishermen's Federation, the Spanish 
Mercantile Marine Engineers' Federation, and the 
Spanish Mercantile Marine Officers' Federation 
was held in Madrid recently and agreed upon the 
constitution of a maritime alliance, which will 
undertake a campaign of trade-union propaganda 
among all the groups of seamen concerned. 

* * * 

The Hitler regime tries by all possible means 
to prevent the workers from conferring with one 
another or with the workers abroad about con- 
ditions in Germany. Provisions on the subject are 
even included in the agreements. Thus the West- 
phalian Trustee of Labor has included in the 
working hours regulations of the crews of Ger- 
man Rhine tankers the clause that, "In general 
no free days shall be granted abroad." 

* * * 

A fine of £75 was imposed on the master of a 
Finnish steamer for overloading and thus contra- 
vening the rules laid down in the British Mer- 
chant Shipping Act, 1932. The ship, carrying a 
timber cargo, arrived in the Surrey Commercial 
Docks with her loadline submerged 12 inches, 
equivalent to an excess loading of 250 tons. In 
defense it was stated that the ballast tanks had 
more water than was necessary and that the deck 
cargo was saturated in the heavy weather experi- 
enced on the voyage, but these excuses were not 
accepted. * * * 

After a brief spell in their picturesque home 
port, Mariehamn, Finland, three windjammers are 



reported to have sailed again for Australia. They 
are the barks L'Avenir, Passata, and Pommern, 
three of about seventeen sailing vessels which will 
take part in the grain race from South Australia 
next summer. Each year the field grows smaller, 
as the stout vessels of another age of the sea out- 
live their usefulness. Two well-known vessels will 
be seen no more in Australian waters, for this 
year they passed into the hands of the ship- 
breakers — the Grace Harwar and Mozart, the 
latter the only barkentine to take part in the race 
for many years. There will, however, be an ad- 
dition to the fleet this year, for Captain Eriksen 
has added a former American vessel, now named 
the Kurt, to his list of sailers. 

* * * 

The Latvian Ministry of Social Welfare has 
published an order relating to the organization of 
seamen's employment exchanges. The order ap- 
plies to all persons working on board a vessel 
making a voyage by sea. The employment ex- 
changes for seamen are to be managed by a com- 
mittee of four persons, two being appointed by 
the Latvian Shipowners' Association, and two by 
the occupational organization of Latvian seamen. 
The nomination of members of the committee and 
their substitutes must be approved by the Minis- 
try of Social Welfare. At dates fixed by the 
Ministry, the committee must submit reports on 
its work and that of the employment exchanges 
under its control, and a report on its finances. If 
members of the committee are guilty of acts con- 
trary to the laws or regulations, the Ministry of 
Social Welfare may temporarily suspend them or 
divest them of their functions or, if occasion 
arises, may prosecute them before the courts. The 
employment exchanges for seamen may be util- 
ized by any person seeking workers or employ- 
ment on board vessels making a voyage by sea, 
including masters of vessels, pilots, and engineers 
The right to make use of the exchanges is con- 
fined to Latvian citizens and citizens of countries 
which have ratified the Placing of Seamen treaty ; 
the committee may, however, exclude the latter 
class of persons from the right to make use of the 

exchanges. 

* * * 

The decision of a British Court of Appeal re- 
garding a claim for £75 wages in lieu of notice, 
or alternatively as damages for wrongful dis- 
missal, is of general interest. The appellant, who 
was formerly master of the steamship . tikderby, 



January 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



was dismissed, and the case came in the first 
instance before the West Hartlepool County 
Court, when judgment was given for the defend- 
ants, with costs. The defense put forward was 
that the master was engaged for the voyage only ; 
on the conditions of his employment the owners 
were entitled to dismiss him without notice if they 
were not satisfied with his conduct, and they were 
justified in the circumstances in discharging him. 
It appears that when he was appointed the owners 
sent him a letter stating: "We wish you clearly 
to understand that your position on the steamer 
will be most carefully watched, and unless com- 
plete satisfaction is given we shall have no hesi- 
tation in relieving you of this command, with no 
further hope of employment with us." It was con- 
tended on behalf of the master that this communi- 
cation was intended merely as a warning and did 
not entitle his employers summarily to dismiss 
him. His service, it was argued, could only be 
terminated in accordance with the ordinary law 
of the land, under which he would be entitled to 
proper notice. The Court of Appeal, however, 
in unanimously dismissing the action, with costs, 
decided that the county court judge had put the 
right construction upon the letter when he ruled 
that the owners were entitled summarily to dis- 
miss the master, although no misconduct was 
proved. * * * 

According to press reports of the International 
Transport Workers' Federation, German seamen, 
railwaymen, chauffeurs, and bargemen, whose 
work takes them abroad, are often amazed at the 
wealth of butter, meat, sausage, etc., which they 
find displayed in the shop windows in other coun- 
tries. In Germany their wives often have to wait 
a long time in a queue to get one-eighth of a 
pound of butter, while meat and sausage of any- 
thing like decent quality is only obtainable in the 
smallest of quantities, and at fantastic prices. 
Unfortunately the German transport workers are 
unable to take advantage of their trips abroad, as 
their wages are paid in marks, for which they can 
only get abroad the equivalent of 68 pfennigs, or 
about two-thirds of the nominal value. This de- 
valuation of the mark is a big disadvantage to 
barge crews who have to provide their own food. 
Men on vessels on the Rhine, for instance, get a 
weekly wage of 30 marks gross only, or in the 
neighborhood of 25 marks net, according to the 
size of their family. These men need at least 
seven marks a week for their own food, so long 



as they are in Germany, at any rate. When they 
cross the Dutch frontier they must change their 
marks into guilders, and although the exchange 
is officially about 1.70 marks to the guilder, actu- 
ally they must pay 2.50 marks. It will be realized 
that there is not much left over for their families, 
who are often compelled to apply for public as- 
sistance, even when the man is fully employed. 
When the big bugs of the Hitler regime go 
abroad, however, they seem to suffer less from the 
shortage of foreign exchange. Dr. Schacht and 
his family can go to Switzerland for their winter 
holidays, and find there a whole row of Nazi 
chiefs from different parts of Germany; and when 
General Goering spent his luxurious honeymoon 
in Hungary and the Balkans his supply of foreign 
exchange was sufficient to enable him to buy his 
bride in Budapest — according to the Pester Lloyd 
of May 28 — "several beautiful silver fox skins." 



SENATE PROBE PAYS DIVIDENDS 



Our esteemed contemporary Labor forcibly di- 
rects attention to the fact that a single Senate 
investigation has saved millions of dollars to the 
United States Government. 

In the years 1933 and 1934 the United Fruit 
Company collected $268,837.50 from the Post 
Office Department for carrying mail to Cuba and 
Colombia. 

An investigation by a Senate committee headed 
by Black of Alabama, revealed that if usual 
poundage rates were paid, the company would 
have received only $32,667.99. 

This expose led to the cancellation of the con- 
tract this week "by mutual consent." 

The Postmaster General said the saving to the 
Government would be about $4,000,000 during 
the life of the contract, and that there would be 
no curtailment of mail facilities as the company 
had agreed to do business on the usual poundage 
basis. 

Thus a Senatorial investigation has saved Uncle 
Sam — on just one item — more than all the much 
criticized Senatorial investigations have cost since 
the World War. 



Judges may enjoin unions, but they can't get 
out an injunction against the use of Union La- 
bels, Shop Cards and Buttons. 



Be calm in arguing; for fierceness makes error 
a fault, and truth discourtesy. — George Herbert. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHAKRENBERG, Editor 

® 

Entered at the San Francisco Postofflce as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price „...$1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The Journal is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



January 1, 1936 
OUR FIFTIETH YEAR 



JANUARY 1. 1936 



THE I. S. U. CONVENTION 



The convention of the International Seamen's 
Union of America to be called to order in Wash- 
ington, D. C, on January 13, will be the thirty- 
third meeting of its kind since the formation of 
the I. S. U. in 1892. 

Because of the depression and the necessity for 
retrenchment there has been no convention since 
1930. As is well known, the Union has come back 
on its feet within the last year or two and prom- 
ises to break all records of past performances. 
For this reason the convention is confronted by 
more than the usual number of perplexing 
problems. 

Of course no informed person contends that 
all will be sweet harmony at the Washington con- 
vention. The recent influx of new members has 
introduced ideas not necessarily new but always 
promising to those who do not believe that history 
has a mean habit of repeating itself. 

This much seems certain. To hold what they 
have and to assure reasonable progress, the sea- 
men of America will have to stick together. The 
seamen on the Atlantic, the Pacific and the Great 
Lakes are all in the same boat. If they permit 
themselves to be hoodwinked by self-styled radi- 
cals they will surely have to pay the bitter price. 

Here's to the success of the Thirty-third Con- 
vention of the International Seamen's Union. 
May its deliberations be fruitful and redound to 
the benefit of those who earn their livelihood upon 
the sea! 



The Journal extends to its countless readers 
and loyal friends ashore and afloat the best wishes 
for a Happy New Year ! 

During the eventful and often strenuous days 
of 1935 it has been a grand and glorious feeling 
to receive so many messages sustaining and up- 
holding the principles and policies advocated in 
these columns. 

With this issue, the Journal enters upon its 
fiftieth year of continuous publication. Estab- 
lished in 1887 as the Coast Seamen's Journal, 
the name was changed to Seamen's Journal in 
1918 to conform with its wider scope as the of- 
ficial mouthpiece of the International Seamen's 
Union of America. 

Up to April, 1922, the Seamen's Journal was 
published as a weekly by the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific. Thereafter the Journal was issued 
monthly and responsibility of publication was as- 
sumed by the International Seamen's Union. 

Throughout its long life, the Journal has been 
edited by seamen for seamen ! Through lean years 
and in prosperous times, the Journal has steered 
the same straight course toward the goal. First 
it was the emancipation of seamen from bondage. 
i. e., the repeal of all laws that tied men to their 
ships like galley slaves. This has been largely ac- 
complished. The remaining task is without end — 
it is amelioration of the many evils attending our 
calling. This can be done only through the organi- 
zation and education of all seamen so they will 
know their rights and duties, their privileges and 
responsibilities ! 

There are those who would use the columns of 
the Journal for various ulterior purposes, for 
world revolution and for different schemes, each 
designed to make the seamen a pawn in some self- 
ish or crooked game. The Journal has never lent 
itself to these promoters and has on more than 
one occasion exposed those whose solicitude for 
seamen is like the bell wether's affection for the 
lambs when he leads them to slaughter. 

The present editor takes modest pride in the 
fact that he has been privileged to be at the helm 
of the Journal during some of the most trying 
periods in the history of the International Sea- 
men's Union. It has been a worth while fight and 
we think (with apologies to our aforesaid friends 
and readers) the job was fairly well done! 



8 



January 1, 1936 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

CONGRESS IN SESSION MR. KINGSBURY'S SALARY 



Congress is in for a tough and probably long 
session this winter. It will be surprising if there 
is an adjournment before June. The stake of the 
great mass of the people has never been larger 
than it will be in what is done in this session. 

No session in recent years has faced more 
fundamental and far-reaching issues, involving the 
welfare and future of the country. 

It is conceded by all that politics will enter into 
this session in a large way, with strategic moves 
in anticipation of the election, but the fact re- 
mains the Congress has more work ahead of it, 
with more sweeping consequences attached to 
what it does, than has been the case in many a 
day. 

Unemployment is recognized outside of the 
ranks of Big Business itself as the most serious 
and threatening problem that faces the country 
and is the factor that jeopardizes the whole trend 
to recovery. Standing alongside of it is the ques- 
tion of whether the effort to stabilize agriculture 
and to continue the movement of recovery in buy- 
ing and consuming power in rural regions shall 
be safeguarded from the attack that is being made 
on it along the entire front of organized industry. 

The organized workers through their repre- 
sentatives are in readiness to make the greatest 
fight for a reduced basic hour week with the in- 
tent of not only bringing up wages to meet the 
heavy increases in the cost of living in the last 
two years, but at the same time to absorb the vast 
army of unemployed and to relieve the Federal 
Government of its heavy burden of relief ex- 
penditure. 

There is a substantial list of holdover legisla- 
tion affecting seamen and the merchant marine 
in general. One measure is the long-pending King 
bill to prevent the smuggling of aliens into ports 
of the United States. The practice of landing 
immigrants in the guise of seamen has assumed 
alarming proportions and can be stepped by the 
adoption of the King bill which, of course, is 
bitterly opposed by the principal foreign shipping 
interests. 

Then there is a new Ship Subsidy bill already 
passed by the House of Representatives and now 
resting in the Senate Committee on Commerce. 

Altogether, it seems certain that this session of 
Congress will be lively and interesting from be- 
ginning to end. 



Washington, Dec. 13. — The Standard Oil Company 
of California paid $136,418 to K. R. Kingsbury for his 
services as president of the corporation during 1934, 
the Securities and Exchange Commission revealed to- 
day. 

Contained in another group of hitherto confidential 
reports, released by the commission today, the oil 
company's report revealed a salary of $90,987 to Vice- 
President Oscar Sutro. Vice-Presidents W. H. Berg, 
H. D. Collier, R. W. Hanna and M. E. Lombardi 
received $54,546 each. 

Readers of the Journal will recall that these 
are the fine gentlemen who promoted a company 
union of seamen and have persistently refused 
to enter into collective bargaining with legitimate 
labor unions. 

Mr. Kingsbury himself frequently boasts about 
the liberal labor policy of the Standard Oil Com- 
pany of California. It so happens that this alleged 
liberal labor policy is determined entirely and 
exclusively by Mr. Kingsbury. When employees 
of the Standard Oil Company of California have 
the temerity to organize, the well paid president 
of the Standard Oil Company of California deems 
it an affront and a reflection upon his paternal- 
ism. In his opinion he is far more qualified to 
fix wages and working hours than any labor 
union or any labor "agitator." 

Mr. Kingsbury rewards everyone according to 
his worth, including himself. What an ideal ar- 
rangement — for Mr. Kingsbury! 



BALANCING THE BUDGET 



The awful commotion now being raised in the 
reactionary press that Uncle Sam is facing bank- 
ruptcy is laughable to those who know the facts 
or will take the trouble to ascertain them. 

On July 1, 1935, the public -debt stood around 
$29,000,000,000. This was only $4,000,000,000 
more than the debt at the end of the World War. 
But during the World War, the debt jumped from 
less than $1,000,000,000 to $25,000,000,000. And 
not a banker in the land raised a voice of warn- 
ing to the national treasury. 

If the war had lasted another year, the debt 
probably would have reached $37,000,000,000, as 
we were spending approximately $1,000,000,000 
a month to finance our part of the conflict. If it 
had cost $50,000,000,000, there would have been 
no cessation in spending until victory had been 
achieved. And not a politician in the country 
ever would have whispered out loud a demand 



10 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January 1, 1936 



for an immediate balancing of the budget. He 
would have been hooted out of public life im- 
mediately. 

To be sure, that immense expenditure was to 
win a "war to end war." At least so we were 
told at the time ! 

The present emergency spending has only to 
do with the preservation of American citizens 
themselves from starvation and to supply the 
bare necessities of life to those who cannot secure 
employment. And we are told by the very same 
bankers whose propaganda and influence were 
vital factors in getting the United States into the 
World War, largely to protect their investments, 
that this emergency spending for the benefit of 
American men, women and children is "extrava- 
gant," "wasteful," and "foolish." 

It is rather strange that all these ardent budget 
balancers carefully conceal the fact that $4,000,- 
000,000 of the present deficit was created by the 
Hoover administration — by the same Hoover who 
now is shouting through the microphone that it 
is a crime not to balance the budget. It is a pity 
that he, too, did not practice, while president, 
what he preaches in private life. 

But in his particular case, the inconsistency is 
not surprising, for he promised two chickens in 
every pot and two cars in every garage while 
running for the presidency; and how he supplied 
them after his election is a matter of history 
known to all his fellow countrymen. 

Of course, no one in his right mind believes 
that Uncle Sam, any more than any individual 
citizen, should throw his money recklessly. 

But Major George L. Berry only spoke the 
unescapable truth the other day when he told a 
gathering of industrialists in Washington: 

Unless private business gives employment the Gov- 
ernment will, and it will send the bill to the taxpayer. 

Hoover did it. Roosevelt has done it. 

And whoever is elected in 1936 will follow the 
same course because there is no other alternative. 
The unemployed have got to be taken care of and 
the cost thereof will have to be met by those who 
have the money. 



BIG BUSINESS COCKY AGAIN 



Prof. Emory S. Bogardus, Ph. D., credits 
Moses with being the founder of the labor move- 
ment because, inflamed by a sense of social in- 
justice, he killed an Egyptian "boss" whom he 
saw beating a Hebrew workman. 



Every man cannot be the best, but every man 
can be his best. — Mirabeau. 



It is no secret that "Big Business" is getting 

into its old stride — the prior to 1929 "know it all" 
attitude. 

Here are a few of the reasons why "Big Busi- 
ness" believes "good times" are on the way and 
is, therefore, anxious to be rid of "governmental 
interference" : 

Railroad profits in October were higher than 
for any October since 1930. 

Corporation dividends declared in November 
totaled $401,523,000— also the largest for No- 
vember since 1930. 

For the eighth consecutive month stocks have 
boomed. The increase in value of one hundred 
representative shares on the New York Exchange 
for November was over $784,000,000. 

Steel output reached 57 per cent of capacity, 
according to the American Iron and Steel Insti- 
tute. For the same week last year the operating 
rate was only 28.8 per cent. 

The bond market reached the highest level in 
five years. And so on and so forth ! 

Those who own and control American industry 
are evidently determined to achieve recovery for 
themselves, which means regaining normal busi- 
ness profits, without adopting the policies neces- 
sary to re-employ the jobless, now numbering 
11,000,000, whom they prefer to have supported 
by Federal, State and local governments. This 
fact is strikingly visualized by the Executive 
Council of the American Federation of Labor in 
its report to the recent convention of that body in 
Atlantic Gty. 

Referring to increases in the worker's produc- 
tivity resulting from the wholesale introduction of 
labor displacing machinery and processes during 
the depression, which competent authorities say 
have been so large that only 80 per cent of the 
workers employed in 1929 would now be required 
to operate industry at the 1929 peak, the Council 
said the unemployment problem "will never be 
solved until reduction in the hours of labor goes 
hand in hand with the introduction and develop- 
ment of machinery." 

In emphasizing the fact their employers are 
exacting more output from employees per unit of 
time instead of reducing hours to provide work 
for the unemployed, the Council points out that 
"in manufacturing industries production in the 
first half of 1935 exceeded the last half of 1934 



10 



January 1, 1936 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



11 



by 16.3 per cent, while employment was higher 
by only 5 per cent." Combining for comparison 
manufacturing and mining, production in the first 
six months of 1935 exceeded the first six months 
of 1934 by 4.7 per cent, while employment was 
only 1.5 per cent higher. 

These figures make it clear that under the policy 
of those who own and control "our great mining 
and manufacturing industries, which employ 
nearly one-third of all industrial and small- 
salaried workers, production is increasing more 
rapidly than employment." 

To remedy this anti-social condition and permit 
both unemployed and employed workers to share 
adequately in business recovery labor's buying 
power must be increased by shortening hours to 
provide work for the jobless and raising wages. 

To bring about compulsory reduction of hours 
to provide employment for millions of the un- 
employed, and thus increase the workers' buying 
power, Congress should promptly enact the Black- 
Connery Thirty-Hour Bill which closes the chan- 
nels of interstate commerce to commodities in the 
production of which labor is employed in excess 
of thirty hours per week. 



WHAT IS "JOB ACTION"? 



Wonders never cease! As the self-appointed 
mentor and guardian of the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific, the official Western organ of the Com- 
munist Party has in two successive issues admon- 
ished its wards to go slow ! 

"Job action" is officially sponsored by the Mari- 
time Federation of the Pacific Coast and has 
therefore recently been put to actual practice by 
the Sailors' Union of the Pacific in the steam- 
schooner tie-up. 

Evidently this procedure is not entirely in ac- 
cord with the rules in the Stalin text book. So 
the Communist editors are writing tearful edi- 
torials telling the sailors what they must do and 
what they must not do. 

Harry Bridges, the idol of the Moscow clan, 
has also personally pleaded with the boys not to 
go quite so fast but Harry's lectures have been 
as ineffective as the editorials in the Communist 
sheet. 

All of which seems to indicate that the pupils 
have outdistanced the teachers. Bridges and his 
Communist followers have built something akin 



to Frankenstein's legendary monster. They have 
created a force utterly beyond their control ! 



THE GENEVA CONFERENCE 



This issue contains detailed information about 
the Preparatory Maritime Conference which met 
at Geneva during December. One of the particu- 
larly noteworthy features of the conference was 
the absence of delegates from Russia and Italy. 
Russia's absence remains a mystery because there 
was not a word of explanation for failure to send 
delegates. Italy, on the other hand, sent a letter 
that was not exactly an apology, but which did 
express the hope that the nations which have so 
far hindered the adoption of reasonable working 
hours and an adequate manning scale would soon 
follow the good example of Italy. This was obvi- 
ously a sly dig at the British. Altogether, the 
conference seems to have been a success. Accord- 
ing to all available reports, the Seamen delegates 
worked together harmoniously from beginning 
to end. 



THE LATEST IN RADIO 



The radio equipment of the Cunard White Star 
liner Queen Mary will be sufficiently powerful to 
permit her passengers to speak to any part of the 
world, officials of the line announce. The giant 
ship will use thirty-two radio wavelengths in main- 
taining contact with other ships and with land. 
Eleven of these will be for short wave, nine for 
radio-telephone, seven for long wave, and five for 
medium wave. 

The ship-to-shore radio-telephone equipment 
will be so duplicated that two passengers may 
speak simultaneously, one to persons in the United 
States, the other to Europe. There will be special 
booths aboard ship for this service, but in each 
stateroom also there will be provision for the 
hook-up of the equipment. 

The ship's receiving station will be on the boat 
deck, between the first and second funnels, oc- 
cupying an area of about 800 square feet and 
containing eight operating positions, the radio- 
telephone exchange, an emergency installation and 
the principal accepting office for radio-telegrams. 
If an emergency arose in which both generating" 
plants of the radio system were stopped, a com- 
plete emergency station operated from the ship's 
emergency lighting supply or from storage bat- 
teries would be available. 



11 



12 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January 1, 1936 



PRESIDENT FURUSETH'S ADDRESS 

(Continued from Page 5) 



cessive hours and being already fatigued, is in- 
capable of giving his best, and of enduring the 
strain which serious emergencies at sea impose. 
Let it be remembered that a seaman is on board 
a ship to give his life in order that others may 
live. There is no need of stating that if he is 
already tired from the average everyday and 
every- watch work that is required of him he can- 
not give his best, and his work cannot be so effec- 
tive for the saving of life, passengers, and the 
vessels, as it can be when, free from the rest he 
has enjoyed, he comes to his work in condition 
to perform it. 

Now manning itself, unless the whole question 
of manning is dealt with, to a seaman like me 
appears to be a joke. A hundred men on board 
a ship may or may not have any ability or any 
training or any skill. 

The work on the vessel as a while is divided 
into three departments. They are usually desig- 
nated as the catering department, the engine de- 
partment, and the deck department. The men 
working in the catering department have a specific 
stint to do. Their everyday work is to take care 
of the provisions, to prepare the meals and serve 
them, and to keep the passengers' and officers' 
cabins clean and shipshape. They are all-day 
men — that is to say, they work during the day 
and are supposed to sleep during the night. If 
the work in that department cannot be done effi- 
ciently it is because the vessel is undermanned 
in skill, or in numbers, or in both. If the work 
is not done properly, the shipowner is showered 
with letters from passengers complaining of the 
service. If it be not remedied, a smaller number 
of passengers will be carried, and the income from 
passengers will diminish. Most of the men in the 
catering department think that ten hours should 
be the maximum. 

When the vessel is in port, eight hours should 
be the working day, and any work done beyond 
eight hours should be paid for at overtime rates. 

Engine Department. — The men in this depart- 
ment furnish the power. They should be divided 
strictly into three watches for the purpose of 
doing all the work there has to be done, including 
the hoisting and dumping of ashes. If it be true, 
as has been stated by officers, that during the 
hoisting of ashes the steam usually drops, it is 



because men are tired — so tired that they cannot 
work at their best, and the vessel is undermanned, 
either in numbers or in skill. The shipowner 
keeping close watch on the expenses of his vessel, 
and using the system of curves, will find that in- 
efficient men, or an insufficient number of men, 
will fail to get the most out of the fuel, whether 
such fuel be coal or oil ; and men with experience 
at sea will know, the moment they look at the 
smoke from the funnels, whether the fuel is being 
efficiently used or not. The shipowner may find 
that fuel consumption may increase while actu- 
ally horse-power will decrease. When this hap- 
pens it arises from lack of skill or from over- 
work. It has been again and again examined and 
reported upon by the British Navy. There should 
be no overtime work in this department. It tends 
to the same corruption as referred to in the cater- 
ing department. The work to be done is shunted 
to the time during which overtime is paid, and 
turns the business into a racket instead of a 
reasonable regulation. 

Deck Department. — The deck crew are there 
to keep the vessel as a whole seaworthy, sanitary, 
and under instant control. Boys coming on board 
of vessels to make their first trip should not be 
permitted either at the wheel or at the lookout 
except for learning purposes ; and when the vessel 
is in close or crowded waters, or in low visibility, 
no person should be permitted at the wheel below 
the rating of Able Seaman, or at the lookout 
below the rating of ordinary seaman with two 
years' experience. Nothing short of these sug- 
gestions, which ought to apply to all vessels of 
all nations regardless of size, should be permitted. 
(N. 13.: Exceptions in office report on vessels 
of less than 500 tons gross, or making runs of 
less than twenty-four hours.) The carrying of 
day men in the engine and deck departments 
should be absolutely prohibited, and, in order to 
give the younger men an opportunity to learn, as 
much of the work of upkeep of the vessel should 
be done aboard the vessel as possible. 

The crux of the problem of manning is in the 
quality and skill of the seaman. 

"An able seaman must know the vessel so as to 
be able to go to any place on board in daylight 
or in dark and in any kind of weather; he must 
know the ship's gear and be able to find it, use 
it, and if he hath wherewithal, to repair it in any 
kind of weather and in daylight or in dark. He 
must know the boats and other safety equipments, 



12 



January 1, 1936 



THE 



he must be able to lower the boats in nearly all 
kinds of weather, in daylight or in dark, when 
such boats carry from twenty to seventy-five per- 
sons — men, women, and children. Such boats 
weigh, with the people in them, from five to ten 
tons, and they must be lowered on even keel, kept 
as far as possible clear from the side of the roll- 
ing and pitching vessel ; and finally, the able sea- 
man must be able to handle a sea anchor or a 
steering oar in such a way as to save the people 
in that boat by keeping her afloat until other boats 
may come from other vessels to take the people 
on board, or he must be able to set sail on the 
boat and manage so as to reach land in safety, if 
such be possible." 

And let me add again that the quality of 
seamanship depends upon the knowledge and feel- 
ing upon the part of the seaman that he is a free 
man. 

This whole question of manning raises the con- 
test between cost and safety, and therefore if we 
specifically want safety we must accept the cost, 
which, being the same for all nations and all ves- 
sels, must necessarily rest equally upon all owners 
and should, therefore, be no hardship to any. 

A further question on the agenda is the ques- 
tion of holidays with pay. We think that little 
needs to be said in favor of this proposal, if it 
is remembered that the general wage received by 
seamen is insufficient to enable them to marry and 
be home builders. This proposal recognizes that 
if a seaman has not a wife he ought to have one, 
and that there ought to be intervals in his toil 
when he can be in a home of his own. It would 
be better to base it upon six months rather than 
upon twelve, and to make it a special condition 
that, whenever at all possible, the holiday should 
be taken in the home port of the seaman himself. 
Gentlemen. I thank you. 



SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



13 



"OLD" WHISKY MADE IN 4 HOURS! 



Raw whisky that smells like a gaibage can and 
tastes like a blacksmith's apron can be given, in 
less than four hours, the mellowness and bouquet 
of liquor aged four years in wood, according to 
the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. 

This is accomplished by a "shot" of oxygen 
passing over nickel alloy. The operation is de- 
clared to be so successful that chemical tests can- 
not detect any difference between artificially and 
naturally aged whisky. 



BRITISH SEAMEN PROTEST 
UNDERMANNING 



One of the most effective of the speeches de- 
livered at the Geneva Maritime Conference was 
that of W. R. Spence, general secretary of the 
British National Union of Seamen. Here is a 
summary of his address: 

For more than a century the representatives 
of labor have been struggling to reach one of their 
supreme objectives — the shortening of the hours 
of work. Real progress has been made in so far 
as industrial and other workers on shore are con- 
cerned, and the 48-hour week has been obtained 
in a great many industries. 

Now not only the working people, but also 
those employers who are concerned with the inter- 
ests of those they employ, are combining in a de- 
mand for a forty-hour week, with even further 
reductions of working hours as an objective. 

In proof of this we have only to examine the 
International Convention which was adopted at 
Geneva in June of this year, while next year an 
attempt will be made to make its provisions appli- 
cable to the building, iron and steel, and textile 
industries. 

This is progress of a nature which can be re- 
viewed with pride by all those who are concerned 
in its accomplishment. But what of the men of 
the sea? 

Some reforms in regard to food, accommoda- 
tion, wages, have been secured, but the two most 
important factors in seafaring — manning and 
hours of work — have not been improved in any 
material way. In fact, during the last few years, 
especially in Great Britain, the position has 
steadily worsened. 

The hopes of seamen were high at Genoa in 
1919. It seemed as if success was at last to crown 
the efforts of decades, and that seamen would be 
granted a 48-hour working week. However, the 
forces against us were too strong and our effort 
failed by the narrowest of margins. 

Since that date effort has followed effort in 
our attempts to secure some measure of reform, 
and I am of the opinion that the time is now ripe 
for both governments and shipowners to remove 
this blot on the seafaring industry. The oppor- 
tunity must not be missed again to raise to the 
safety level the manning and working hours of 



13 



14 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January 1, 1936 



the crews of the ships of the world. We helieve 
that, apart from any other viewpoint, the stand- 
ard of common humanity should prevail. No 
longer should the seamen be the pawns in the 
game of profit and loss. The peoples of the world 
have been shocked by the appalling losses of ships 
with all hands within the last two years. 

An inquiry into the loss of four British ships, 
under the presidency of Lord Merivale, has been 
in progress in Britain during the last few months. 
Despite the guarded legal phraseology of the court, 
in three of the cases the circumstances made it 
clear that immediate and serious reforms in man- 
ning, hours of labor, and equipment are necessary 
if our seamen are to sail the seas with some ade- 
quate measure of safety. 

During the depression, manning has been re- 
duced to, and even below, the danger line. To 
aggravate the position, many shipowners have 
taken advantage of the apparent difficulty of de- 
fining an "efficient deckhand" to introduce into 
the already meager crews inexperienced and badly 
paid apprentices and other young persons. 

The crews of ships having been so reduced have 
had to work hours which cannot but seriously 
jeopardize their health and their efficiency as 
seamen. 

All these things have been done in the name 
of economy, but surely the time has arrived when 
the governments and shipowners can so arrange 
their affairs as to permit decent standards of man- 
ning and decent conditions of employment for 
the seamen. 

We know that the main argument which will 
be used against us will be one of cost — the stock 
argument against all social reform all over the 
world. Had such an argument been sound, the 
peoples of the world would be, as the seamen are, 
still working twelve or more hours every day, and 
the iniquitous half-time system would still be in 
existence in factories. 

Even when subsidies are given to assist the 
shipowners to make profits, which their own 
shortsighted competition had lost to them, interest 
and dividends have come before all other things, 
and the much needed reforms due to the seamen 
have been completely ignored. Some governments 
have neglected their own nationals in granting 
these subsidies without first imposing conditions 
in the matter of the welfare of the seamen. 

The navies of the world are the pride and spe- 
cial care of the nations which own them, and the 



health and well-being of the men are the first 
thought of their officers — they may be needed for 
warlike purposes. The men of the Mercantile 
Marine, whose duties as citizens are of equal im- 
portance in times of peace and in times of war, 
are equally entitled to consideration in these 
matters. 

If the shipowners cannot, or will not, give a 
decent standard of life to the seamen, the govern- 
ments should intervene and meet a responsibility 
that cannot be disregarded any longer. 

Human lives must be saved, even it it entails 
an increase in the cost of maintaining the ships of 
the world. The people of the world realize the 
dangers of the seamen and do not themselves 
want a continuance of the present situation. It is 
not a case of public neglect — we have good reason 
to know where the sympathies of the public lie. 
It is for the governments to express, in action, 
the will of their own peoples. 

It is vital that this Conference should be per- 
fectly definite in its policy, if it does intend to 
grapple with the problem. 

I have already referred to the dissatisfaction 
that exists among workers generally at the con- 
ditions under which seamen have to earn their 
livelihood, but there is another important ground 
for asking for a definite policy. 

There is every indication that in the next few 
years there will be constructed a substantial 
amount of new tonnage, and the mercantile archi- 
tects who will be called upon to design that new 
tonnage should now have some warning as to the 
possible requirements in the way of accommoda- 
tion for crews. 

If the old standards are still followed, the ship- 
owners are going to be put to enormous expendi- 
ture in making structural alterations in what will 
be new vessels, and that would be bad for the 
shipping industry. 

The standard of the seamen must be raised at 
least to that level which has already been obtained 
and is universally recognized as the just right of 
the majority of the workers of the world — stand- 
ards which have been worked out, in the main, 
by conferences such as this. 



The Union Label is an eternal strike against 
low wages, long hours and unfair conditions. 



It is better to pardon too much than to condemn 
too much. — George Eliot. 



14 



January i, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



15 



SHIPPING NEWS 



A complete trainload of Ford automobiles ar- 
rived in Vancouver recently for export to New 
Zealand. The first shipment went on the M. S. 
Aorangi and will be followed by other shipments 
on the Loch Lomon and Cape York. 

Licenses have been issued by the British Colum- 
bia Provincial Government to five fish reducing 
plants on the west coast of Vancouver Island to 
reduce herring this winter. The amount of her- 
ring reduced will be limited to 25,000 tons. This 
quantity is split equally between Barkley Sound 
plants and plants in other locations on the Coast. 

The former Pacific Steamship Company coast- 
wise liner Queen has finally arrived at Kobe. 
She was sold several months ago to Japanese 
shipbreakers for scrapping purposes, and sailed 
from Seattle for Japan on September 30. On 
October 15 she was reported in distress about 
700 miles off Honolulu ; however, she finally man- 
aged to make the Hawaiian Islands on October 22, 
and after making the necessary repairs continued 
her voyage to Japan. 

Following upon the recent amendment to the 
Australian Navigation Act, the P. and O. and 
Orient lines have prepared a joint program of 
sailings between Tasmania and the mainland of 
Australia, which will provide about fifteen calls 
outward and the same number homeward by the 
mail vessels of the two companies. The service 
will be confined to the tourist season, November 
to May. 

Believed to be a case without a precedent, Glenn 
Moore-Skogan, a seaman, has been indicted by 
the Federal Grand Jury at San Francisco on 
charges of "intent to defraud the United States 
Government," growing out of an accusation that 
he stole a first mate's papers, erased the name of 
its owner, and substituted his own. He is accused 
of pilfering the papers of Carl F. Nordin, and 
altering them so as to get himself a berth aboard 
ship. 

The Aleliers et Chantiers de la Seine Maritime, 
at Le Trait, Saine-Inferieure, has launched the 
largest ship ever launched in the Seine River and 
the largest French tank steamer afloat. The vessel 
is for the Compagnie Auxiliare de Navigation, of 
Paris. It is particularly designed to carry Tripoli 
crude oil to French refineries. Some of the charac- 



teristics of the vessel follow: Over-all length, 571 
feet; over-all beam, 70 feet; depth from main 
deck, 39 feet; draft, 31 feet; carrying capacity, 
18,500 tons; service speed, 12.5 knots. 

In the first movement of its kind from the 
Pacific Northwest to the Far East, twenty cattle 
and one hundred sheep started the first leg of a 
7000-mile journey to northwestern Canada on the 
steamship Pennsylvania of the States Line, which 
sailed from Longview. The livestock will be dis- 
embarked at Shanghai and then go by rail to Nan- 
king, after which the last thousand miles of the 
journey will be on foot over mountain trails into 
the interior to the experimental station of the 
Bureau of Agriculture, National Economic Coun- 
cil, Republic of China. 

Consolidated report of American-Hawaiian 
Steamship Company and Williams Steamship 
Corporation (wholly owned subsidiary) shows 
that for the eleven months ending November 30, 
1935, the net profits from operation was $373,- 
815.35 as compared with a net profit of $527,- 
894.47 for the same period in 1934. The net loss 
after allowing for depreciation and after capital 
gains for losses for the eleven months ending 
November 30, 1935, was $166,966.54 as com- 
pared with a net loss of $470,595.97 for the same 
period in 1934. 

Secretary of Commerce Roper has announced 
in Washington that the United States Lines had 
executed an $11,900,000 contract with the New- 
port News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company 
for construction of a new vessel of the Man- 
hattan-Washington type. His formal statement 
said that the contract had been submitted to him, 
according to the Associated Press, and added that 
the contract, plus the construction loan applica- 
tion that has been filed by the company with him, 
is now under consideration. The $11,900,000 
price, said he, is subject to certain adjustments 
and to a number of changes not yet fully defined, 
while the contract provides that it shall become 
effective only after the construction loan has been 
approved. 

Four Pacific Coast shipbuilders, with two yards 
at Los Angeles Harbor and three on San Fran- 
cisco Bay, have been invited by Socony- Vacuum 
Oil Company to submit tenders for immediate 
construction of two 15,000-ton tankers, accord- 
ing to an announcement by Arthur O. Woll, 
director of General Petroleum Corporation, West 
Coast subsidiary of Socony-Vacuum. Atlantic 



15 



16 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January 1, 1936 



Coast shipyards have also been invited to sub- 
mit bids for the two vessels, which will be almost 
exact duplicates of Socony- Vacuum's new Mag- 
nolia and Socony Vacuum, recently completed 
by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation 
as latest units in Socony-Vacuum's program 
to replace its great petroleum fleet with new 
American-flag tonnage. Woll said that the two 
new ships will be 500 feet long, with cargo 
capacity of 126,000 barrels, and will have incorpo- 
rated in their design provisions for complete fire- 
proofing in addition to all modern navigation aids 
and provisions for safety of life at sea. Alternate 
bids will be submitted for both Diesel and high- 
pressure steam turbine type of propulsion. Con- 
struction of the two ships will provide a total of 
2,400,000 man-hours of labor, with sustained em- 
ployment for some two thousand men. 

There has been much speculation as to the ships 
which will maintain the express service of the 
Cunard White Star Company when the Queen 
Mary is brought into commission. The service is 
a weekly one and the three vessels which have 
performed it up to the present are the Majestic, 
Berengaria and Aquitania, but early next year, we 
learn, the first-named is to be placed on the dis- 
posal list. She is of 56,621 tons gross; the others 
are, respectively, of 52,226 and 45,647 tons and 
have a sea speed of about 23 knots, while the 
Majestic is credited with being capable of doing 
25 knots. The choice has no doubt been a difficult 
one, and the decision arrived at, after careful con- 
sideration of all the factors concerned, is that the 
express sailings during the 1936 season from 
May 27, when the Queen Mary makes her first 
trip, until September 30 will be maintained by 
this vessel in cooperation with the Aquitania and 
Berengaria. The Majestice, which sails for New 
York on February 13, will be withdrawn on her 
return, and the service during March and April 
will be run by the Aquitania and Berengaria, with 
the exception of one voyage by the Britannic. 
During March each of the larger ships will make 
two voyages and will leave New York a week 
after sailing from Southampton. It is interesting 
to note, too, that the Queen Mary, excepting on 
her first trip, will leave New York seven days 
after departing from Southampton, Wednesday 
being her sailing day in each case. In all she 
is scheduled for eight round voyages between 
May 27 and September 30, while the Aquitania 
takes seven sailings and the Berengaria five. 



LABOR NEWS 



Several thousand workers returned to work at 
Biloxi, Mississippi, following a shutdown of two 
weeks because of a strike of shrimp fishermen. 
Operators met a 50 cent a barrel increase asked 
for by the Shrimpers' Union. Alabama as well as 
Mississippi operators met the increase. 

Railroad workers in the United States move 
more freight and passenger traffic per man than in 
any other country in the world. Canada workers 
are not far behind. Figures issued by the Interstate 
Commerce Commission recently disclosed that in 
1933 four workers in this country and five in the 
Dominion were as productive as eight in Russia. 
ten in Japan, twelve in France, thirteen in Ger- 
many and Poland, sixteen in Italy, and seventeen 
in Great Britain. In Russia, the Commission says, 
railroad workers between 1929 and 1933 nearly 
doubled their output. 

About 175,000 new homes will be built in the 
United States in 1936, according to the estimates 
of Steward McDonald, Federal Housing Adminis- 
trator. As a start on this record, he adds that the 
FHA has put out about $500,000,000 this year. 
And that does not include a sum more than twice 
as large which has been spent on home modern- 
ization and repair which was not insured by FHA. 
"Residential construction has been revived to such 
an extent," said Mr. McDonald, "that authorities 
in that field are predicting a boom. The worst of 
the old home financing abuses — which in effect 
were methods of taking homes away from peo- 
ple — have been eliminated. 

Industrial peace prevails in the strife-weary 
upper anthracite field with the announcement that 
the United Anthracite Miners of Pennsylvania, 
the outlaw union, had returned to the fold of 
the United Mine Workers of America. The an- 
nouncement was made by James Gorman, umpire 
of the Anthracite Conciliation Board. Peace 
terms, it was revealed by release of correspond- 
ence which passed through Gorman's hands 
during the negotiations, leave the United Mine 
Workers supreme and alone in the upper anthra- 
cite field. Thousands of miners who bolted the 
parent union to join the insurgent movement will 
be taken back into the old union. The United 
Anthracite Miners will cease to exist. 



16 



January 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



17 



"Big business again cold-shoulders the Govern- 
ment," says the Washington Daily News, a 
Scripps-Howard newspaper, in commenting on 
industry's refusal to participate on a large scale 
in the cooperative conference called by George L. 
Berry, President Roosevelt's industrial coordi- 
nator. "Most of the big employer groups boy- 
cotted the gathering," the News said. And an- 
other group that did come tried to gang the meet- 
ing and bandy undignified epithets with its chair- 
man. "Thus Big Business again cold-shoulders 
the Government. Like a convalescent who thinks 
he's cured, it fires the doctor, throws away the 
tonic, and kicks about the bill. It is now pertinent 
to ask industry just what it proposes to do about 
it all." 

The Associated Press has been making a survey 
of the federal courts. Counting the members of 
the Supreme Court and the courts of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, it finds 196 federal judges. Of 
these, 151 were named by Republican presidents — 
practically all of them by Harding, Coolidge, or 
Hoover — and forty-five were selected by Demo- 
crats — Woodrow Wilson or Franklin Roosevelt. 
Those figures would be of little importance if it 
were not for the fact that federal judges claim 
the right to nullify any law enacted by Congress. 
And they become additionally significant when it 
is recalled that practically every decision against 
the "New Deal" has been rendered by a judge 
placed on the bench by Harding, Coolidge, or 
Hoover. 

There was a time within the memory of persons 
now living when women worked underground in 
the mines of Great Britain. In India women still 
do such work, a fact which was mentioned fre- 
quently in the British Parliament when new legis- 
lation affecting government in India was being 
debated. An announcement was recently made 
that the Government of India now contemplate 
the total prohibition of underground work for 
women in the mines after next July. European 
mine owners in India favor the abolition of the 
system, but Indian owners assert that, if abolition 
were hastily enforced, there would be likelihood 
of unrest, because of dislocation of labor. The 
number of underground women miners was nearly 
40,000 in 1928, but had decreased to 12,799 in 
1933, the last year for which figures are available. 

The united opposition of New York State hotel 
and restaurant owners to the minimum wage rates 



for women and minors employed in the industry 
approved by the State Hotel and Restaurant 
Wage Board very definitely reveals the low living 
standards which the employers would like to im- 
pose on these types of employees, most of whom 
do not have the advantage of trade-union pro- 
tection. At the hearing on the proposed wage 
rates held in Albany by Elmer F. Andrews, In- 
dustrial Commissioner, the employers lined up 
pretty solidly against the Board's schedule for a 
minimum rate of 18 cents, 17 cents, and 16 cents 
an hour for waitresses, according to the size of 
the town; 27 cents, 26 cents, and 25 cents for 
non-service employees, and $9.50, $9, and $8.50 
a week for resident employees. The Board recom- 
mended that these minimum wage rates be es- 
tablished by a direct order issued by Commissioner 
Andrews under the State minimum wage law. It 
is significant that the report was approved by a 
6 to 3 vote of the Hotel and Restaurant Wage 
Board. The three employee and three public 
representatives on the Board endorsed it, but the 
three employer representatives opposed it. 

As the beginning of 1936 the records show but 
eight states and the District of Columbia are fully 
prepared to apply the federal unemployment in- 
surance system which becomes effective January 1, 
1936. The report of the National Social Security 
Board shows that Alabama, California, Massachu- 
setts, New Hampshire, New York, Utah, Wash- 
ington, and Wisconsin have adopted measures 
which can be approved as meeting the require- 
ments of the federal law. It is predicted that other 
states will adopt laws to meet the requirements 
of the Federal Unemployment Insurance Act dur- 
ing the year of 1936. Failure to adopt such laws 
will mean that employers which come under the 
provisions of the federal law will be compelled to 
pay the assessment into the United States treas- 
ury, and until state laws are enacted none of 
the sum contributed will be returned to the un- 
employed workers in those states which have 
failed to enact such legislation. Every employer 
of eight persons or more must pay one per cent 
tax upon his payrolls beginning January 1, 1936. 
The classes of labor excepted are agriculture, 
domestic servants, officers and crews of vessels, 
parents employed by their children and children 
under twenty-one employed by their parents, and 
employees of non-profit institutions, such as 
churches. Payment of this tax on payrolls must 
be made after the end of the vear 1936. 



17 



18 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



January 1, 1936 



International Seamens' Union of America 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 
and the International Seafarers' Federation 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 
President: ANDREW FURUSETH, 59 Clay St., 
San Francisco, Calif. Vice-Presidents: P. B. GILL, 
86 Seneca Street, Seattle. Washington; PERCY J. 
PRYOR, 5 Rowes Wharf, Boston, Mass.; OSCAR 
CARLSON, 70 South St., New York, N. Y.; PAT- 
RICK O'BRIEN, 71 Main St., Buffalo, N. Y. ; IVAN 
HUNTER, 1038 Third St., Detroit, Mich. Editor: 
PAUL SCHARRENBERG, 525 Market St., San 
Francisco, Calif. Secretary-Treasurer: VICTOR A. 
OLANDER, 666 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 



UNITED BOATMEN'S UNION OF THE PORT OF 
NEW YORK AND VICINITY 

NEW YORK, N. Y MICHAEL WALL, Sec'y-Treas. 

105 Broad Street. Phon e Whitehall 4-9034 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
BOSTON, Mass 5 Rowes Wharf 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRAXCHKS 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

In Ports designated by an asterisk (*) the Sailors, Firemen 

and Cooks maintain Joint Agencies. 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 

Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

5 Rowes Wharf. Phone Liberty 1449 

Branches 

BOSTON, Mass MILLER JENSEN, Agent 

330 Atlantic Avenue. Phone Liberty 1336 

NEW YORK, N. Y GUS BROWN, Agent 

59 Pearl Street. Phone Whitehall 4-3596 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa GEORGE FERGUSON, Agent 

41 South 4th Street. Phone Lombard 7543 

BALTIMORE, Md GERRITT VAN DER STAAY, Agent 

1700 Fleet Street. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Main 3524 

HOUSTON, TEXAS ROBERT J. NOVAK, Agent 

1212 75th Street. Phone Wayside 2377 

GALVESTON, Texas HARRY FLOYD, Agent 

318y 2 23rd Street. Phone 799 

♦PROVIDENCE, R. I M. SULLIVAN, Joint Agent 

375 Richmond Street. Phone Plantation 4281 

♦MARCUS HOOK, Pa N. DANIELS, Joint Agent 

2 West Third Street. Phone CHester 5-2371 

♦NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Joint Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone Norfolk 34724 

♦SAVANNAH, Ga CHARLES WAID, Joint Agent 

107 Whitaker Street 

♦MOBILE, Ala WILLIAM ROSS. Joint Agent 

57% Government Street. Phone Dexter 1449 

♦PORT ARTHUR, Texas W. F. HILL, Joint Agent 

311% Procter Street. Phone Port Arthur 1066 

MARINE FIREMEN. OILERS AND WATERTEN DERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

70 South Street. Phone John 0975 
Branches 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MOGAN, Agent 

132 Broad Street. Phone Liberty 5763 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa JOSEPH CONSIGLIO, Agent 

222 Market Street. Phone Lombard 9194 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

1700 Fleet Street. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHAS. THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Main 3524 

GALVESTON, Texas HARRY FLOYD, Agent 

318% 23rd Street. Phone 799 

HOUSTON. Texas JOSEPH LAKOVIC, Agent 

1212 75th Street. Phone Wayside 2377 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, President 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 9-7670 and 9-7671 

Branches 
NEW YORK, N. Y. (West Side Branch) 

JAMES ALLEN, Agent 

72 Cortlandt Street. Phone Cortlandt 7-9192 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

1 Rowes Wharf. Phone Liberty 4057 

BALTIMORE, Md BERTRAM WARN, Agent 

426 East Pratt Street. Phone Calvert 0008 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa. CHAS. HOUGAARD, Agent 

201 Chestnut Street. Phone Lombard 6580 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. T. KAIZER, Agent 

527 Canal Street. Phone Raymond 5666 

HOUSTON, Tex JOSEPH W. ENGLAND, Agent 

1403 75th Street. Phone Wayside 8321 



NOVA SCOTIA SEAMEN'S UNION 

HALIFAX, N. S SAMUEL C. CONNELL, Sec'y-Treas. 

39 John Street 

HARBOR BOATMEN'S UNION OF CAMDEN, 
PHILADELPHIA AND VICINITY 

PHILADELPHIA. Pa. J. T. MORRIS. Secretary 

303-A Marine Building, Delaware Ave. and South St. 

FRANKLIN COUNTY BOATMEN'S UNION 
APALACHICOLA, Fla G. W. MELVIN, Secretary 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters 

CHICAGO, 111 VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary 

CLAUDE M. GOSHORN, Treasurer 

810% North Clark Street. Phone Superior 5175 

Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y J. W. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1426 West Third Street. Phone Main 1842 

DETROIT, Mich CARL WICKARD, Agent 

1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

730 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

DETROIT, Mich IVAN HUNTER, Secretary 

JAS. BATMAN, Treasurer 

1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac S170 

Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y J. \Y. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. .1. BULUVAN, Agent 

211 Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. Third St.. Phone Main 1 s i - 

MILWAUKEE. Wis FRANK BULUVAN, Agent 

730 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

CHICAGO. Ill IOHN McGINN. Agent 

103 South Wells Street, R. 607. Phone Franklin 5784 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

BUFFALO, N. Y i. m. SECORD, Secretary 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 
Branches 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

211 Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. Third St. Phone Main is 12 

DETROIT, Mich- IVAN HUNTER, Secretary 

1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 

MILWAUKEE, Wis OTTO EDWARDS. Agent 

730 South Second Street. Phone Broadway 489 

CHICAGO, 111 S. R. LITTLE. Agenl 

402 North Clark Street 



ASSOCIATED MARINE WORKERS OF THE PORT OF 
NEW YORK AND VICINITY 

NEW YORK, N. Y WM. A. MAHER, Sec'y-Treas. 

119 Broad Street. Phone Bowling Green 9-8455 



UNITED BOATMEN OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 
AND ITS TRIBUTARIES 

MEMPHIS, Tenn JAMES MOORE, Secretary-Treasurer 

164 West Iowa Avenue 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO. Calif GEORGE LARSEN, Act. Sec'y 

59 Clay Street. Phone Kearny 2228 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash. P. B. GILL. Agent 

86 Seneca Street. P. O. Box 65. Phone Elliott 6752 

PORTLAND, Ore EDWARD COESTER, Agent 

111 Burnside Street, P. O. Box 88. Phone Beacon 4336 

SAN PEDRO, Calif H. CHRISTOPHERSON, Agent 

111 West Sixth Street. Phone 2491 

PACIFIC COAST MARINE FIREMEN. OILERS. 

WATERTENDERS AND WIPERS' ASSOCIATION 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif EARL KING, Sec'y 

58 Commercial Street. Phone Kearny 3699 

SEATTLE, Wash JAMES ENGSTROM, Agent 

King St. Dock, foot of King St. P. O. Box 196 
Phone Seneca 4320 

SAN PEDRO, Calif B. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

111 West Sixth Street. Phone 2838 

PORTLAND, Ore J. E. FERGUSON, Agent 

111 Burnside Street. Phone Beacon 4336 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION OF 

THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO. Calif EUGENE F. BURKE, See'y 

86 Commercial Street. Phone Kearny 5955 



18 



January 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



19 



Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash J. L. NORKGAUER, Agent 

Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock. Phone Main 228S 

PORTLAND. Ore WM. McCOURT, Acting Agent 

127 South Burnside Street. Phone 

SAN PEDRO, Calif JOSEPH O'CONNOR, Agent 

512*4 South Beacon Street, P. O. Box 54 

FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif C. W. DEAL, Secretary 

Room "B," Ferry Building. Phone Douglas 8664 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash JOHN M. FOX, Branch Secretary 

220 Maritime Building. Phone Elliott 4928 

PORTLAND, Ore R. A. HICKOX, Branch Secretary 

520 S. W. Second Avenue. Phone Beacon 1895 

SAN DIEGO, Calif „....PAUL R. BENSON, Branch Sec'y 

131% Orange Avenue, Coronado. Phone Coronado 1011-J 

ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif ANDREW VIGEN, Secretary 

49 Clay Street. Phone Sutter 6452 



Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash OSCAR ANDERSON, Agent 

86 Seneca Street, P. O. Box 42. Phone Elliott 3426 

PORTLAND, Ore - MARTIN E. OLSEN, Agent 

520 S. W. Second Avenue. Phone Beacon 1895 

DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SEATTLE, Wash _ P. B. GILL, Secretary 

86 Seneca Street, P. O. Box 65. Phone Elliot 6752 
Branch 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska GUST OLSEN, Agent 

P. O. Box A17 

COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE 
UNION 

ASTORIA, Ore ARVID MATTSON, Secretary 

P. O. Box 281 

ROGUE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
GOLD BEACH, Ore HARRY E. BRIGGS, Sec'y-Treas. 

EUREKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

EUREKA, Calif G. A. SVENSON, Secretary 

P. O. Box 541 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Wanted — Seamen who know about 
facts related to the following acci- 
dents: 

John Allard, injured on the steam- 
ship K. I. Luckenbach January 28, 
1934. 

Emil Schwab, injured on the 
steamship H. H. Rogers January 17, 
1933. Slipped on deck, injuring his 
leg. 

Benjamin Lovette, injured and 
killed on the steamship Sahalo Sep- 
tember 8, 1927. Fell from the ship 
to dock. Witnesses: Jean Norden, 
N. A. Favor, S. Treme, C. Hen- 
dricks, E. Hardy, F. Tuck, Newton 
Harper, and Charles Pearson. 

Patrick Clark, injured on the 
steamship Ekomk December 18, 1926. 
Was killed; fell from mast. Wit- 
nesses: Carl R. Rasmussen, An- 
thony Wysorky, John Carlson, 
Erick Hanson, Joseph Daniel, Al- 
fred Gotti, and Thomas R. Sibley. 

Peter Ryan, injured on the steam- 
ship Tamiahua August 15, 1934. 
Fell off the mast. Witnesses: W. G. 
Graham, Adolph Johnson, Joe Rus- 
sel, Frank Thomas, Sam Merez, and 
Z. R. McCall. 

If the witnesses write, postage 
will be refunded. If they will state 
what they know about the accident 
in letter, arrangements will be made 
to perpetuate their testimony at 
convenient places and time under 
circumstances that will not preju- 
dice them for future employment. 
Customary guaranty against loss of 
earnings while giving testimony. 
Send communication to Room 3008, 
80 Broad Street, New York City. 



The Easy Way 

Young Senator — When anybody 
comes around talking about some 
new theory, you always endorse it. 

Old Senator — Yes. I'd rather in- 
dorse it than have it explained to 
me. 



Teacher: "What is cowhide used 
for chiefly?" 

Pupil: "To keep the cow to- 
gether." 



The Reason 

The serious-looking man was try- 
ing hard to listen to the speaker's 
eloquence, but the squalling of an 
infant in the row of seats directly 
ahead of him gave little opportu- 
nity. 

Annoyance gave way to irritation, 
which in turn was superseded by 
resolve. He leaned forward, touch- 
ing the mother on the shoulder, and 
in a dispassionate tone asked: "Has 
your baby been christened yet?" 

"Why, no, sir. Why do you ask?" 

"Merely because I was about to 
suggest that if he had not been 
christened you might name him 
'Good Idea.' " 

"And why 'Good Idea?' " asked 
the woman. 

"Because," the man struggled 
hard to repress his feelings, "it 
should be carried out." 



Long Awaited Chance 

Airs. Smythe-Browne was making 
the final arrangements for her elab- 
orate reception. 

"Bridget," she said to her old ser- 
vant, "for the first thirty minutes 
after six o'clock I want you to 
stand at the drawing-room door 
and call the guests' names as they 
arrive." 

Bridget's face lit up. 

"Very well, ma'am," she replied. 
"I've been wantin' to do that to 
some of your friends for years." 



Glad to Get Back 

Jones looked at his doctor. "Yes, 
doctor," he said, "the strain of life 
to one in my business is very great." 
He paused, then: "But I have a 
good remedy, you know, and that is 
cycling." 

"I can quite believe you," said his 
doctor. "First rate exercise, cycling. 
Takes you out of yourself. Fills the 
lungs with fresh air; brushes away 
the cobwebs of care, eh?" 

"Well, no, it's not that. The fact 
is that when I do go out I'm so 
thankful to get back alive that I 
feel in high spirits for the rest of 
the day." 

19 



TWO DAYS MISSING 



Two Irishmen roomed in an eight- 
story apartment, on the top floor, 
and could not sleep on Sunday 
morning, as the sun would shine in 
the windows and wake them up. 
They bought some black paint and 
painted the windows, and lay down 
to sleep. When they woke up, they 
realized they would be late for work, 
as it was 7:15. They rushed to their 
jobs, and the foreman looked at 
them in bewilderment. Pat says: 

"Faith, and what's the matter, 
boss? We're only twenty minutes 
late." 

Says the foreman: "Twenty min- 
utes? Where were you Monday and 
Tuesday?" 



Was Her Face Red? 

A stranger appeared in a grocery 
store at Broken Bow, Okla., and 
stocked up on needed supplies. 
Asked how much the bill was, the 
storekeeper replied: 

"It's $1.65 for the groceries, and 
3 cents for the sales tax that damn 
Governor Murray put on the poor 
man's grub." 

The customer was ex-Governor 
Murray himself who had just 
moved onto an 80-acre farm he had 
bought nearby: 



New Deal Omission 

Two little American boys were 
talking about the President. One 
of them said: "My father thinks 
he has done a lot of good." 

The other boy replied: "Oh, I 
don't know; he hasn't closed the 
schools vet." 



Got It the First Time 

Once upon a time Mark Twain 
was being shaved by a talkative 
barber. Having completed the per- 
formance, the barber ran his hand 
professionally across the chin and, 
poising it above Mark's face, said: 
"Shall I go over it again?" 
"Xo-o-o," said Mark slowly. "I've 
heard every damned word." 



20 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL January 1, 1936 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington and 

Battery Sts., opp. New Custom House, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL, is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those having 
simply a knowledge of Navigation and 
Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen de- 
mand a man as a teacher with higher 
attainments than one who has only the 
limited ability of a seaman. The Prin- 
cipal of this School, keeping this al- 
ways in view, studied several years 
the Maritime Law, and 1b now. In ad- 
dition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and ita kindred subjects, 
a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of Ignorance to the height of the average well 
informed man, and In a comparatively short Interval of time. 




Phone GARFIELD 2076 

DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 

DENTIST 

Rooms 2428-30, 460 Sutter Building 

Hours : 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since Its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

4S1 Pacific Bldg., Fourth and Market Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

PHONE DOUGLAS 0315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNBY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, 

Watertenders and Wipers' Association 

611 Rum Bldg. Tel. SUtt.r 3866 

San FrancUco, California 



ALVIN GERLACK 
HANS A. KRUGER 

Attorneys at Law 
845 Mills Building 

Buth and Montgomery Street! 
SAN FRANISCO, CALIF. 
Telephone DOuglas 1123 



The Professional Grouch 
It's easy enough to be grouchy 
When things aren't coming yourway, 
But the prize old growl 
Is the man who will howl 
When everything's going O. K. 



Now in Our New Location 

"624 MARKET" 

Opposite Palace Hotel 




-BOSS- 

YOUR UNION TAILOR 



Seamen's Furnishing Goods 

OTTO PAHL 

Shoes, Oilskin*. Seaboots and Underwear 
Suits cleaned and pressed while you wait 

140 Embarcadero 
SAN FRANCISCO. CALIF. 



PACIFIC NAVIGATION 
SCHOOL 

CAPT. J. H. HOLM 

Instruction in Practical Navigation 

and American Citizenship 

Phone OArfleld 71S8 
252 Clay Street San Francisco 



It Alius Has 

The rain it poured, 

The sea it roared, 
The sky was draped in black. 

The old ship rolled, 

She pitched and bowled, 
And lost her charted track! 

"Oh dear, oh dear! 

Sir, will it clear?" 
Loud wailed a dame on deck. 

As they heaved the lead 

The skipper said: 
"It alius has, by heck!" 

20 




Men! 

Come to Hale's for your clothing 
and haberdashery. 

Just a few everyday 

VALUES 

in the 

MEN'S SHOP 

Halesworth Shirts #1.65 

Phoenix Silk Hose 50 

Hand Tailored Ties .... 1.00 
Michaels Stern Suits .... 27.50 
Halesworth Hats 3.50 

MAIN FLOOR 

HALE BROS. 

MARKET at FIFTH 
SUtter 8000 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 



Printing 



1122-1124 MISSION STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal' 



Bars Down 

"I borrowed $2 from him once, 
and I'm sorry I ever did." 

"Why?" 

"Ever since then he's felt free to 
touch me for ten or twenty at any 
time." 



A Good Picker 

An old German and his wife were 
given to quarreling. One day, after 
a particularly unpleasant scene, the 
old woman remarked with a sigh: 

"Veil, I vish I vas in heaven." 

"I vish I vas in der beer garten," 
groaned her husband. 

"Ach, ja," cried the old wife, "al- 
ways you pick out der best for vour- 
self." 




Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto : Justice by Organization 



Vol. L, No. 2 



SAN FRANCISCO, FEBRUARY 1, 1936 



Whole No. 2065 



L S. U, CONVENTION DECISIONS 




ONFRONTED by the open defiance of 
a district union, i. e., the continued and 
deliberate violation of constitution and 
law by the headquarters of the Sailors' 
Union of the Pacific, the convention of 
the International Seamen's Union of America, 
in session at Washington, D. C, has revoked the 
charter of that union. Before this action was 
taken the convention carefully and critically ana- 
lyzed all phases of the grave situation facing t.lje 
seamen of America. In the end, all the delegated, 
except only those from the Pacific Coast, wee 
convinced that there was no alternative for im- 
mediate, prompt and drastic action. Any otheV 
course would spell disintegration and utter ruin 
to the International Seamen's Union of America. 
Indeed, if the convention had failed to revoke the 
charter of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific it 
would have been an indictment of the delegates 
themselves. 

At the time this is written the convention h 
still in session. The Journal, therefore, is un- 
able to publish a complete resume. However, tbe 
high spots are given herewith: & 

REVOCATION OF CHARTER OF SAILORS' UNION ". 
OF THE PACIFIC 

The Committee of the Whole submitted a' 
recommendation upon that part of the secretary- 
treasurer's report relative to "Violations of the 
Constitution." 

The recommendation as amended and adopted 

by the convention is as follows : 

Upon due deliberations and exhaustive analysis of 
the issues involved, we recommend revocation of the 
charter of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific for the 
following specific violations of the Constitution and 
the laws of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 



1. For violation of Article 1, Section 2, which pro- 
hibits membership to men who are members of or 
advocating principles and policies of any dual organi- 
zation or any organization hostile to the International 
Seamen's Union of America, its aims and purposes.. 

2. For refusing to live up to awards and agreements 
underwritten by the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

3. For refusing to reinstate Paul Scharrenberg, a 
member of said Sailors' Union of the Pacific, whose 
expulsion was appealed to the Executive Board, as 
provided in Article XVII, and was held to be illegal 
and, therefore, null and void. 

Your committee is fully cognizant of the fact that 
there have been various other violations of the Consti- 
tution and the law, but in each of the before-mentioned 
violations the members of the Executive Board of 
the International Seamen's Union of America, under 
their respective signatures, have directed Secretary- 
Treasurer Olander to make an effort to induce the 
Headquarters of the said Sailors' Union of the Pacific 
to obey the Constitution and the law. Secretary- 
Treasurer Olander carried out these directions. All 
his efforts were without success. 

Your committee also directs attention to the fact 
that, notwithstanding a referendum vote of the mem- 
bership of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific to continue 
the award and agreement with the Shipowners' As- 
sociation of the Pacific Coast and to arbitrate any 
difference, this referendum vote by the rank and file 
was recently nullified by the comparatively few mem- 
bers attending the Headquarters meeting. This unlaw- 
ful act has resulted in tying up the steam-schooners 
under the guise of job action. 

We further recommend that the Executive Board 
be authorized and directed to take whatever steps may 
be deemed necessary to safeguard and protect our 
loyal members on the Pacific Coast. To this end we 
specifically direct the Executive Board: 

1. To fully inform our members on the Pacific 
Coast upon the developments which have finally com- 
pelled drastic action by this Convention. 

2. To organize the loyal members into a district 
union that will conform to the Constitution and the 
law of the International Seamen's Union of America. 

STATEMENT BY PRESIDENT FURUSETII 

President Andrew Furuseth, who was unavoid- 
ably absent from the convention when the vote 
was taken on revoking the charter of the Sailors' 
Union of the Pacific, sent the following appeal 
to the delegates: 



22 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February 1, 1936 



To the Convention of the International Scam 

Union of America, at present assembled at Lee.'/y 
House, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Brothers: 

I am officially informed that this afternoon you, 
arc to take a vote upon canceling the charter of the 
Sailors' Union of the Pacific for sundry most grave 
violations of the Constitution of the International Sea-, 
men's Union of America, of which the Sailors' Union 
of the Pacific is and has been a part since the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union was organized. 1 am exceed- 
ingly sorry that I cannot be present. 

As far as my health is concerned there is nothing 
the matter with me at present except temporary weak- 
ness. I am mentally as capable as I ever was. and 
if the elevators in this hotel were running, I should 
come in person, but the doctor has told me to keep 
to my room, and the walking downstairs might be 
injurious. Being present, I should vote for the cancel- 
lation of the charter. First of all, in the interests of 
the seamen's movement as a whole; second, in the 
interest of the loyal membership, who, from my own 
experience, I know have no opportunity to participate 
in any of the meetings, as they are now run by a 
combination of I. W. W. members and Communist-. 

The conduct of the Sailors' Union for the last year 
and one-half has, to my own personal knowledge. 
been that of absolute disregard of the laws of the 
International Seamen's Union of America, and of the 
Constitution of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific as 
it existed two years ago. I hope that the vote will 
be unanimous and that the loyal members on the Pa- 
cific will understand the necessity of this action and 
offer themselves as members of the union that is to 
be formed to take the place of the Sailor^' Union of 
the Pacific. 

It is with deep sorrow, but under absolute con- 
viction of necessity, that I urge you all to vote unani- 
mously for the expulsion, and that I urge upon all 
the loyal members with whom I have lived and toiled 
for some fifty years for the improvement of the sea- 
men's conditions on shore, on the ships, and in legal 
status under the law, to immediately affiliate with the 
union to be chartered. 

The membership of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific 
was, before the entrance into the union of these 
rebels, especially noted for its Americanism in senti- 
ment and in conduct whether it was peace or war. 
Loyal to the seamen's cause, and willing obedience 
to the laws of the United States has been the very 
breath of life to that organization. Germs of the 
cancer got in among us. It grew until it is destroy- 
ing the Sailors' Union itself, destroying the whole 
Seamen's movement, and bringing the seamen back to 
the condition from which we laboriously worked our- 
selves free. A new Sailors' Union will walk in the 
path of the Sailors' Union that was, in respect for 
our country, in obedience to our country's laws, and 
with a renewed hope that our goal, the restoration of 
the seaman to his true place among men may be ac- 
complished, and accomplished soon. 

I again urge you who are in the convention to pass 
a unanimous vote, and I urge the loyal members at 
sea and elsewhere to come to the front as they did in 
times gone by, where there was clanger, in order that 
this difficulty and disaster may speedily be remedied. 
You will remember the obligation that you took, you 
will remember the past efforts and the past successes, 
and you will not, I am sure, permit the rebels to use 
you when you now have an opportunity to act for 
yourselves, to destroy the seamen's movement, the 
seamen's hopes and aspirations, and stamp yourselves 
as traitors to the seamen's movement and to the 
United States. 

Most respectfully and hopefully your brother in the 



|past struggles and in the struggle now and to come, 
?and affectionately yours. 

(Signed)' ANDREW FURUSETH, 
f President. 1. S. U. of A. 

J Washington, D. C, January 27, 1936. 

MARITIME FEDERATION OF THE PACIFIC 

The Committee of the Whole submitted a 
recommendation upon that part of the secretary- 
treasurer's report pertaining to the "Maritime 
Federation of the Pacific Coast." 

The recommendation as amended and adopted 
by the convention is as follow.-: 

There can be no question that the newly organized 
Maritime Federation of the Pacific Coast was organ- 
ized and has been functioning contrary to the laws of 
the International Seamen's Union of America and (he 
American Federation of Labor. 

Article IX of the Constitution oi the Maritime 
Federation of the Pacific Coast sets forth the manner 
and method by which strikes may be initiated and 
ended. This provision is in direct conflict with Article 
XVIII of the Constitution of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America. 

Article XI of the Constitution of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor contains the following pertinent 
sections: 

Sec. 5. Xo Central Labor Union, or other central 
body of delegates, shall have the authority or power 
to order any organization, affiliated with such Central 
Labor Union, or other central labor body, on strike. 
or to take a strike vote, where such organization has 
a national organization, until the proper authorities of 
such Xational or International organizations have 
been consulted and agreed to such action. A violation 
of this law shall be sufficient cause for the Executive 
Council to revoke the charter. 

Sec. 9. Xo Central Body shall take part in the ad- 
justment of wage contracts, wage disputes or working 
rules of Local Unions, affiliated with a Xational or 
International Union, unless the laws of the Xational 
or InternatioKal Union permit, except upon the re- 
quest or consent of the executive officer of the Xa- 
tional or International Union affected. 

These sections of the American Federation of Labor 
Constitution should leave no doubt whatever that the 
Maritime Federation of the Pacific Coast is attempt- 
ing to function contrary to laws of the labor move- 
ment. 

We, therefore, recommend that our Pacific district 
unions be directed to immediately sever their con- 
nection with the Maritime Federation of the Pacific 
Coast until such time as the Constitution of the Mari- 
time Federation of the Pacific Coast shall conform to 
the Constitution of the International Seamen's Union 
of America, and the Constitution of the American 
Federation of Labor. 

There is need for greater cooperation and unity 
among the organizations representing the sea-going 
personnel of the merchant marine for the protection 
of all men who go to sea, not only in the districts. 
but also on a national basis. Immediate steps should 
be taken to that end. The Committee of the Whole, 
therefore, recommends that a committee be appointed 
by the President with instructions to consult with the 
representatives of other organizations of sea-goin^ 
crafts (it being understood that a number of Mich 
representatives are now in the city) and to report to 
this convention, it being further understood that upon 
receipt of the report of such committee the convention 
will take further action on the subject of national and 
district cooperation between organizations represent- 
ing the sea-going personnel. 



February 1. 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



23 



NATIONAL MARITIME COUNCIL 

In accord with foregoing recommendation, 
President Furuseth subsequently announced the 
appointment of the following committee to consult 
and confer with the other organizations of sea- 
going crafts: Paul Scharrenberg, Ivan Hunter, 
Gustav H. Brown, David E. Grange, C. W. Deal, 
Ray Farrell, and Percy Pryor. 

The convention unanimously adopted the fol- 
lowing declaration as a guide and authority to the 
before-mentioned committee : 

1. That an organization should be created on a 
national basis for the purpose of dealing cooperatively 
with our mutual problems that lend themselves to a 
unified national plan. 

2. That the organization should include maritime 
organizations representing ship personnel organized 
on a national basis. 

3. That the organization should function on a vol- 
untary basis recognizing all the inherent rights and 
prerogatives of the member organization and should 
and must not be used to abridge or nullify or assume 
any of said rights, duties and responsibilities of said 
member organizations except as they may severally 
and individually voluntarily elect. 

4. That the National Railway Labor Executives' 
Association, the National Maritime Board Plan and 
other successful cooperative labor associations deal- 
ing with similar situations should be studied by the 
representative groups of the organizations concerned 
and any plan finally agreed upon should be the result 
of most careful study and consideration in order that 
the maritime organizations may finally realize for all 
seamen the full benefits of organization. 

RESOLUTION REQUESTING INVESTIGATION 

The following self-explanatory resolution was 
adopted by unanimous vote of the convention : 

Whereas, During the past several months the 
American Merchant Marine has been the scene of 
unscrupulous propaganda and manipulations on the 
part of certain persons and groups, known and un- 
known, for the purpose of forcing a general strike of 
seamen or a general lockout by shipowners, on the 
Pacific, Atlantic and Gulf coasts and on the Great 
Lakes, without the knowledge or consent of the legiti- 
mate organizations of seafarers or shipowners; and 

Whereas, The United States is the only maritime 
nation which recognizes seamen as free men in rela- 
tion to their labor contracts, it being provided in the 
laws and treaties of all the maritime nations that 
seamen leaving their employment during the term 
of their engagement are subject to imprisonment for 
violation of their labor contract; and 

Whereas, The aforesaid propaganda and manipula- 
tions are plainly intended to mislead American seamen 
of all grades into activities tending to create the 
utterly false impression that as a class they are irre- 
sponsible and unreliable, that their trade unions are 
incapable of carrying out agreements and voluntary 
arbitration awards and they cannot be trusted to prop- 
erly exercise the freedom obtained through the pas- 
sage of the Seamen's Act only twenty years ago, thus 
strengthening the hands of the enemies of human 
liberty who desire a restoration of the former impris- 
onment laws against seamen; and 

Whereas, There are indications that the aforesaid 
propaganda and manipulation is the result of a de- 
liberate conspiracy, unlawful in its purpose and effect; 
and 



Whereas, The public interest, as well as the liberty 
of seamen, is being jeopardized by the unfortunate 
condition of affairs now prevalent in the American 
Merchant Marine as a result of the aforesaid con- 
spiracy; therefore, be it 

Resolved, By the International Seamen's Union of 
America, assembled in its Thirty-third Convention, 
that the President and the Congress of the United 
States be and hereby are respectfully and earnestly 
urged to bring into immediate operation all the pow- 
ers of investigation of the federal government, includ- 
ing the governmental departments, to ascertain who 
are parties to the aforesaid conspiracy, to expose them 
to public view and to take such other action in rela- 
tion thereto as may be necessary in the interests of 
American Merchant Marine; and be it further 

Resolved, That all officers and members of the In- 
ternational Seamen's Union of America and its dis- 
trict and local unions and branches be and hereby are 
instructed to make available to the federal govern- 
ment all information they have in relation to the sub- 
ject matter of this resolution; and be it further 

Resolved, That the Secretary of this Convention is 
hereby instructed to bring this resolution to the atten- 
tion of the President and to the Congress of the 
United States without delay. 

VINDICATION OF THE EDITOR 

Upon recommendation of the Committee of the 
Whole, the Convention adopted the following : 

With regard to Paul Scharrenberg, we recommend 
concurrence in the action of the Executive Board de- 
claring his alleged expulsion from the Sailors' Union 
of the Pacific illegal and, therefore, null and void, and 
ruling that he is a full member in good standing in the 
Sailors' Union of the Pacific and the International 
Seamen's Union of America. 

We also recommend that the convention express 
its utmost confidence in Paul Scharrenberg and in his 
loyalty and devotion to the International Seamen's 
Union of America. 



"NO RESPONSIBILITY"— BUT! 



In June, 1929, the Nelson Line, with its 
steamer Griff du, undertook to tow a $12,000 der- 
rick barge from Los Angeles to San Francisco 
for the San Francisco Bridge Company. In De- 
cember, 1935, the California District Court of 
Appeal affirmed the action of a jury in the trial 
court which found the steamer and her owner 
liable for the total loss of the barge en route, due 
to negligent towage, in spite of the fact that the 
contract for towage provided that the service was 
to be "entirely at the risk of the tow and the 
steamer Griff du and her owners take no risk or 
responsibility whatsoever for the safe towage of 
the said tow. . . ." 

The jury apparently found that the facts were 
as follows: After the towage was commenced, 
the barge pounded heavily and started to leak. In 
spite of this, the Griff du continued full speed 
ahead, and neglected to put men on the barge to 
operate the pumps with which she was equipped. 
The barge finally took a starboard list and was 
cast adrift, the steamer going merrily on her way. 



24 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL February 1, 1936 



THE BRITISH EMPIRE 

A Realm Without a Centralized 
Government 



The far-flung realm over which Edward VIII 
as King-Emperor has been granted the sovereignty 
is without precedent in history. 

There is no single word that correctly describes 
the realm. It is a kingdom, an empire, a common- 
wealth of nations, a vast sphere of influence be- 
yond its own frontiers. 

There are no accurate and complete statistics 
of this realm. It reaches indefinitely into eternal 
sand and eternal snow. For many millions of its 
peoples there has never been a census, and for 
other millions the census is no more than approxi- 
mate. Subject to these reservations, the area of 
the realm is 13,355,426 square miles or one-quarter 
of the world's surface, and the population is 495,- 
764,000, or approximately one-quarter of man- 
kind. 

The world-wide distribution of a realm on 
which the sun never sets is indicated by this geo- 
graphical analysis: 

Square Miles Population 

Great Britain and Northern Ire- 
land 94,633 46.386,000 

Europe 27,125 3,241,000 

Asia 2,126,263 365,396,000 

Africa 3,820,274 57,995,000 

Americas 4,008,214 13,091,000 

Australasia 3,278,917 9,655,000 

The realm is thus spread over all the climatic 
zones — Arctic, temperate, and tropical. It is east 
and west, it is north and south, a cross-section of 
the planet and its inhabitants. 

The population of the realm— 495,764,000— is 
divided racially according to these approximate 
figures : 

Whites 70,000,000 

Indians 365,000,000 

Blacks 42,000,000 

Arabs 7,000,000 

Malays 7,000,000 

Chinese 1,000,000 

Polynesians 1,000,000 

Others 2,000,000 

The most advanced and the most backward 
civilizations are thus associated in one political 
allegiance, and the variety is reflected in hundreds 
of spoken languages and dialects. 

The leading religions within the empire are as 
follows : 

Hindus 240,000,000 

Moslems 110,000,000 

Protestants 67,000,000 



Roman Catholics 13,000,000 

Buddhists 12,000,000 

Animists 12.000.000 

Sikhs, Jains, and Parsees 4,000,000 

Jews 750,000 

In many undeveloped communities the religions 
are tribal and primitive. 

The realm is British in name alone. According 
to ethnology and culture, it is predominantly 
Asian and African in number of citizens. Within 
the realm there is thus — there has to be — the 
utmost possible freedom of belief, custom and tra- 
dition. Interference with the habits of a com- 
munity, even when those habits are barbaric, is 
cautious. 

The population of the world now increases by 
an estimated 30,000,000 a year. For the British 
realm, that would be a proportionate increase of 
6,000,000 annually. For this reason alone, King 
Edward VIII reigns over a population larger by 
many millions than the population which saluted 
King Geonn V when lie ascended the throne in 
1910. A moderate estimate of the increase is 
85,000,000. 

Also, there have been large additions of terri- 
tory and spheres of influence to the empire — that 
is, certain of the German colonies and almost the 
whole of the former Ottoman Empire in the Near 
East. 

Such a realm would be scarcely conceivable but 
for one circumstance : there is no attempt by < rreal 
Britain to maintain a single and centralized 
government. There are scores of states and prov- 
inces ranged around Great Britain, but enjoy- 
ing every variety and extent of autonomy. For 
this reason the British realm includes seven mem- 
bers of the League of Nations — Britain, Irish 
Free State, Canada, Australia, India, New Zeal- 
and, and South Africa — with numerous territories 
held as mandates under the League. 

These mandates originally included Iraq, which 
is now independent. There- remain Palestine, 
Transjordania, the East African colony of Tan- 
ganyika, Southwest Africa (under South Africa >. 
Togoland and the Cameroons ; and New Guinea, 
Western Samoa, Nauru and other islands under 
Australia and New Zealand. 

It is this bewildering variety of territorial 
sovereignty that perplexes the world — even the 
British themselves — and one result of it is an 
enhancement of the importance of the throne 
which King Edward VIII occupies. As king- 
emperor he is the one symbol to which the entire 



February 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



25 



realm owes allegiance. There are many legisla- 
tures, many codes of law, many separate armed 
forces, many tariffs, many faiths, many languages. 
No part of the realm is typical of the realm as a 
whole. No part is in touch with the whole realm. 
But the king-emperor stands in the same relation 
to every part of the realm. He is the one link 
that symbolizes the strange and vast alliance of 
communities. — P. W. Wilson, in New York 
Times. 



METHODS OF THE DISRUPTERS 



Orders from Moscow are — Sacrifice your or- 
ganization and enlist in the American Federation 
of Labor, secure administrative positions where 
possible and give special thought to securing ad- 
mission to the Central Labor Union's and Federa- 
tion conventions as delegates. Why ! 

The answer is easily discerned. Destroy the 
American Federation of Labor and communism 
will reign supreme. , 

Some of the Moscow group have already made 
their entrance into our unions, while others have 
knocked at our door and failed to secure admis- 
sion. But do they stop there? No! Their next 
step is to destroy the confidence of those who are 
loyal members of the recognized trade union 
movement; first they make an effort to destroy 
the confidence in the officers by vilification and 
slander, and when that fails, they move on the 
organization itself and endeavor to discredit its 
effectiveness by maligning and lying propaganda. 

If in the organization, they play on the weak- 
ness of the human, discrediting wage and work 
conditions to the extent of urging strikes, with- 
out making any preparation for the conduct of 
the same, they are not interested in the success 
of a strike. Their interest is served in getting the 
workers on the street and keeping them there 
until they feel the fangs of hunger and surrender 
to their doctoring. 

The trade union movement as represented by 
the American Federation of Labor believes in the 
shorter work day and high wage, and while their 
aim for that goal may be by the longer way 
around, its success is more assured and lasting 
than is the short cut of revolution as advocated 
by those of the Moscow group. 

Local unions and members may expect most 
any kind of propaganda ; a popular method that 
is being applied, is circularizing local unions in 



the hope of discrediting organizations outside of 
the reach of their understanding — hoping thereby 
to discredit the International Union. 

Constructive criticism is a virtue, but virtue is 
not always what it is made to appear. One must 
be able to analyze criticism to know its back- 
ground. Do not always join in the popular sport 
of the day — finding fault. Always consider the 
source from which criticism flows and if it merits 
your support and you believe in its sincerity, then 
join hands with others in working out a construc- 
tive solution of the object of that criticism. After 
all you are interested in wages and reasonable 
hours of labor. If the American Federation of 
Labor has served you in that purpose, then their 
policy is the one to follow. Have confidence in 
Government and in leadership. Select your leaders 
from among those who have an American Federa- 
tion of Labor background and after having se- 
lected them, stand back of them with a full meas- 
ure of loyalty. Do not let those whose aim is to 
destroy, weaken your confidence. 

Leaders must have the confidence of those they 
represent, they must have co-operation. Mere ex- 
pression of good will does not fill the gap, there 
must be something more than lip service. Confi- 
dence and cooperation requires loyalty, and loy- 
alty is measured by an adherence to principle. — 
Edward Flore, General President, Hotel and 
Restaurant Employes International Alliance. 



THE SHORTER WORK DAY 



All over the world there is a growing under- 
standing that the shorter work day and week is a 
necessity and that it is coming. Harold Butler, 
director of the International Labor Office, says 
that the movement is gaining ground every- 
where. There is a general realization that the en- 
hanced productive capacity now embraced by in- 
dustries has reduced the man power needed under 
the longer hours that have held. In order to 
employ some of the millions of the disemployed 
workers, there will have to be reduced hours. 
There is no longer great objection to the forty- 
hour week. This gives hope that it may not be 
long until the thirty-hour week, without pay re- 
duction, will come to American workers. 



Despotism may govern without faith, but liberty 
cannot — De Tocqueville. 



26 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February 1, 1936 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



At the time of going to press a serious strike 
of seamen is reported from Sydney, Australia. 
According to press dispatches, the strike is in pro- 
test against an award by the Federal Arbitration 
Court. Details are not available and seem to be 
difficult to obtain. A cable inquiring about the 
status of the strike was sent to the Seamen's 
Union at Sydney by the convention of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America now in 
session at Washington, D. C, but no reply lias 
been received to date. 

* * * 

The Italian salvage steamers Rostro and Brisero 
have succeeded in locating the wreck of the 
steamer Belgier which was sunk by a German sub- 
marine on February 28, 1917. The first indication 
was given by a Lorient fisherman who brought 
up the Belgians ship bell in his nets. The wreck 
lies about 310 feet deep near the Groix Island. 
It has been charted and provided with buoys so 
as to begin salvage work when the season permits. 

* * * 

The International Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers was granted jurisdiction over radio 
workers by the Executive Council of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor at its recent meeting in 
Miami, Florida. It was reported that the Brother- 
hood had amended its charter so as to receive the 
radio workers as a separate division under a newly 
formed membership class, with dues and benefits 
varying from those of journeymen electricians. 
Whether or not this grant of jurisdiction includes 
seagoing radio telegraphers is not quite clear. 

* * * 

Lord Merrivale, English wreck commissioner, 
has given his findings as to the cause of the Loss 
of the oil tanker La Crescenta with all on board. 
The vessel left Port San Luis, California, for 
Osaka on November 24, 1934, with a cargo of 
crude oil, and was spoken on December 6, but was 
not heard of afterward. It would seem from the 
evidence as presented that the managers had not 
carried out their duties satisfactorily, and there- 
fore it came as no surprise when the wreck com- 
missioner found that the two contributory causes 
of the loss were attributable to the acts of the 
owners of the vessel and of Sydney Graham, the 



registered manager of the ship. The court ordered 
the owners and managing director to pay £3,400 
in respect of the costs— £2,750 to the Board of 
Trade, £350 to the Officers' Association, and 
£350 to the Seamen's Union. 



You do not have to eat spinach, if you take a 
tip from the Hawaiians. You can try seaweed. 
Experts have named seventy different kinds 
of seaweeds in Hawaiian waters that are good 
to eat. And they are still eaten. Hawaiians, 
and other people, too, chop them up with salt and 
a nut that grows in the Islands, and serve them 
as a relish. Put up in jars the relish will keep for 
months. In addition to the vitamins it contains, 
it is rich in iodin, which prevents goiter. The 
nearest thing the Hawaiians had, however, to our 
spinach was the tender top of the taro plant. That, 
too, is still eaten, cooked with chicken and coconut 
milk or in a bundle of meat and fish done up in 
green leaves. It is as nutritive as spinach. 



Harold Butler, director of the International 
Labor Office at Geneva, Switzerland, announces 
the appointment of James Wilson, former vice- 
president of the American Federation of Labor. 
as executive assistant of the International Labor 
Office. Mr. Wilson has had a long career in the 
American labor movement, and has at various 
times shown his understanding and sympathetic 
appreciation of the seamen's problems. He was 
general president of the Pattern Makers' League 
of North America from 1902 to 1934, a vice- 
president of the American Federation of Labor 
and a member of its Executive Council from 1924 
to 1934, and fraternal delegate from the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor to the British Trades 
Union Congress in 1906. He was sent by Presi- 
dent Wilson to Europe as chairman of the Labor 
Mission to Great Britain and France in March. 
1918, and as chairman of the Labor Mission to 
Italy in August, 1918. He was named by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt as labor adviser to the World 
Monetary and Economic Conference at London 
in 1933, and was made the first labor representa- 
tive of the United States on the governing body 
of the International Labor Office in February. 
1935. It was announced that Mr. Wilson's duties 
as executive assistant of the International Labor 
I office will permit him to spend a portion Ot each 
vear in the United States. 



February 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



27 



I. S. U. CONVENTION SIDELIGHTS 



The convention granted a charter to the Deep 
Sea and Purse Seine Fishermen's Union at San 
Pedro. 

1 i i 

Forty-eight resolutions were introduced in the 
convention dealing with every phase of the sea- 
men's life, ashore and afloat. 
111 

Sergeant-at-arms Patrick Keane rendered silent 
but effective service. During an extended and 
somewhat turbulent convention "Pat" never found 
it necessary to use force. 

111 

Secretary Frank Morrison of the American 
Federation of Labor made the welcoming address 
and extended fraternal greetings in behalf of the 
great labor movement of America. 
111 

Delegate Ray Farrell of the Pacific Coast Ma- 
rine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers' 
Association gave calm and sage advice on several 
occasions when all the boys were screaming. 
111 

The convention was honored with visits by offi- 
cial representatives from the National Organiza- 
tion of Masters, Mates and Pilots; also from the 
Marine Engineers Beneficial Association. 
111 

Delegate Ivan Hunter of the Marine Firemen, 
Oilers, Watertenders and Coalpassers' Union of 
the Great Lakes is called upon frequently to pre- 
side. It was generally agreed that he fills the pre- 
siding officer's chair with dignity and grace. 
111 

Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor, addressed 
the convention and furnished interesting informa- 
tion in relation to gains in employment, payrolls, 
production, farm income, profits and dividends 
since March, 1933. 

111 

The only lady in regular attendance was Alice 
Haig, secretary to President Furuseth. If medals 
were to be conferred for faithful service rendered 
at this convention Mrs. Haig would carry away 
something like a Congressional Medal. 
111 

Delegate C. W. Deal of the Ferryboatmen's 

Union of the Pacific found it necessary to go to 
Chicago during the convention to attend to mat- 
ters relating to the Railway Labor Act and the 
marine workers affected by that law. 
111 
Conrad H. Espe of the Salmon Purse Seiners' 

Union of the Pacific has been appointed by Secre- 



tary Olander to visit various ports in California 
for the purpose of obtaining certain necessary 
information relating to fishermen. 

111 
Delegate George Cummings, president of the 
Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association, was a quiet 
but most attentive delegate at the convention. 
George has held continuous active membership in 
the Union since December 14, 1889. 

111 
Director Harold Butler of the International 
Labor Office at Geneva, Switzerland, and Lei fur 
Magnussen, Director of the Washington office of 
the International Labor Office, were welcomed 
visitors to the convention. They conveyed greet- 
ings and best wishes. 

111 
The tallest delegate in the convention is A. W. 
Murphy of the Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, 
Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers' Association. 
The shortest and "roundest" delegate is genial 
Percy J. Pryor of Boston, veteran member of the 
Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association. 

111 
Delegate David E. Grange, president of the 
Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the At- 
lantic and Gulf, was the orator of the convention. 
David has had a lifelong experience in various 
capacities in the Stewards' Department, and never 
misses an opportunity to go "to the bat." 

111 
So far as the record goes, this convention has 

already been in session a longer period than any 

previous convention of the International Seamen's 

Union of America. One reason was the vast 

amount of business that has been accumulated 

since 1930, when the previous convention was 

held. 

111 

Robert W. Bruere, United States Government 
representative at the recent Maritime Conference 
in Geneva, addressed the convention and gave a 
brief account of the proceedings of that confer- 
ence and pointed to the fact that questions of vital 
importance to seamen will be dealt with at the 
next meeting to be held in the fall of 1936. 
111 

Mrs. Victor A. Olander was the guest of honor 
at a dinner tendered to the delegates by the Marine 
Cooks and Stewards' Association of the Atlantic 
and Gulf. Patrick O'Brien of the Sailors' Union 
of the Great Lakes was the toastmaster, and it 
was the consensus of opinion that his original 
native Irish wit made the occasion enjoyable and 
memorable. 



28 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL February 1, 1936 

THE MORRO CASTLE VERDICT 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 

® 

Entered at the San Francisco Postofflce as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price $1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The Journal is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



FEBRUARY 1, 1936 



OUTLOOK FOR THE FUTURE 

Rights and privileges of union seamen, such 
as preference in employment, have never been 
maintained anywhere for any length of time un- 
less there is a keen appreciation that every "right" 
carries a corresponding "duty" and that every 
"privilege" is balanced by "responsibility." 

Secretary Olander, in the opening paragraph of 
his report to the convention of the International 
Seamen's Union of America, treats this inescapa- 
ble truth in clear and vigorous language. He says : 

The outlook for the progress of the union in the 
future is brighter than at any previous time in the his- 
tory of the organization, if all divisions of the Inter- 
national Union can be induced to develop a greater 
sense of national unity and responsibility than they 
have shown in the past and provided they agree to 
more orderly procedure in relation to the agreements 
into which they enter. On the other hand, the outlook 
is gloomy to say the least, if any other procedure is 
followed. The reasons for this are manifold. Attempts 
to evade responsibilities will ultimately have disastrous 
effects. 

Yes, the organized seamen of America are the 
masters of their own destiny ! 

We can march onward to heights unknown IF 
all members are willing to accept full responsi- 
bility for the acts of our Union. 

We cannot shift or evade that responsibility. 
It is ours — individually and collectively! 



Thirty-one years ago a steamship burned in the 
East River of New York, with a loss of 1,021 
lives, mainly women and children. The master of 
the vessel was tried and convicted and died in 
prison. That would seem to have l)een sufficient 
to assure continuous unremitting and dependable 
precautions against disaster for all time. But the 
lesson of the General Slocum horror, it is pain- 
fully evident, was soon forgotten. 

Despite improvements in the development of 
every conceivable safeguard against such happen- 
ings, another shocking disaster occurred when the 
Vestris was sunk, and again when the Ward liner. 
Morro Castle, burned off the New Jersey coast 
on September 8, 1934, with a loss of 124 lives. 

The usual investigations were held and. in the 
end, the United States Government decided to 
proceed against the operating corporation and the 
master and certain officers of the Morro Castle 
on charges of criminal negligence. 

Well, the verdict has been rendered. After de- 
liberating more than nine hours, a jury in the 
United States District Court in New York re- 
turned a verdict of guilty against Acting Captain 
William F. Warms and three co-defendants. 

The co-defendants with Warms were Eben S. 
Abbott, chief engineer; Henry E. Cabaud, execu- 
tive vice-president of the operating line, and the 
company itself. 

In due time, Federal Judge Murray Hulbert 
sentenced Abbott, the chief engineer, to serve four 
years in the penitentiary for criminal negligence 
that caused the loss of life at sea. 

For the same crime Warms, master of the 
Morro Castle, promoted by the sudden death of 
her regular skipper, Captain Robert Wilmott, on 
September 7, 1934, the eve of the fire, to serve 
two years in prison. 

Then, for the first time in New York maritime 
history, a court imposed sentence upon an official 
of a steamship company, who, like the officers of 
his line, had been found guilty of negligence. 
That official was Henry E. Cabaud, executive 
vice-president of the New York and Cuba Mail 
Steamship Company, commonly known as the 
Ward Line. Judge Hulbert imposed a prison sen- 
tence of one year, but suspended it on the stipu- 
lation that Cabaud pay a fine of $5,000 and be 
placed on probation for the duration of the 
sentence. 



8 



February 1. 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



29 



Judge Hulbert then turned his attention to the 
line itself, which with the other defendants had 
been found guilty. In imposing a fine of $10,000 — 
the maximum permitted by the statute — he said 
he regretted that the penalty was insufficient. 

In imposing prison sentences, the Judge made 
it plain that he believed there had been too much 
laxity on the part of steamship officials and offi- 
cers of vessels in enforcing Government regula- 
tions concerning fire and lifeboat drills. He struck 
at the Ward Line by saying that passengers were 
entitled to protection at sea, which meant, above 
all, competent officers and crew. 

The Journal has over and over again made 
such assertions ! There is no mechanical substi- 
tute for an efficient and sufficient crew ! The 
General Slocum was an old tub and the Morro 
Castle was an up-to-date modern ship, certified by 
all the laws, rules and regulations to be Al. 

And yet, when all the investigations were over, 
the personal equation was the factor that deter- 
mined all. Life-saving appliances, fire-extinguish- 
ing apparatus, and all other well-advertised con- 
trivances are useless unless there is on hand a 
competent and qualified crew ! 



STRANGE MANEUVERING! 



While the International Seamen's Union con- 
vention was in session at Washington, D. C., on 
January 24, 1936, the following telegrams were 
received : 

Houston, Texas, January 23, 1936. 
Victor Olander, Secretary-Treasurer, 
International Seamen's Union Convention, 
Lee House, Washington, D. C. 

Crew on our steamer Jacob Luckenbach here at 
Houston refusing turn on steam for further discharge, 
claiming part of checkers we are using other than 
union, and crew demands release from checkers' union 
before will give further steam. This in violation Fed- 
eral Mediation Board award regarding checkers. We 
cannot too emphatically request you immediately issu- 
ing orders to crew this vessel resume operations. 
Please advise fast. 

(Signed) F. T. HOBLEY, 
Gulf Manager, Luckenbach Gulf 
Steamship Company. 

i i 1 

Houston, Texas, January 24, 1936. 
Victor Olander, 
Secretary-Treasurer, Lee House, Washington, D. C. 

Crew of Jacob Luckenbach still out on strike. Strike 
due to three non-union checkers working on docks. 
The three non-union checkers must be replaced by 
union checkers before crew returns to work. Long- 
shoremen working cargo. West Coast men on ship 
under West Coast articles and paying West Coast 
wages. The independent longshoremen that are work- 
ing ship will receive their charter in a day or two, but 



in the meantime are cleared by the I. L. A. local here 
and by Mr. Dwyer himself. Will keep you informed 
of any further activities. 

(Signed) R. J. NOVAK, 
J. LACKOVIC, 
Branch Agents. 

By the foregoing it was made painfully evident 
that sinister forces had been at work in Houston 
and had actually succeeded in persuading the crew 
of the Jacob Luckenbach to tie up the ship in 
behalf of three checkers in deliberate violation of 
a solemn covenant, while the longshoremen con- 
tinued at work ! 

The convention, therefore, decided to wire the 

Houston agents of the three Atlantic district 

unions, as follows : 

Convention of International Seamen's Union of 
America, in session here, has decided that steamer 
Jacob Luckenbach must be released at once and that 
the members of the Union employed on that ship 
must carry out all Union agreements to which the 
International Seamen's Union is a party. Instruct 
crew accordingly. Give them copy of this telegram to 
take with them when the ship departs. 

It is highly significant that the only delegate 
who requested to be recorded as voting against the 
motion was Earl King of the Pacific Coast Marine 
Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers' As- 
sociation. And it is no less significant that the 
two delegates from the Sailors' Union of the Pa- 
cific, Coester and Quittenton, requested to be re- 
corded as "not voting." 

This record speaks for itself! 

It explains much, very much ! 



WHOSE GOVERNMENT? 



Into the chorus of jubilation and remonstrance 
which has greeted the Supreme. Court's adverse 
views of certain New Deal measures it seems emi- 
nently appropriate to inject one gentle reminder. 

Our government still is the people's govern- 
ment. It is not the government of the Supreme 
Court, of the White House, or, directly of 
Congress. 

It follows, therefore, that if in the long run 
certain things have to be done and if the people 
demand they be done, they will be done whether 
the Supreme Court likes them or not. After all, 
the Supreme Court is a creation of the people, 
just like the other departments of the govern- 
ment. Powers which the people can create they 
also can abolish, modify or restrict — all in their 
own good time and in their own way. 



30 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February 1. 1936 



A TRIBUTE OF RESPECT 



While the International Seamen's Union of 
America convention was in session word was re- 
ceived that the steamship Iowa of the States Line 
had been wrecked at the mouth of the Columbia 
River, with the loss of all the thirty- four mem- 
bers of the crew. Upon receipt of this sad infor- 
mation the delegates rose and stood in silence in 
respect to the memory of the deceased brothers. 

Later the following message was transmitted to 

the International Seamen's Union branches on the 

Pacific, where the departed brothers had made 

their homes : 

Convention of International Seamen's Union of 
America, in regular convention assembled, has unani- 
mously directed me to extend heartfelt condolence to 
the relatives and dependents of the thirty-four men 
who lost their lives on the freighter Iozva, wrecked at 
the mouth of the Columbia River. Please convey this 
expression of our deep sympathy to all concerned. 

When details upon responsibility for this 
tragedy are available the Journal will have more 
to say upon the subject. 



ARE WE PROGRESSING? 



A great many well-informed Americans arc 
inclined to think of the depression years as an 
era of complete stagnation in which all progress 
was stopped. 

And yet, it is acknowledged by all, that science 
has continued its unending search for new facts 
totally oblivious of the depression. The 1936 auto- 
mobile is improved vastly over the 1929 model, 
although it costs much less ; the modern ships are 
faster, but require less men for operation ; the 
homes we build have more conveniences, etc. 

The doctor knows more about the human body 
and how to treat it. The dentist has developed a 
better technique. Indeed, all lines of science and 
research have advanced steadily during these dark 
years. To be sure, this is as it should be. Thou- 
sands throughout the world are aflame with a 
thirst for new knowledge. They recognize that 
nature's fountain head of wisdom has scarcely 
been tapped and, looking at the progress of the last 
hundred years in comparison with man's prior 
record, they see an opportunity for true service. 

Gratifying as our material progress has been, 
however, it has not been an unmixed blessing. 
Our research workers in the industrial field still 
strive to make mass production more efficient 



rather than attempting to solve the problem of 
distribution and consumption. 

The labor-saving devices they have invented and 
the changes in plant operation they have worked 
out during the depression years have cut costs and 
speeded up production, but at the same time have 
reduced the number of available jobs by several 
millions. 

There is no point to producing vast quantities 
of goods if after they are produced the people are 
unable to buy them. We must somehow try to 
rearrange our industrial and economic machinery 
so that all will have jobs and the purchasing power 
that jobs give, before we can chortle too loudly 
about progress. 



ETHIOPIA A HARD XL 1 



Things in Ethiopia are not going in a fashion 
to please Benito Mussolini. He counted on a short, 
dramatic, "glorious" campaign of conquest. He 
has been forced to endure a stalemate so far as 
conquest is concerned, and a guerilla war to which 
no end is in sight. 

Guarded statements show that Italian troops 
have "changed positions toward the rear," and 
the world chuckles understandingly. Italian casu- 
alty lists have begun to trickle through ; and 
though no one trusts these lists, they show that 
the Italian command was in a box where it had 
to say something. 

The Italian general in chief has been ordered 
home ; airplane bombing expeditions have harmed 
little save hospitals; and the whole Mussolini ad- 
venture seems stuck in the mud. 

It is not the first military campaign that has 
marched from confidence to confusion. The elder 
von Moltke, before his head was swelled by vic- 
tory over France, said that all war plans are likely 
to go astray, for the first contact with the enemy 
changes everything. 

Even now, no prudent observer expects the 
Ethiopians to win a dramatic victory. The odds 
of science and equipment are still cruelly one- 
sided — though the Ethiopian stock of modern fin 
arms is reported to be increasing. But what is m i 
longer in doubt is that Mussolini's triumphant 
march has gone into the ditch; that he has spent 
already ten times as much as Italy would get out 
of triumph; and that colonizing with airplanes, 
gas bombs and tanks is a risky game. 



10 



February 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



31 



IS IT MERELY A CYCLE? 



As near as the ordinary American can size up 
the present situation in Europe, it is a case of 
practically every nation trying to arrange for the 
use of some other nation's army and navy if, 
when and as war breaks out again. 

It must be admitted, of course, that in this 
matter Europe is running true to ancient if not 
honorable tradition. It is a recurring event ! 

Are we now in the path of a war cycle? There 
seem to be at least two of these war cycles. The 
Scotch version of it deals with prosperity and 
poverty : War brings Poverty ; Poverty brings 
Peace. Peace brings Prosperity ; Prosperity brings 
Pride. Then Pride brings War again. Which con- 
tradicts the idea that war can be waged for profits. 



PUBLIC OPINION POLLS 



For a number of months the American Insti- 
tute of Public Opinion has been taking so-called 
polls of "the people of the United States" on 
various questions in which the masses are vitally 
interested. 

Some of these "polls" have indicated negative 
convictions toward social welfare measures and 
principles. A doubt has been expressed as to 
whether the persons included in the "polls" accu- 
rately reflect mass public opinion. This doubt is 
accentuated by the result of the census which the 
Institute has taken on "Government Old Age 
Pensions for Needy Persons." 

Persons on the Institute's mailing list were 
asked if they favored old age pensions. If so, 
how much they believed should be paid monthly 
to each single person, how much monthly to a 
husband and wife, and at what age the pension 
should begin. 

The "poll" reveals that 80 per cent of those 
who voted favored old age pensions, with 60 years 
as the most popular eligibility age. 

And then comes the rub. With respect to the 
size of the pension, Dr. George Gallup, spokesman 
for the Institute, declares "the largest single num- 
ber of voters" favored $30 per month for one 
person and $50 for a husband and wife. 

There is not a city in the United States where 
one person can buy food, clothing and shelter, 
and the other necessities which constitute even the 
smallest decent living, for $30. Nor is there any 
city in the United States where a husband and 



wife can buy a similar decent living for $50 a 
month. 

And yet, the American Institute of Public 
Opinion seriously informs us that its "poll" 
showed a preference for the $30 and $50 stand- 
ards. 

Evidently the persons who are now required to 
live on old age pensions, or who will come under 
old age pensions in the future, were not included 
in that section of the public which makes up the 
Institute's voting list. 



FIVE MILLION "NET" PER ANNUM 



Only one net personal income topping the 
$5,000,000 mark was reported for 1934. No one 
grieves. If the receiver of that income has any 
sense or human feeling, his only worry on the 
financial score is to find the best way to use the 
money. 

He can't spend it — not even on yachts and 
chorines ; or if he did, he would be heading toward 
an early and expensive funeral. He had enough 
to buy all the comfort, security, culture, travel 
and rational hobbies that any sane man wants be- 
fore he got to $100,000 a year. The rest of his 
income may feed his vanity — which probably is 
well nourished already; but it can buy just one 
thing — power. 

•Power — power over the lives and fortunes of 
other men. Power, not given him by vote of the 
people ; but taken in with his profits. Power which 
no human being ought to be allowed to hold 
without a direct and revocable permit from his 
fellows. 

When we get just half as far in financial gov- 
ernment as the men who wrote the Constitution 
had progressed in political government, there will 
be no $5,000,000 incomes: and the land will be 
richer for their absence. 



New times demand new measures and new men ; 
The world advances, and in time outgrows 
The laws that in our fathers' day were best ; 
And doubtless, after us, some purer scheme 
Will be shaped out by wiser men than we. 

—J. R. Lowell. 



Union workers spend approximately 140 mil- 
lion dollars a week. Just think of what would 
happen if every one demanded Union-made goods 
and Union services! 



11 



32 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February 1, 1936 



Recent Discoveries of Under- 
sea Wonders 



An undersea canyon, rivaling in magnitude the 
Grand Canyon of the Colorado; a spring sending 
up millions of gallons of mineral water from the 
ocean bottom ; a pinnacle rock extending from the 
floor of the sea to a height greater than the Wash- 
ington Monument — these and other natural phe- 
nomena as impressive as any found on dry land 
have been discovered by the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey during its 116 years of surveying the 
coastal waters of the United States. 

R. R. Lukens, assistant chief of the division of 
hydrography a id topography, states that the sub- 
merged canyon of the Hudson River, which lies 
about fifty miles off the entrance to New York 
harbor, is one of the most remarkable natural fea- 
tures revealed by the soundings of the Survey. 

By taking a chart of this section of the coast 
it is possible to trace what geologists say was un- 
doubtedly the course of the Hudson River millions 
of years ago, before the eastern seaboard subsided 
and brought the shore line to its present location 
at Sandy Hook and Coney Island. 

About fifty miles from Sandy Hook soundings 
reveal a canyon which at one place is more than 
2,400 feet deep and about three miles wide from 
rim to rim. This gorge extends for about twenty 
miles before it spreads out fanlike and merges 
with the bottom of the sea. 

When Ponce de Leon was sailing along the 
Florida coast in search of the Fountain of Youth, 
he may have unknowingly sailed directly by the 
gigantic ocean spring which has been found two 
and one-half miles offshore and nine miles south 
of the city of St. Augustine. Here there is the 
unusual feature of an oceanic spring sending up 
millions of gallons of fresh mineral water from 
the sea bottom at a general depth of fifty-five feet. 

The bubbling of the water from the spring pro- 
duces a marked effect on the surface of the ocean 
and it can be seen for a distance of one mile. A 
strong odor, quite similar to the sulphur springs 
of Florida, says Mr. Lukens, can sometimes be 
detected at a distance of two miles. 

The water comes up with considerable force and 
creates such swirls that the officer of the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey who visited it reported that 



it was difficult to hold a boat over the spring. Mr. 
Lukens points out that, if the outlet of the spring 
were on land, it is probable that it would resemble 
a geyser more than a spring. The spring emerges 
from a hole only about 25 feet in diameter and 
125 feet deep, or about 70 feet below the surround- 
ing ocean bed. 

California has a number of oil springs adjacent 
to her southern coasts. One of these is in the 
southern part of Santa Monica Bay and near the 
head of a deep submarine valley. The oil comes 
up from a depth of 75 fathoms and covers a con- 
siderable area. 

Another oil spring occurs in the Santa Barbara 
Channel a short distance west of the city of Santa 
Barbara. Here the smell of petroleum was so 
strong that the adjacent point was named "Coal Oil 
Point." The men who made the early surveys of 
these waters stated that the smell of petroleum was 
almost overpowering and penetrated every part of 
a steamer which required about ten minutes to 
pass through the coal-oil-laden atmosphere. 

Nautical charts, in addition to giving the depths 
of the water, also show the character of the bot- 
tom. At one place in the coastal waters of Alaska 
the chart shows gold dust as a bottom character- 
istic. This occurs about 18 miles southeast of 
Juneau in Stephens Passage at a depth of about 
600 feet. Thus far no one has devised a machine 
lor dredging at such a great depth. 

A curious feature of the waters of Alaska, points 
out Mr. Lukens, are the pinnacle rocks. These 
lurking dangers often extend to within a few 
feet of the surface and have been the cause of 
many ship wrecks. The menace of these pinnacles 
was so great that the main ship channels of south- 
eastern Alaska have been swept by the wire drag, 
and the pinnacles thus discovered are now charted. 

One pinnacle has been found which rises from 
a general depth of 600 feet to within 17 feet of the 
surface. This pinnacle, higher than the Washing- 
ton Monument, has been called the "Washington 
Monument Rock." 

In addition to many spectacular volcanoes on 
land, Alaska has a submarine volcano. This is 
known as Bogoslof and is located in Bering Sea 
about 60 miles west of the village of Unalaska. It 
is out of line of traffic and is visited only by an 
occasional cutter on patrol duty. 

Bogoslof rises up from depths of nearly 6000 
feet. It throws up islands and then blasts them 



12 



February 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



33 



away with terriffic explosions. Nearly every year 
there are great differences in the appearance of the 
island. It is so seldom visited that it is possible 
many of the eruptions have gone unrecorded. Rec- 
ords are available of eruptions in 1796, 1883, 
1906, and 1910. 

The eruption of 1910 was witnessed by the offi- 
cers of the Tahoma, who reported a column of 
steam and ashes many thousands of feet high. Of 
recent years great changes in the topography of 
Bogoslof have been reported, but no violent erup- 
tions have been recorded. 



THE AFTERMATH OF REVOLUTIONS 



The rich can take hold of a proletarian revolu- 
tion, and twist it to their own mercenary ends. 

They have done it again and again in the course 
of the centuries. Look how they have captured, 
and invested with their own outlook, the prole- 
tarian revolution known to the world as Chris- 
tianity. 

What do the rich care about the fierce denun- 
ciations of their kind in the Christian Scriptures? 
Nothing whatever. 

They sit in the best places in the best churches, 
and listen with an affectation of pious serenity to 
the curses which the Bible heaps upon the rich, 
and the promises of hellfire it contains for them. 

Says Dean Inge: "I have often smiled to see a 
congregation of devout and honorable women, 
loaded with furs and jewels, singing the Magnifi- 
cat, which is more revolutionary than 'The Red 
Flag.' " 

Well, gatherings of complacent reactionaries, 
reeking of stolen wealth, not infrequently roll 
forth the revolutionary strains of the Marseillaise. 

They don't have disturbing visions of the great 
proletarian uprising of the eighteenth century 
when they bellow that battle hymn of the op- 
pressed poor. They don't see the poverty-stricken 
masses come pouring out of their hovels in the 
slums of Paris, thirsting for vengeance upon those 
who have so cruelly misused them. They don't 
see the tearing down of the Bastile, nor the set- 
ting up of the Guillotine. 

It is not the rumble of the tumbrils of death 
that sounds in their ears as an accompaniment to 
that passionate cry of the poor for freedom and 
justice, but the popping of champagne corks and 
the clatter of banquet crockery. The rich are ex- 
ceedingly adaptable. So accustomed are they to 



grabbing things, and making them contribute to 
their comfort, that they even grab the revolutions 
of the poor, and turn them into instrumentalities 
for the continued aggrandizement of the sleek 
tribes of wealth. 

They grabbed the Christian Revolution. They 
grabbed the French Revolution. Let us take care 
they don't grab our revolution, which mankind 
knows as the Labor Movement. — Australian 
Worker. 

LIMITED LIABILITY REAFFIRMED 



After years of litigation, more than one thou- 
sand claims for damages arising out of the sink- 
ing of the Lamport & Holt liner Vestris off the 
Virginia Capes in 1928 have finally been settled 
by approval of Federal Judge Henry W. Goddard. 

The claimants, who include relatives of 112 
persons who lost their lives in the disaster, 
have already received £110,000, or approximately 
$500,000, and will receive no more. 

The decision limited the liability of the London 
Brazil and River Plate Steam Navigation Com- 
pany, owner of the Vestris, and the liability of the 
Lamport & Holt Line, operators, to the amount 
paid. 

Judge Goddard noted that the defendants had 
turned over £110,000 to agents of the claimants, 
represented by a committee headed by Oscar R. 
Houston. Claims at one time aggregated $2,- 
500,000. These included damage claims for loss 
of life, loss of baggage, and for injuries. 

The Vestris left New York, bound for Buenos 
Aires and other ports, on November 10, 1928, and 
encountered heavy weather on the following day. 
On November 12 she sent out an SOS, but 
before aid arrived passengers and crew took to 
lifeboats or jumped overboard with life-preservers. 
Then the vessel sank. 

The steamship companies, disclaiming responsi- 
bility, held that the disaster was an "act of God," 
and sought limitation of liability for damage. It 
was contended that liability should be limited to 
the value of the lost vessel, which was nothing, 
and the amount of prepaid passage and freight 
moneys, totaling $100,880. 

Judge Goddard noted that the steamship com- 
panies, in making the settlement for £110,000, 
had not admitted any degree of responsibility for 
the disaster. The order exculpates them from 
such responsibility and limits liability to the 
amount paid. 



13 



34 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February 1, 1936 



'THE SAILOR'S LIFE' 



Hendrik Willem van Loon, whose previous 
books (chieflly The Story of Mankind) have 
achieved considerable success as popular exposi- 
tions of history and science, has now turned his 
attention to maritime affairs, and the result is 
contained in volume entitled : Ships, and How 
They Sailed the Seven Seas. Mr. Van Loon thus 
gives us a history of navigation as he sees it, 
which is "a story of human martyrdom; and the 
torture chambers in which those who defied the 
gods of space and time were condemned to suf- 
fer their punishments were called 'ships'." "Was 
a sailor's life," he asks, "nothing but one unend- 
ing and gruelling record of misery and pain, and 
hunger and thirst, and bodily abuse, a plain slice 
of hell on earth? Yes, that is exactly what it 
was, and I am trying to say so as politely as I 
can." 

The author attributes the decline of the Dutch 
sea power to the lack of deep harbors; he ignores 
the crushing blow dealt their trade by Cromwell's 
Navigation Acts, after the rebuff handed the 
Protector by the refusal of the Dutch to join the 
English in an Anglo-Dutch Republic. Later he 
tells us that Navigation x\cts were swept away 
early in the last century, whereas in fact many 
countries still maintain their domestic and colon- 
ial coasting restrictions. Dealing with latter-day 
shipping, Mr. Van Loon says that none of the 
six largest vessels on the Atlantic pay as invest- 
ments, and that that is not the purpose for which 
they have been built. 

As regards the modern sailor, we have Mr. 
Van Loon's opinion that his lot appears to be 
no better than that of his predecessor. He is 
"just as much a social and economic derelict as 
those poor devils who were forcibly removed from 
their homes by a press-gang, or who landed on a 
galley as a result of a royal rescript. The sailor 
no longer lives in the filthy and cramped fo'c's'le 
of the old windjammer. He now spends his time 
in the filthy and cramped fo'c's'le of a vessel 
propelled by steam. He no longer is obliged to 
eat the slops that came from the galley of his 
undermanned square rigger. He now eats the 
slops that come out of the galley of a tanker or 
a tramp." The author admits certain minor im- 
provements in conditions, but sums up the posi- 
tion by saying that except "on" palatial passenger 
steamers, where there is "better food" and "some- 
times even a reasonable chance for him to get a 



bath . . . life on board these semi-tramps is just 
about as needlessly hard and mercilessly uncom- 
fortable as it was a hundred or a thousand or 
three thousand years ago." He has some inter- 
esting things to say to shipowners. "To them,"' 
he says, "ships are primarily a means of making 
money, the actual service they render is of sec- 
ondary importance. ... A commander who in- 
sists that his officers and sailors be decently 
lodged and fed is not always exactly persona 
grata when the directors discuss the relative 
merits of their different employees behind closed 
doors." In short, "life on board a vessel is still 
a very unsatisfactory form of existence that 
attracts none but those who either cannot make 
a living on dry land or who have believed fanci- 
ful stories of their childhood days, most of them 
composed by romantic ladies and gentlemen who 
order their meals in bed whenever the ship rolls 
two degrees." 

Much space has been devoted to quotations 
from this book since they illustrate better than 
any comment could do its misleading nature. 
Those who have sailed before the mast, if the 
book should come into their hands, will merely 
put it aside with a smile. And as for the young 
people for whom the book is presumably intended, 
we recommend that after reading Mr. Van Loon's 
book, to turn to the reminiscences of any man 
who has really gone to sea and stayed there. 



ACHIEVEMENT 



He has achieved success who has lived well, 
laughed often and loved much; who has gained 
the respect of intelligent men and the love of little 
children ; who has filled his niche and accom- 
plished his task; who has left the world better 
than he found it, whether by an improved poppy, 
a perfect poem, or a rescued soul ; who has never 
lacked appreciation of earth's beauty or failed to 
express it; who has always looked for the best 
in others and given the best he had ; whose life 
was an inspiration, whose memory a benediction. 
— Mrs. A. J. Stanley. 



Be noble and the nobleness which lies 
In other men, sleeping, but never dead, 
Will rise in majesty to meet thine own. 
Then wilt thou see it gleam in many eyes. 

— Emerson. 



The burden which is well borne becomes light. 



14 



February 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



35 



SHIPPING NEWS 



Vessels of more than 400,000 tons gross are 
now being constructed in German yards, and Ger- 
many is now building 25 per cent of the total 
tonnage, compared with about 9 per cent a year 
ago. This renewal of German shipbuilding has 
been claimed as part of Chancellor Hitler's plans 
to provide defenses in time of war. 

The tanker Manatawny, which arrived from 
the East Coast a short time ago with a full load 
of creosote for Pacific Coast ports, has been sold 
to the Deep Sea Fisheries in San Francisco, which 
operates the old Lansing as a floating fish reduc- 
tion plant. The Manatawny, which will be pre- 
sumably used for the same purpose, is 390 feet 
long, is 3,105 net tons, being built in Pennsylvania 
in 1920. 

The Nautical Gazette, the oldest American ship- 
ping publication, has been sold by Oswald Gar- 
rison Villard to John C. Broderick, it was 
announced recently. Mr. Broderick has been an 
employee of the paper for several years. The 
Nautical Gazette was founded in 1871 and has 
devoted its pages to matters associated with ship- 
ping construction and operation. 

The ships of the Cunard White Star and asso- 
ciated lines carried 158,091 passengers last year, 
leading all competing lines in volume of traffic. 
Of this total, 18,232 were carried on cruises and 
139,859 in the transatlantic trade, consisting of 
70,068 to Europe and 69,791 from Europe. The 
Donaldson Atlantic Line, the only associate of the 
Cunard White Star, carried 6,726 passengers in 
the Canadian service, operating the liners Letitia 
and Athenia, between Montreal and British and 
Irish ports. 

The States Line steamer Iowa, which was 
wrecked on Peacock Spit with a loss of thirty- 
four lives on January 13, was insured in London 
for $125,000, according to reports. The cargo, 
which was insured on the Pacific Coast, consisted 
of 2,375,000 feet of lumber, and general cargo 
consisting principally of matches and flour. The 
matches were insured locally for $20,000. The 
value of the lumber can be computed at the rate 
of $30 per thousand feet. Of course, there is no 
insurance for the thirty-four members of the crew 
unless they themselves paid the premium. 



Construction of three semi-streamlined ferry- 
boats for the Battery-Staten Island line of the 
city's ferry system, which is to start at once, will 
provide employment for at least 1,500 ship work- 
ers, F. J. H. Kracke, Commissioner of Plant and 
Structures, informed Mayor La Guardia recently. 
Contracts for the three boats were formally signed 
recently between the city and the United Ship 
Building and Drydock Corporation. The vessels, 
which will cost $2,736,000, will be built at the 
corporation's plant at Mariners Harbor, Staten 
Island. They are to be paid for out of a PWA 
loan obtained for the purpose. 

The fact that a majority of the ships of the 
American merchant marine are old and outmoded 
has added $5,000,000 annually to the cost of their 
operation for fuel oil alone, according to Alfred 
H. Haag, chief of the division of shipping re- 
search of the Shipping Board. In a report pre- 
pared for the American Merchant Marine Con- 
ference, Mr. Haag points out that 6,638,000 gross 
tons, or nearly 89 per cent of the American fleet, 
is more than thirteen years old and that 5,287,000 
are more than fifteen years old. An annual re- 
placement program calling for nearly 950,000 
gross tons annually for the next seven years is 
required to bring the fleet to its proper place, he 
says. 

Fewer than a dozen shipyard men watched the 
sale of two famous lake vessels at Manitowoc, 
Wisconsin, for $6,500, their scrap-iron value. The 
ships had once been worth many thousands of 
dollars. One, the steamer Christopher Columbus, 
was an excursion boat on Lake Michigan for 
decades and was the glistening white wonder of 
the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 
1893. The other was purchased and outfitted as a 
hospital ship for the United States Government 
as a Spanish-American War nursing base. Cap- 
tain Alexander MacDougal, veteran Duluth ship- 
builder, completed the Christopher Columbus in 
1892. During the Chicago fair the following year, 
it transported 2,000,000 passengers from down- 
town Chicago to the fair grounds. 

The motor vessel Stella Polaris, owned by the 
Bergen Steamship Company, can claim the dis- 
tinction of being the only ship built and designed 
specifically for cruising purposes. She is one of 
the smallest vessels in the cruising business, hav- 
ing dimensions 389.3 by 57.1 by 26 feet, her gross 
tonnage being 5,020. The Stella Polaris will leave 



IS 



36 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February 1, 1936 



New York on January 21, proceeding thence to 
the Panama Canal Zone via Havana. She then 
cruises via the Galapagos Islands and others of 
the South Seas, including Fiji, to the Dutch East 
Indies. A call is made at Singapore and then at 
Colombo and Cochin, after which the ship pro- 
ceeds to the Seychelles and Cape Town, via 
Madagascar, Durban and Port Elizabeth. The 
homeward journey is by the West Coast, and 
includes calls at Freetown, Teneriffe, Casablanca 
and Cadiz, which is reached on May 6. 

The volume of shipbuilding in the United States 
showed an increase of more than 64 per cent 
during 1935, according to statistics compiled by 
Marine Engineering and Shipping Review. The 
vessel tonnage now under construction amounts 
to 459,671 tons, which exceeds that under con- 
struction in any year since 1923 except in 1930, 
when the merchant shipbuilding program result- 
ing from the passage of the Jones-White bill was 
at its peak. The shipbuilding industry starts the 
new year with a strong feeling of optimism as 
regards the prospects for future business. Orders 
for new vessels placed during the last four months 
have increased the volume of merchant tonnage 
under construction 257 per cent and of naval ton- 
nage 23 per cent. This is looked upon as only the 
beginning of a substantial program of ship con- 
struction, which is necessary for the replacement 
of obsolete tankers and cargo vessels as well as 
for the upbuilding of the merchant marine. 

A twenty-year contract with Pan-American 
Airways to base its transpacific base at Mills 
Field, San Francisco Municipal Airport, has been 
signed, and a crew of over one hundred men have 
already started on a $1,675,000 development proj- 
ect to be completed in one year, at which time 
Pan-American must vacate its present location at 
Alameda, which will be taken over by the Navy. 
Completion of the program will give San Fran- 
cisco the finest water and land port in the nation. 
as the work will include building of the finest 
channel, turning basin or harbor, ramps, an ad- 
ministration building, hangars, custom house, 
post office, and other construction. If for any 
reason the city fails to complete the base in the 
specified time, the lease will expire, as it was 
signed contingent upon completion of the work. 
The base at the Municipal Airport means that San 
Francisco becomes the Pacific Coast port of entry 
and departure for future transpacific air travel 
and trade, thus adding to the prestige of the port. 



LABOR NEWS 



In 1934 nine officials of General Motors col- 
lected $1,255,558 in salaries and bonuses. William 
S. Knudsen, who had the distinction some years 
ago of being fired by Ford, was top man in 
General Motors, getting a total of $211,128, of 
which $120,000 was straight salary. In the same 
year, wages of General Motors certainly aver- 
aged less than $1,000 a year. That is to say, 
nine officials cost the company as much as 1,255 
workers. 

There is a well-defined movement among mem- 
bers of Congress for a broad investigation of Nazi 
and Communist activities in the United States 
which will exceed the scope of the inquiry during 
the last session. The demand for the new probe by 
the House Committee investigating un-American 
propaganda was given considerable impetus from 
the statement by Robert Fechner, director of the 
Civilian Conservation Corps, that mimeographed 
Communist literature had been distributed in CCC 
camps. 

Pointing out that the number of idle workers 
still totals 11,650,000, William Green, president 
of the American Federation of Labor, in a stat< - 
ment on the unemployment situation, charged 
those who own and control industry with complete 
responsibility for the existence and persistence of 
this immense army of out-of-works, and stressed 
the paramount necessity of industrial leaders join- 
ing with organized labor in ending the unemploy- 
ment catastrophe. Unless a broad and effective 
work-providing policy is promptly adopted, he 
declared society would be compelled to intervene 
in an emphatic manner and guarantee to the idle 
millions the inherent right to work. 

The Industrial Navs, the weekly organ of 
the British Trades Union Congress, draws atten- 
tion to the large proportion of trade-unionists 
among the Labor members of Parliament : 'Trade- 
unionism is strongly represented in the new House 
of Commons. Most of the Labor members, of 
course, belong to the union of their trade. But 
there are seventy-eight of them — just half tin 
total number of Labor members in Parliament 
who are officially connected with the union-. \ 
number of them hold high administrative posi 



16 



February 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



37 



tions. All of them had Union recognition and 
support, in addition to the backing of the local 
Labor Party organization." 

Painting a picture of 1935 as a year of progress 
for business at heavy cost to the workers, the 
American Federation of Labor survey of business 
for January declares that at the end of the year, 
the nation was further from reaching a balance 
between production and buying power than at the 
beginning. "In this respect," the survey said, 
"1935 was in strong contrast to 1934, for in 1934 
the balance was kept between production and buy- 
ing power. Unless the unbalance of the progress 
for 1935 can be corrected, we cannot hope for 
sustained recovery, or sustained employment for 
the millions seeking work." By chart and text, the 
survey shows that wages and employment lagged 
far behind profits and production in 1935. 

In order to secure federal aid under the Social 
Security Act for state systems of old-age pensions, 
pensions for the blind and aid for dependent chil- 
dren, legislative action will be necessary in nearly 
every state in the Union, according to a survey 
by Adele Bloom published in January "Social 
Security," monthly organ of the American As- 
sociation for Social Security. Only eighteen of 
the existing old-age pension laws were found to 
comply with the federal requirements for old-age 
assistance at the beginning of 1936, the article 
revealed. Twenty-two states will have to make 
wide changes, ranging from implementing their 
laws with mandatory features to providing state 
contributions, and nine states will be required to 
pass new legislation if they are to benefit from the 
federal system. 

Believing that the uncontrolled power of the 
United States Supreme Court to veto as uncon- 
stitutional acts of Congress which displease five 
out of the nine justices who constitute the court, 
Senator George L. Norris of Nebraska believes 
that such important decisions should not be valid 
unless approved by all the members of the court. 
In addition to this limitation of power, he favors 
legislation depriving inferior courts of authority 
to consider the constitutionality of legislation and 
advocates placing this power in a new single court 
from whose decisions appeals would go direct to 
the Supreme Court. In justification of his pro- 
posal that nothing less than a unanimous decision 
of the Supreme Court should hold a law unconsti- 
tutional, Senator Norris said: "It takes twelve 
men to find a man guilty of murder. I don't see 



why it shouldn't take a unanimous court to find a 
law unconstitutional." 

The Japanese Trade Union Congress recently 
held its fourth ordinary congress since it was 
united in 1932. A total of 260,000 workers were 
represented at the meeting (against 280,000 in 
1932). The Confederation of Japanese Trade 
Unions (Nihon Rodo Kumai Sorengo) announced 
its withdrawal from' the Congress on account 
of fundamental differences of opinion. Strong- 
nationalistic tendencies have been evident recently 
in this body, whose delegates left the Congress 
after the announcement was made. The immedi- 
ate cause of the withdrawal was the discussion 
of the May Day celebrations. The Confederation 
is in favor of abolishing these celebrations and of 
substituting for them a "Japan Labor Day" in 
which employers and employees can participate 
toward a fuller appreciation of the spirit of in- 
dustrial cooperation. The statement made by the 
Confederation concluded by saying that "though 
we part company now owing to a difference of 
opinions, if a time comes when we can agree 
in our convictions, we shall not hesitate to co- 
operate." 

The distinction of establishing the first health 
insurance plan on the North American continent 
goes to the Province of Alberta, Canada, which 
set up this voluntary system of health service for 
all persons residing within medical districts which 
have registered their desire to come under the 
scheme. While the system is limited in that it is 
not compulsory and makes no provision for cash 
benefits, the law does mark the beginning of a 
vastly significant movement for meeting one of 
the most menacing hazards of modern life and 
will be closely watched by other Canadian prov- 
inces as well as the United States. The absolute 
necessity for government participation in social 
insurance has been recognized in Alberta, whose 
scheme will be maintained by employee, employer, 
and government contribution. A schedule of as- 
sessments has been planned and those exempt 
from contributions are placed on an equal footing 
with those able to pay. Medical benefits include 
all necessary hospitalization — medical, surgical, 
nursing, dental service, drugs, medical supplies 
and appliances. Physicians and dentists may be 
chosen by the patients, to be remunerated under 
the present plan. The administration of the en- 
acted law is entrusted to a health insurance com- 
mission assisted by district advisory boards. 



17 



38 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



February 1, 1930 



International Seamens' Union of America 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 
and the International Seafarers' Federation 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 
President: ANDREW FURUSETH, 59 Clay St., 
San Francisco, Calif. Vice-Presiaents: P. B. GILL. 
86 Seneca Street, Seattle. Washington; PERCY J 
PRYOR, 5 Rowes Wharf, Boston, Mass.; OSCAR 
CARLSON, 70 South St., New York, N. Y.; PAT- 
RICK 0'BRIP:.\, 71 Main St., Buffalo. N. Y.; IVAN 
HUNTER. 1038 Third St., Detroit, Mich. Editor: 
PAUL SCHARRENBERG, 525 Market St.. San 
Francisco^ Calif. Secretary. Treasurer: VICTOR A. 
Drive, Chicago, 



OLANDER, 666 Lake Shore 



111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

In Ports designated by an asterisk (*) the Sailors, Firemen 

and Cooks maintain Joint Agencies. 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 

Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

5 Rowes Wharf. Phone Liberty 1449 

Branches 

BOSTON, Mass MILLER JENSEN, Agent 

330 Atlantic Avenue. Phone Liberty 1336 

NEW YORK, N. Y GUS BROWN, Agent 

59 Pearl Street. Phone Whitehall 4-3596 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa GEORGE FERGUSON. Agent 

41 South 4th Street. Phone Lombard 7543 

BALTIMORE, Md GERRITT VAN DER STAAY, Agent 

1700 Fleet Street. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Main 3524 

HOUSTON, TEXAS ROBERT J. NOVAK, Agent 

1212 75th Street. Phone Wayside 2377 

GALVESTON, Texas HARRY FLOYD, Agent 

318^ 23rd Street. Phone 799 

•PROVIDENCE, R. I M. SULLIVAN, Joint Agent 

375 Richmond Street. Phone Plantation 4281 

•MARCUS HOOK, Pa N. DANIELS, Joint Agent 

2 West Third Street. Phone CHester 5-2371 

•NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Joint Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone Norfolk 34724 

•SAVANNAH, Ga CHARLES WAID, Joint Agent 

107 Whitaker Street 

•MOBILE, Ala WILLIAM ROSS. Joint Agent 

57V6 Government Street. Phone Dexter 1449 

•PORT ARTHUR, Texas W. F. HILL, Joint Agent 

311% Procter Stree t. Pho ne Port Arthur 1066 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

70 South Street. Phone John 0975 
Branches 

BOSTON. Mass JOHN MOGAN, Agent 

132 Broad Street. Phone Liberty 5763 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa JOSEPH CONSIGLIO. Agent 

222 Market Street. Phone Lombard 9194 

BALTIMORE. Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

1700 Fleet Street. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHAS. THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Main 3524 

GALVESTON, Texas HARRY FLOYD, Agent 

318% 23rd Street. Phone 799 

HOUSTON, Texas JOSEPH LAKOVIC, Agent 

1212 75th Street. Phon e Wayside 2377 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, President 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 9-7670 and 9-7671 

Branches 
NEW YORK, N. Y. (West Side Branch) 

JAMES ALLEN. Agent 

72 Cortlandt Street. Phone Cortlanrlt 7-9192 

BOSTON. Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

1 Rowes Wharf. Phone Liberty 4057 

BALTIMORE, Md BERTRAM WARN, Agent 

426 East Pratt Street. Phone Calvert 0008 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa. CHAS. HOUGAARD, Agent 

201 Chestnut Street. Phone Lombard 6580 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. T. KAIZER. Agent 

527 Canal Street. Phone Raymond 5666 

HOUSTON-GALVESTON, Texas 

JOSEPH \V. ENGLAND, Agent 

1403 75th Street. Phone Wayside 8321 



ASSOCIATED MARINE WORKERS OF THE PORT OF 
NEW YORK AND VICINITY 

NEW YORK, N. Y" WM. A. MAHER, Sec'y-Treas. 

119 Broad Street. Phone Bowling Green 9-8455 



UNITED BOATMEN'S UNION OF THE PORT OF 
XT „_ _„ NEW YORK AND VICINITY 

NEW YORK, N. Y MICHAEL WALL, Sec'y-Treas. 

105 Broad Street. Phon e Whitehall 4-9034 

T a o C ^rf^T S ^, ERMEN ' S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
BOSTON, Mass 5 Rowes Wharf 

U * TT ^. V N °Y. A SCOTIA SEAMEN'S UNION 

HALIFAX, N. S SAMUEL C. CONNELL, Sec'y-Treas 

39 John Street 

HARBOR BOATMEN'S UNION OF CAMDEN. 

PHILADELPHIA AND VICINITY 

PH ^ A P?r LP - HIA ^ Pa J - T - MORRIS. Secretary 

303-A Marine Building, Delaware Ave. and South St. 

FRANKLIN COUNTY BOATMEN'S UNION 
APALACHICOLA, Fla G. W. MELVIN, Secretary 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters 

CHICAGO, 111 VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary 

CLAUDE M. GOSHORN, Treasurer 

810% North Clark Street. Phone Superior 5175 

Branches 

BUFFALO NY J. W . ELLISON. Agent 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 

CLEVELAND^ Ohio.. E. J. SULIJVAN. Agent 

__ J426 West Third Street. Phone Main 1842 

DETROIT Mich CARL WICKARD, Agent 

„„ „„ T 1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADIIE1UNG Agent 

730 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
^_ Headquarters 

DETROIT, Mich IVAN HUNTER. Secretary 

JAS. HAYMAN, Treasurer 

1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 

Branches 

BUFFALO N Y. ,. W . ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 
CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN Airent 

huwS?" 6 " 1 ' 1 -' 1426 W - Third st - Pn °ne Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE. Wis FRANK SULLIVAN. Agent 

^rrr^.P Soutn Second Street. Phone Dailv 0489 

CHICAGO, 111 JOHN McGINN Aeent 

103 South Wells Street, R. 607. Phone Franklin '5784 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS* UNION OF THE 
GREAT LAKES 
t,tt^„ ~ Headquarters 

BUFFALO N Y J. M . SECORD, S, 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 
_. „ Branches 
CLEVELAND. Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN. Agent 

T^!£?£ st ^?, e . Bldg - 14L ' 6 w - Third St. Phone Main 1SI2 

DETROIT. Mich „ IVAN HUNTER. Secretary 

utTTiri li!38 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 

MlLW .£ n U £EE, Wis OTTO EDWARDS. Agent 

n,„. 73 l Soutl1 Second Street. Phone Broadway 489 

CHICAGO, 111 s. R. LITTLE, Agent 

402 North Clark Street 

UNITED BOATMEN OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 
AND ITS TRIBUTARIES 

MEMPHIS, Tenn JAMES MOORE, Secretary-Tr. »asur«r 

164 West Iowa Avenue 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif GEORGE LARSEN Act See'y 

59 Clay Street. Phone Kearny 2l'28' 
Branches 

SEA oT T . LE ' W * sh P. B. GILL. Agent 

™JiU Se ^ eca J^ treet ' R °- Box 65 - Phone Elliott 8762 

PORTLAND, Ore EDWARD COESTER, Agent 

111 Burnside Street, P. O. Box 88. Phone Beacon 4336 

SAN PEDRO, Calif H. CHRISTOPIIERSON. Agent 

111 West Sixth Street. Phone 2491 

PACIFIC COAST MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS. 

WATERTENDERS AND WIPERS' ASSOCIATION 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif EARL KING. Sec'y 

08 Commercial Street. Phone Kearny 3699 

SEATTLE, Wash JAMES ENGSTROM, Agent 

King St. Dock, foot of King St. P. O. Box 198 
Phone Seneca 4320 

SAN PEDRO, Calif B. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

111 West Sixth Street. Phone 2sr?8 

PORTLAND. Ore J. E. FERGUSON, Agent 

111 Burnside Street. Phone Beacon 4336 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION OF 

THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO. Calif..„ EUGENE F. BURKE. Se^'y 

86 Commercial Street. Phone Kearny 5955 



18 



February 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



39 



Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash J. L. NORKGAUER, Agent 

Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock. Phone Main 2233 

PORTLAND, Ore WM. McCOURT, Acting Agent 

127 South Burnside Street. 

SAN PEDRO, Calif JOSEPH O'CONNOR, Agent 

512% South Beacon Street, P. O. Box 54 

FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif C. W. DEAL, Secretary 

Room "B," Ferry Building. Phone Douglas 8664 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash JOHN M. FOX, Branch Secretary 

220 Maritime Building. Phone Elliott 4928 

PORTLAND, Ore R. A. HICKOX, Branch Secretary 

520 S. W. Second Avenue. Phone Beacon 1895 

SAN DIEGO, Calif PAUL R. BENSON, Branch Sec'y 

131% Orange Avenue, Coronado. Phone Coronado 1011- J 

ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif ai\ukBW VIGEN, Secretary 

49 Clay Street. Phone Sutter 6452 



Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash OSCAR ANDERSON, Agent 

86 Seneca Street, P. O. Box 42. Phone Elliott 3425 

PORTLAND, Ore MARTIN E. OLSEN, Agent 

520 S. W. Second Avenue. Phone Beacon 1895 

DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Secretary 

86 Seneca Street, P. O. Box 65. Phone Elliot 6752 
Branch 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska GUST OLSEN, Agent 

P. O. Box A17 

COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE 
UNION 

ASTORIA, Ore ARVID MATTSON, Secretary 

P. O. Box 281 

ROGUE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
GOLD BEACH, Ore HARRY E. BRIGGS, Sec'y-Treas. 

EUREKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

EUREKA, Calif G. A. SVENSON, Secretary 

P. O. Box 541 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Wanted — Seamen who know about 
facts related to the following acci- 
dents: 

John Allard, injured on the steam- 
ship K. I. Luckenbach January 28, 
1934. 

Benjamin Lovette, injured and 
killed on the steamship Sahalo Sep- 
tember 8, 1927. Fell from the ship 
to dock. Witnesses: Jean Norden, 
N. A. Favor, S. Treme, C. Hen- 
dricks, E. Hardy, F. Tuck, Newton 
Harper, and Charles Pearson. 

Patrick Clark, injured on the 
steamship Ekomk December 18, 1926. 
Was killed; fell from mast. Wit- 
nesses: Carl R. Rasmussen, An- 
thony Wysorky, John Carlson, 
Erick Hanson, Joseph Daniel, Al- 
fred Gotti, and Thomas R. Sibley. 

Peter Ryan, injured on the steam- 
ship Tamiahua August 15, 1934. 
Fell off the mast. Witnesses: W- G. 
Graham, Adolph Johnson, Joe Rus- 
sel, Frank Thomas, Sam Merez, and 
Z. R. McCall. 

If the witnesses write, postage 
will be refunded. If they will state 
what they know about the accident 
in letter, arrangements will be made 
to perpetuate their testimony at 
convenient places and time under 
circumstances that will not preju- 
dice them for future employment. 
Customary guaranty against loss of 
earnings while giving testimony. 
Send communication to Room 3008, 
80 Broad Street, New York City. 



His Mistake 

A simple countryman saw a gaudy 
plumaged parrot on the roof of his 
cottage. 

He climbed up to capture it. 

The parrot looked at him and 
said sharply, "What do you want?" 

The countryman touched his cap. 
"Beg pardon, sir. I thought you 
was a bird." 



In England, Poker is becoming 
very popular, which probably means 
that London Bridge is falling down. 



Reminder 

A colored preacher was vehement 
in denouncing the sins of his con- 
gregation. 

"Breddern an' sistern, Ah warns 
yo' 'gainst de heinous sin ob shoot- 
in' craps! Ah charges yo' 'gainst 
de black rascality ob liftin' pullets. 
Ah demolishes yo' 'gainst de crime 
ob melon-stealin'." 

A brother in the back seat made 
an odd sound with his lips, rose 
and snapped his fingers. Then he 
sat down again with an abashed 
look. 

"Whuffo, mah fren'," said the 
parson sternly, "does yo' r'ar up an' 
snap yo' fingahs, when Ah speaks 
ob melon-stealin'?" 

"Yo' jes' remin's me, parson," the 
man in the back seat answered 
meekly, "whar Ah left mah knife." 



Noah, Promoter 

A city business man was very 
keen on having proficient clerks in 
his employ. Before a clerk could 
enter his office he was required to 
pass a written examination on his 
knowledge of business. 

At one examination one of the 
questions was: "Who formed the 
first company?" 

A certain bright youth was a lit- 
tle puzzled at first, but was not to 
be floored. He wrote: 

"Noah successfully floated a com- 
pany while the rest of the world 
was in liquidation." 

He passed. 



But No Practice 

Father — How's your ball team 
coming out, Jimmie? 

Small Boy — Great, pop! We've 
got bats, balls, masks, uniforms and 
an imitation diamond ring that we 
take turns wearing! 



According to the definition of 
little Mary, the function of the 
stomach is to hold up the petticoat. 

19 



INFORMATION WANTED 

William J. Burns was injured on 
the steamship Atlantic of the Argo- 
naut Line in April, 1935, during 
course of. employment. 

Will anyone knowing his where- 
abouts communicate with him, ad- 
vising that he should write the un- 
dersigned at once. Lucien V. Axtell, 
Attorney, 80 Broad Street, New 
York City. 



Gravy Sounds Good 

A dinner guest in a Virginia home 
was telling his host how to prepare 
ham that would be even better than 
the famous Virginia ham. 

Guest — Place the ham in a deep 
pan and the first day soak it in a 
bottle of rye whiskey and let it cook 
a while. The second day add a 
bottle of Jamaica rum, and the third 
day a bottle of port wine, and the 
fourth day a bottle of Bourbon. 

Host (turning to the colored 
cook) — What do you think of that? 

Negro Cook — Ah don't know 
'bout de ham, but it sho' sound like 
mighty fine gravy. 



H. M. S. Satan 

The Sunday morning visitor to 
the navy yard approached a sentry. 
"Can you direct me to H. M. S. 
Satan?" he asked. 

"Never heard of it," said the 
sentry. 

"That's odd," said the stranger, 
as he reached in his pocket for a 
newspaper clipping. It read: "Next 
Sunday the navy yard chaplain will 
preach on Satan, the great de- 
stroyer." 



Putting on the Dog 

Dog-walking is the newest line of 
business in Paris. 

It is practiced by men who stride 
through the Bois de Boulogne bear- 
ing sandwich-boards and leading a 
pack of dogs on a leash. 

The notice on the sandwich-board 
says: "I will take your dog for a 
walk for two francs." 



40 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL February 1, 1936 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington and 

Battery Sts., opp. New Custom House, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those hav- 
ing simply a knowledge of Navigation 
and Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen de- 
mand a map as a teacher with higher 
attainments than one who has onlv 
the limited ability of a seaman. The 
Principal of this School, keeping this 
always in view, studied several years 
the Maritime Law, and is now, in ad- 
dition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred subjects 
a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard jot education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average well- 
informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




Phone GARFIELD 2076 

DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 

DBNTIST 

Rooms 2429.30, 450 Sutter Building 

Hours : 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

431 Pacific BM«„ Fourth and Market Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

PHONB DOUGLAS 0315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNBY-AT-LAW 

Attorney f»r 

Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, 

Watertenders and Wipers' Association 

611 Rum Bldg. Tel. SUtter 3866 

San Francisco, California 



ALVIN GERLACK 

Attorney at Law 
845 Mills Building 

Bush and Montgomery Streets 
SAN FRANISCO, CALIF. 
Telephone DOuglai 1123 



Lots of 'Em 

"There's a man who thinks in 
terms of millions." 

"He doesn't look to me like a 
great financier. In fact, I would 
take him to be some kind of sci- 
entist." 

"Correct. He's a germ expert." 



Now in Our New Location 

"624 MARKET* 

Opposite Palace Hotel 




-BOSS- 

YOUR UNION TAILOR 



PACIFIC NAVIGATION 
SCHOOL 

CAPT. J. H. HOLM 

Instruction in Practical Navigation 

and American Citizenship 

Phone GArfleld 71S8 
252 Clay Street San Francisco 



Bully! 

In a discussion on the type of milk 
which should be provided for school 
children, the chairman of the health 
committee said: 

"What this town needs is a sup- 
ply of clean, fresh milk, and the 
council should take the bull by the 
horns and demand it!" 



Dots and Dashes 

Miss Rich — Nearly all of my ad- 
mirers think I should be able to 
get tips from you on the market. 

Mr. Rich — Encourage them in the 
idea, my dear. It won't be long be- 
fore I'll be ready to unload the stock 
I'm carrying. 

20 




Men! 

Come to Hale's for your clothing 
and haberdashery. 

Just a few everyday 

VALUES 

in the 

MEN'S SHOP 

Halesworth Shirts #1.65 

Phoenix Silk Hose 50 

Hand Tailored Ties .... 1.00 
Michaels Stern Suits .... 27.50 
Halesworth Hats 3.50 

MAIN FLOOR 

HALE BROS. 

MARKET at FIFTH 

SUtter 8000 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 



Printing 



1122-1124 MISSION STREBT 

SAN FRANCISCO 

We print "The Seamen's Journal" 



Shoot the Snipe 

Smoking in the building was 
strictly forbidden. Strolling through 
the corridor at noon the office man- 
ager accosted a group of young 
men. Near by on the floor was a 
smoking cigarette. 

Office Manager: Whose cigarette 
is that? 

Quick Wit in crowd: Yours. You 
saw it first. 



Boy Had 'Em 

Boss: Young man, what we need in 
this business is brains — b-r-a-i-n-s — 
brains. 

Applicant: Well, that does seem 
to be about what is lacking. 




A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 




Our Aim : The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto : Justice by Organization 



Vol. L, No. 3 



SAN FRANCISCO, MARCH 1, 1936 



Whole No. 2066 



CONVENTION HITS DISRUPTERS 




HE thirty-third convention of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America finally 
completed its work, after being in session 
for five full weeks, and adjourned on Sat- 
urday, February 15. The April number of 
the Journal will contain, as an appendix to the 
regular issue, the convention proceedings in full, 
together with the reports of officers, the revised 
constitution, etc. 

The high spots of the first half of the conven- 
tion transactions were reviewed in the February 
Journal. A synopsis of the second half is given 
herewith : 

Throughout the convention the Communist 
press and various anonymous mimeographed 
sheets carried on a campaign of propaganda with 
the object of forcing the Atlantic District Unions 
into a strike under circumstances likely to result 
in a disastrous defeat. Detailed evidence of this 
sort of propaganda was submitted to the conven- 
tion from day to day and culminated in the unani- 
mous adoption of the following resolution: 

Resolved, By the Thirty-third Convention of the In- 
ternational Seamen's Union of America, in regular 
session assembled at Washington, D. C, on February 
13, 1936, that we hereby warn the District Unions, 
members and seamen generally, of the Atlantic and 
Gulf, against the danger of yielding to the subversive 
propaganda now being circulated from anonymous 
sources by irresponsible persons, intended to stam- 
pede the seamen into a strike under circumstances 
leading straight to disaster, it being the opinion of the 
convention that strike action on the Atlantic and Gulf 
under existing conditions will not only result in de- 
feat for the men in that district, but will also seriously 
endanger the District Unions and membership in the 
Pacific District. 

It is significant and gratifying, indeed, that this 
resolution was adopted by a unanimous record 
vote. As is well known, there were serious differ- 
ences of opinion in the convention as to policy and 



tactics, but there was unanimity of thought and 
only condemnation for the irresponsible agitators 
who were scheming to lead the Atlantic District 
Unions into a disastrous strike. 

COMMUNISTS AND FASCISTS CONDEMNED 

In harmony with the before-mentioned action 
the convention also adopted a timely, clarifying 
resolution with respect to subversive propaganda. 
While Mr. Bridges and his type are not specifically 
named he should have no difficulty in identifying 
himself by the rather explicit description given in 
the second paragraph of the following resolution : 

Whereas, There has been a mounting tide of com- 
munist, fascist and vigilante propaganda, aimed in 
whole or in part at the Government of the United 
States, at the American Federation of Labor, at its 
various affiliated unions and especially at the Inter- 
national Seamen's Unior of America; and 

Whereas, This vicious propaganda, deliberate mis- 
representation and incitement to industrial strife is 
carried on by numerous anonymous slander sheets 
and by notorious alien character assassins who, al- 
though residing for many years in the United States, 
retain their foreign nationality; therefore, be it 

Resolved, By the International Seamen's Union 
of America in Thirty-third Convention assembled at 
Washington, D. C, that we most vigorously repudi- 
ate and denounce all communist, fascist and vigi- 
lante propagandists and particularly those persons 
who have recently attempted to discredit the organ- 
ized seamen of America by issuing bombastic state- 
ments and posing as spokesmen for seamen without 
any authority whatever. 

NATIONAL MARITIME LABOR COUNCIL 

As predicted in the last issue of the Journal 
the organization of a national council of seafarers, 
to be known as the National Maritime Labor 
Council, was consummated before adjournment of 
the convention. The council was formed with the 
cooperation of the National Organization of Mas- 
ters, Mates and Pilots of America and the Na- 
tional Marine Engineers' Beneficial Association. 

The convention unanimously approved a report 



42 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March 1, 1936 



of a special committee which had been charged 
with the task of effecting coordinated action 
among seamen. 

The purpose of the National Maritime Labor 
Council, as outlined in the Preamble of its Con- 
stitution, is for "promoting skill and developing 
the highest degree of efficiency in the American 
merchant marine and through cooperative action 
obtain the fullest and most complete returns for 
our organizations, and for other purposes affecting 
the labor activities of the associated organizations, 
within the limitations of their respective organiza- 
tion laws and policies." 

GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM 

The convention decided to inaugurate a national 
program for the development of improved skill 
and efficiency in the American Merchant Marine. 
The plan, which was proposed by Secretary-Treas- 
urer Victor A. Olander, had the unanimous ap- 
proval of the convention. 

The convention instructed the Executive Board 
to immediately lay the subject before the United 
States Board of Vocational Education. The out- 
line of the plan is as follows : 

"The desire for freedom and — freedom having 
been attained — the purpose to make the highest 
and best use of our liberties is the keynote. 

"The seaman's calling is an honorable one and 
is entitled to be again recognized as one of the 
world's most honored professions. It calls for un- 
faltering courage and virile manhood. It is no 
place for cowards and shirkers. For a time it suf- 
fered degradation and even shame, and press, pul- 
pit and author seemed to join in a combined sneer 
at the men who carry the world's commerce over 
the waters of the deep, but the real spirit of sea- 
manship, with its stern code that demanded will- 
ing sacrifice, undaunted courage, ready initiative 
and high order of intelligence, has survived all at- 
tacks and through our International Union is now 
finding a new and revived expression of itself. 
The goal of freedom has been attained. The de- 
gradation of bondage has been wiped out. The law 
has performed its function, except insofar as it 
has not yet been properly enforced by the gov- 
ernment. 

"Your committee is of the opinion that the time 
has now arrived when we can and must make 
good the promise that skilled seamanship, espe- 
cially among the members of our International 
Union, shall be developed to the fullest possible 
extent. 



" \ decided advantage can be given to the Amer- 
ican industry and to American seamen through 
the quick development of a high order of skilled 
seamanship and efficiency. 

"We believe that prompt action is as necessary 
in the interests of the members of our organiza- 
tion as it is for the industry. We. therefore, pre- 
sent for the consideration and action of the Con- 
vention the following recommendation.-, on this 
subject: 

1. That the Executive Hoard he authorized and in- 
structed to secure the services of a vocational expert 
or experts who shall, under the direction o\ the Board, 
make a survey of the entire craft to ascertain its needs 
in respect to seamanship, general trade skill and ef- 
ficiency, and to work out plans whereby the knowl- 
edge of seamanship in all degrees of skill necessary 
to the fullest development of all divisions of the craft 
may be transmitted to the members of all affiliated 
organizations. 

2. The plan must include arrangements whereby 
the members of the union shall he given opportuni- 
ties to improve their skill and efficiency in general 
rigging and repair work on board ship, in all depart- 
ments thereof. 

3. The plan should include lectures on the develop- 
ment and purposes of the craft and its practices, to be 
accompanied by illustrations in the form of stereopti- 
con views, maps and, where necessary and possible, 
moving pictures in such manner as to be interesting, 
as well as instructive. 

4. Lectures and discussion- should include informa- 
tion on the question of discipline on board ship, its 
theory and practice, needs and purposes. 

5. Arrangements should he made for the compila- 
tion and circulation of printed matter, through which 
such information of seamanship, skill and efficiency 
as may be presented in printed form, can be made 
accessible to the membership. It should be borne in 
mind that considerable work is involved in the com- 
pilation of this kind of information, which, to be of 
any real value, must be illustrated by drawings, maps 
and pictures. 

6. Technical information on strains, leverages, 
weights, etc., involved in the use of ships' gear and 
equipment, should be transmitted to the membership. 

7. It should be thoroughly understood that the in- 
itial work of this plan should have for its purpose the 
improvement of seamanship skill and efficiency of the 
members of the Union who have had some substantial 
service on board ship, and who have attained the 
positions of able seamen, firemen and oilers, cooks, 
etc.. with a view of later so developing the system as 
to fit the needs of the beginners in the calling. The 
development in this respect will undoubtedly be very 
rapid, once the plan is in operation. 

8. The Executive Board is hereby instructed to 
take the matter up immediately with the United States 
Board for Vocational Education with a view of de- 
veloping a plan under the auspices of that board under 
arrangements that will provide for the fullest degree 
of cooperation from the Departments of Labor, Com- 
merce, Interior and Navy, and from the vocational 
educational agencies at the various ports on the Pacific, 
Atlantic and Gulf Coast and the Great Lakes. 

OFFICERS AND CONVENTION CITY 

On the last day of the convention Andrew Fur- 
useth was unanimously re-elected as President. 
Because of his advanced age the convention ar- 



March 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



43 



ranged to relieve President Furuseth of some of 
the heavy duties formerly carried by him. 

Patrick O'Brien of Buffalo, a member of the 
Sailor's Union of the Great Lakes, was chosen 
Secretary-Treasurer to succeed Victor A. Olander, 
who insisted upon his previously announced re- 
tirement from that position. Subsequently, how- 
ever, Brother Olander accepted an invitation to 
serve as advisor to the Executive Board. 

The positions of Editor and Legislative Repre- 
sentative were combined and Paul Scharrenberg, 
present editor of the Journal, was elected to that 
office. 

Vice-Presidents were elected as follows : 

First vice-president, Ivan Hunter, Marine Fire- 
men, Oilers and Watertenders' Union of the Great 
Lakes ; second vice-president, Percy J. Pryor, 
Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association ; third vice- 
president, Oscar Carlson, Marine Firemen, Oilers 
and Watertenders' Union of the Atlantic and 
Gulf ; fourth vice-president, David E. Grange, 
Marine Cooks and Stewards' Association of the 
Atlantic and Gulf ; fifth vice-president, G. H. 
Brown, Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association; 
sixth vice-president, C. W. Deal, Ferryboatmen's 
Union of the Pacific; seventh vice-president, 
James Hayman, Marine Firemen, Oilers and 
Watertenders' Union of the Great Lakes ; eighth 
vice-president, Claude Goshorn, Sailors' Union of 
the Great Lakes. 

Andrew Furuseth, Paul Scharrenberg and Ivan 
Hunter were elected delegates to the annual con- 
vention of the American Federation of Labor. 

The Legislative Committee consists of Paul 
Scharrenberg, Ivan Hunter, Patrick O'Brien, Os- 
car Carlson and David E. Grange. 

Los Angeles, California, was named as the city 
for holding the next convention of the Union, 
which will convene on the second Monday in 
January, 1937. 



The suit of the limitation proceeding brought 
by the Agwi Lines, Inc., and the New York and 
Cuba Mail Steamship Company, arising out of the 
collision between the Steamship Mohawk and the 
Motorship Talisman, with the result that the Mo- 
hawk was sunk on January 24, 1935, has been set 
for trial in the United States District Court for the 
Southern District of New York on March 16, 
1936. 

It is disgraceful to stumble against the same 
stone twice. — Old Proverb. 



MORE CONVENTION NOTES 

The debate over amendments to the constitution 
was heated and protracted. Frequently there was 
more heat than light. The time consumed in this 
reconstruction work was more than four days. 

1 i i 

Assistant Secretary Edward F. McGrady, ad- 
dressed the convention and gave some sound 
advice on the necessity of sticking together and 
how to meet the manipulations of disrupters from 
within or without. 

i i i 

The Beau Brummel of the convention was 
Gerritt Van der Staay, Baltimore Agent of the 
Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association. His bushy- 
hair alone qualifies him for a leading role in a 
Hollywood studio. 

1 i i 

Delegate Kaiser, New Orleans Agent of the 
Marine Cooks and Stewards' Association of the 
Atlantic and Gulf, was dignified and sedate 
throughout the convention. Yet the boys insisted 
upon calling him Huey Long. 
•f i i 

In the very nature of things no class of workers 
has more legislative problems than the seamen. 
The every day life of seamen is regulated by law. 
For this reason a very large part of the conven- 
tion's time was concerned with bills of real im- 
portance now pending in Congress. 

1 i 1 

Delegates Adolf Kile and Albert Keller of the 
Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association did not 
take up much time in oratory, but frequently ren- 
dered real service in hauling the spellbinders 
down to mother earth by a quiet reference to 

plain facts. 

/ *--- i 

Secretary-Treasurer-elect Patrick O'Brien, who 
is a member of the Sailors' Union of the Great 
Lakes, rather resents any allegation that he is a 
fresh-water sailor. On the Great Lakes, Brother 
O'Brien is known to the initiated as Deep Sea 
O'Brien. This sobriquet was earned by many 
years of service on the seven salty seas. 
i 1 i 

Delegate Gus Brown, New York Agent of the 
Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association, made a 
touching reference to an important event in his 
life of many years ago. In the language of Gus, 
he joined the Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes 



44 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March 1, 1936 



when Victor A. Olander was a spry young agent 
for that Union. Gus has fond recollections of 
that happy first meeting. 

i i i 

The annual convention of the United Mine 
Workers of America was in session in Washing- 
ton while the International Seamen's Union con- 
vention was wrestling with its many problems. 
The mine workers' convention had in attendance 
seventeen hundred delegates representing more 
than five hundred thousand coal miners in all 
parts of the United States and Canada. 
i i i 

Delegate Gus Oldenberg of the Pacific Coast 
Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Wip- 
ers' Association brought to the convention the pul- 
sating life and throbbing atmosphere of the En- 
gine Department. Having come directly from 
the job, and expecting to go right back to the 
job, he often helped to inject the pertinent prac- 
tical points that are always so helpful and nec- 
essary to arrive at sound conclusions. 
1 i i 

Delegate Oscar Carlson, Secretary of the Ma- 
rine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union 
of the Atlantic and Gulf, and a Vice-President of 
the International Seamen's Union of America, 
was the star presiding officer by mutual consent. 
He never had any doubt about the "Ayes" and 
"Noes" ! He knew something about a proper ap- 
praisal of the volume of noise that is sometimes 
registered by an enthusiastic minority. 

1 i i 

In appreciation of Airs. Victor A. Olander the 
delegates presented the genial and charming wife 
of the retiring Secretary-Treasurer with a hand- 
some silver service as an appropriate token of 
their esteem. It was not the intrinsic value of the 
gift, but it was the spirit and the sentiment be- 
hind it that made this event one of the most 
pleasing features of the convention. Delegate 
Grange made the presentation in behalf of all the 
delegates. Mrs. Olander graciously expressed her 
thanks for the gift. 

111 

The last action of the convention just preceding 
adjournment at 8:25 p. m. on February 15, fol- 
lowed a statement by Delegate Olander concern- 
ing his retirement as Secretary-Treasurer. Upon 
motion, duly made and seconded, the convention 
tendered its sincere regrets to Secretary Olander 
upon his relinquishing the duties as Secretary- 



Treasurer and expressed gratitude for the effec- 
tive service he had rendered during his term of 
office. i i i 

Mr. Frank Cushman, Chief of the Trade and 
Industrial Service of the United States Office of 
Education, made an interesting and instructive 
talk to the convention on vocational education. 
Having himself sailed on the briny deep in his 
youthful days, Mr. Cushman had a keen appre- 
ciation of seafarers' educational problems. Mr. 
Cushman came to the convention as the repre- 
sentative of John W. Studebaker, United States 
Commissioner of Education, who has a well es- 
tablished reputation as a progressive educator 
with a vision and a yearning for an industrial 
democracy superior to any yet established. 



i i i 



Contrary to expectations the election of of- 
ficers was a rather tame affair. The anti's had 
come to the convention in high spirits. They had 
confidently expected to take charge. But, as the 
days rolled by they modified their extravagant 
claims. According to Delegate Earl King, who 
aimed to be the minority spokesman, they did not 
expect to elect anyone, but put up candidates 
merely to show that the majority "did not have 
things all their own way." Delegate Murphy of 
the Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers. Water- 
tenders and Wipers' Association, was brave 
enough to try it twice. First he was a candidate 
for Third Vice-President and then for Editor. 
The results were the same. 



ATLANTIC NOTES 

By Carl Lynch 



Despite cold weather, shipping in New York 
Harbor is reported to have been good in the past 
month. 

i 1 i 

George Ferguson, who will be remembered as 
night dispatcher for the San Francisco Sailors' 
pickets during the 1934 strike on the Pacific Coast, 
has recently been appointed Agent Pro Tern of 
the Philadelphia Branch of the Eastern and Gulf 
Sailors' Association. 

111 

With the rejection by the membership of the 
Atlantic and Gulf District Unions of the propo- 
sition to renew the present agreement by a vote of 
5,897 No; against 1,929 Yes, negotiations with 
the shipowners groups have been re-opened in 



March 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



45 



New York. The first meeting since the rejection 
of the agreement was held on Thursday, February 
20, between union and shipowners' representa- 
tives. In the meantime, the original Atlantic agree- 
ment is in full force. 

i -f -t 
Attended by Union Officers and their wives or 
sweethearts a testimonial dinner was given in a 
New York hotel in honor of our retiring Secre- 
tary-Treasurer Victor A. Olander and his charm- 
ing wife on Saturday evening, February 22. David 
E. Grange, toastmaster, called upon many of those 
present for short, impromptu speeches before in- 
troducing the guests of honor. "Vic" assured all 
of his union brothers that he will stand ready to 
advise and assist whenever called upon by the Dis- 
trict Unions. 

1 i 1 

May Dillon, only woman delegate in our Inter- 
national Union, has been rendering yoeman service 
for the Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the 
Atlantic and Gulf in the past year. Miss Dillon, 
who has spent some 15 years at sea as a steward- 
ess, handles the problems of the boys in the 
I.M.M. ships, as well as keeping a maternal eye on 
the waitresses and stewardesses employed on At- 
lantic vessels. Despite the fact that she insists on 
prompt payment of dues and fees, May is very 
popular with all hands. 

i i i 

Speaking of the Virginia, while she was in port 
recently the members of the steward department 
decided to get to the bottom of rumors con- 
cerning the mismanagement of the funds of their 
union. They didn't go to 14th Street for their in- 
formation either, but sent a committee up to Union 
headquarters where they were permitted to make 
a thorough examination of all the books and rec- 
ords of the Union. The committee reported back 
to the crew that they had found everything in 
order and had found no evidence of money being 
dishonestly used. Which is the proper way to spike 
unfounded rumors. 



DISRUPTERS USE MANY NAMES 



I do the very best I know how; the very best 
I can, and I mean to keep doing so until the end. 
If the end brings me out all right, what is said 
against we won't amount to anything. If the end 
brings me out wrong, ten angels swearing I 
was right would make no difference. — Abraham 
Lincoln. 



Deceptive use of the initials of the International 
Seamen's Union of America and of names which 
falsely imply a connection with that union, is al- 
leged in a complaint issued by the Federal Trade 
Commission against the I. S. U. Rank and File 
Group, and others, of No. 1 Union Square, New 
York City, associations publishing the "I. S. U. 
Pilot," "I. S. U. Guide," "Union Seaman," and 
"The Pilot." 

The groups named in the complaint are com- 
posed of various radical extremists opposed to the 
policy and officers of the International Union. 

Operating from its New York office and from 
branch offices in Baltimore, New Orleans, Phila- 
delphia and other cities, the respondents are al- 
leged to be in competition with other associations 
engaged in the sale of magazines in interstate 
commerce, including the International Seamen's 
Union of America, which has become known and 
has been referred to for more than twenty-five 
years as the "I. S. U." The International Sea- 
men's Union of America publishes a monthly 
magazine called the Seamen's Journal. 

The complaint alleges that the respondents' use 
of the names "I. S. U. Rank and File Group," 
"I. S. U. Rank and File Members," "Rank and 
File Committee of the I. S. U." and "Rank and 
File International Seamen's Union," has been and 
is without the authority of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America, and tends to deceive 
members of that union and the purchasing public 
into believing that the respondent associations are 
committees of the International Seamen's Union, 
and that their activities are sanctioned by that 
union. 

Use of the names of the respondents' publica- 
tions is alleged also to induce members of the 
union and the public to believe that the respond- 
ents' publications are issued by the International 
Seamen's Union of America. 

The respondents are allowed until March 6 to 
show cause why the Commission should not issue 
against them an order to cease and desist from 
the representations alleged. 



When you buy of merchants and patronize 
business places which display the Union Label, 
Shop Card and Button, you hit the most sensitive 
nerve in the system of the unfair employer. 



46 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March 1, 1936 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



At the annual meeting of the P. and O. Steam 
Navigation Company, held in London, it was de- 
cided that one-half of the recent 10 per cent wage 
cuts should he restored at once. 

* * * 

The shipowners of Finland have refused to 
recognize the Finnish Seamen's Union, but have 
announced small increases in wages for all hands. 
After three years' service with the same ship- 
owner and in the same rating a further 10 per 
cent increase will be paid. The new rates became 
effective on February 1, for the Aland Islands on 
March 1. * * * 

The Norwegian Mates' Union has addressed 
to the Parliamentary Committee on Shipping and 
Fishing and to the Government a protest against 
a Bill to amend the Merchant Shipping Act. The 
Union agrees that a new Act is needed, but one 
which raises the standard of qualifications for 
deck officers, instead of lowering it, with a view 
to greater safety at sea. In a well-documented 
statement the Union amplifies its objections and 

presents proposals for a new Bill. 

* * * 

The mercantile marine officers of Great Britain 
have realized that trade unionism is the only ef- 
fective way of realizing their ambitions, and have 
decided to abandon the anemic form of coopera- 
tion which has hitherto been theirs. About a year 
ago a newly-formed officers' organization secured 
representation on the National Maritime Board, 
and this organization has now been officially in- 
augurated as the Navigators and Engineer Of- 
ficers' Union and is shortly to apply for affiliation 
to the Trades Union Congress. 

* * * 

During January there took place in Paris the 
amalgamation congress of the French Seamen's 
Unions, presided over by Pasquini, of the Mar- 
seilles Stewards' Union, thirty-three unions being- 
represented by some forty delegates. Amalgama- 
tion plans were adopted practically unchanged 
from the draft submitted. The congress decided 
by 68 votes to 14 that the holding of a trade- 
union office was incompatible with the holding of 
political office. Further it was decided, by a very 
large majority, that the unified Federation should 



affiliate to the International Transport Workers' 
Federation. * * 

For the past year the British Transport and 
General Workers' Union has actively taken up 
the organization of the fishermen, and a compre- 
hensive program of demands has been drawn up 
for the industry. At Lowestoft, Suffolk, a notable 
improvement has already been secured. Herring 
fishermen are to receive a fixed weekly wage and 
a bonus on the net profits earned instead of being 
paid by the share as in the past. Under the sys- 
tem of payment by share the men frequently 
found that after deductions had been made for 
food consumed on board and amounts allotted to 
his family week by week, the earnings were so 
poor that he ended in debt to the owners. The 
payment of weekly wages which will range from 
about 37s. 6d. for a skipper down to 20s. for a 
cook will have the added advantage of bringing 
the men within the provisions of the Workmen's 

Compensation Act. 

* * * 

The French Minister of Mercantile Marine has 
awarded the silver medal of salvage and a diploma 
to Mr. A. C. Jones, honorary secretary of the 
lifeboat station at Barry Dock, Glamorganshire, 
and to each of the seven members of the lifeboat's 
crew for their gallantry in rescuing the crew of 
the French schooner Go eland, of Paimpol, on 
September 17 last. Mr. Jones has already been 
awarded the silver medal of the Royal National 
Lifeboat Institution, and each member of the crew 
its bronze medal for this service. The Goclami 
was drifting towards the rocks in a gale, with her 
sails and rigging overboard, and the motor life- 
boat was launched at once to her rescue. The 
coxswain was away from the station, and Mr. 
Jones took command. He took the lifeboat 
through the drifting wreckage and alongside the 
schooner. There were five men on board her, and 
the last was rescued less than a minute before the 
schooner went on the rocks. 

* * * 

The report of the Swedish Department of 
Labor and Social Affairs on accidents to seamen 
deals with a total of 1,657 casualties and 7? fa- 
talities. The corresponding figures for 1933 were 
1,626 and 66, showing that in 1934 there was a 
slight increase in the total number of accidents, 
barely 2 per cent, but a heavy increase in the num- 
ber of fatalities, 13.6 per cent. We quote the 
following from the Department's "Sociala Med- 



March 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



47 



delanden" concerning the accidents occurring in 
mooring and towage work (132 casualties, 4 fa- 
talities) : "Apart from injuries to hands and 
fingers due to worn and frayed steel cables, which 
in many cases caused blood poisoning and other 
serious complications, the accidents under this 
head are mostly very grave and often involve the 
loss of arm or leg due to being caught between 
cable and pitts or winch-ends. It would seem 
that some of these accidents have to be ascribed 
to a certain inadequacy in respect of manning 
when a ship is moored or hauled along the quay, 
moored in a lock or dock, etc. 

* * * 

For years the Belgian Transport Workers' 
Union has been trying to secure legal regulation 
of the working conditions in the inland shipping 
industry. A bill on the subject was submitted to 
Parliament in 1927, but had not been reported 
from the various committees to which it was re- 
ferred, until at the end of 1935, finally, it was 
discussed and passed by the Chamber. Now it is 
in the Senate. The proposed law is generally ap- 
plicable in all cases where a contract of employ- 
ment is concluded, irrespective of the nationality 
of the person employed. Contracts must be in 
writing and drawn up in duplicate. The em- 
ployers are required to employ a sufficiently large 
number of persons. In case of shipwreck or fire 
on board the owner must pay compensation to the 
employees for the damage suffered. The period 
of notice of dismissal is fixed at one month for 
employees living on board with their family, and 
fifteen days for others. In case of dismissal with- 
out notice full wages must be paid for the period 
in question. The employers have started a cam- 
paign against the measure, especially the provision 
requiring ships to carry adequate crews. 

* * * 

The British Steamship Fresno Star, owned by 
the Blue Star Line, arrived at Port Lyttelton, New 
Zealand, in October last. The deck crew performed 
their usual duties until the morning of the 28th, 
which was Labor Day and recognized in New Zea- 
land as a general holiday. It was pointed out to 
them by the chief officer that according to their 
agreement the holiday did not apply to them and 
if they did not resume work they would be logged 
and stopped* a day's pay. On the following day 
when the ship was due to sail the men informed 
the captain that unless the logging and the stop- 
page of pay were cancelled they would not work 



the ship. The master thereupon ordered them to 
return to their duties, but they refused and threat- 
ened to go ashore if they were not given an under- 
taking there would be no fines, loggings or other 
punishment. The captain, thus faced with serious 
delay to his ship, adopted the course of acceding 
to the men's request and assured them there would 
be no logging or stoppage of pay. The case was 
heard at East Ham, when the eight defendants 
charged with wilful disobedience to lawful com- 
mand were represented by the National Union of 
Seamen. As was to be expected, the bench took 
the view that conduct so prejudicial to discipline 
on board a ship could not be tolerated and sen- 
tenced each of the offenders to seven days' im- 
prisonment without hard labor. 
* * * 

The Sailors and Firemen's Panel and the Ca- 
tering Department Panel of the British National 
Maritime Board met on January 17 to consider 
demands put forward by the National Union of 
Seamen for an increase of wages or restoration 
of the old wages (which in 1932 had been reduced 
by 18s for full ratings, 25 per cent of the reduc- 
tion having been restored at the beginning of 
1935). The shipowners declared they were un- 
able to concede the application, although they 
sympathized with it, as the situation of the ship- 
ping industry was still unfavorable. They were 
surprised that the Union's representative had not 
mentioned Geneva, as the owners were of opinion 
that the hours of work and manning would have 
to be investigated before the wages question could 
be considered. Therefore, the owners proposed 
that a small committee be set up to consider the 
question of hours and manning forthwith, and if 
no agreement could be reached on these subjects, 
then the question of wages could be considered. 
Mr. Spence, for the Union, replied that the own- 
ers had consistently refused to discuss hours or 
manning since 1920. Commenting on the proceed- 
ings, the editor of The Seaman says : "It would 
appear that, as we have been bold enough to seek 
international associates, we are to be brought to 
book for our temerity, because we are told in 
so many words that unless you shed your inter- 
national commitments, we shall not restore your 
wages. After refusing to discuss manning and 
hours for many years, the shipowners fear that 
they may be forced to give in the near future 
what they refused to give when their coffers were 
full to overflowing." 



48 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March 1, 1936 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 

© 

Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price $1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 



NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 

Communications from seafaring readers will be 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The Journal is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



MARCH 1, 1936 



DEMOCRATIC CONTROL 



The official western organ of the Communist 
Party, and the semi-Communist sheet known as 
the Voice of the Federation, are carrying on a 
joint defense of the union that recently had its 
charter canceled by the International Seamen's 
Union of America. 

Both of these delectable sheets have shed croco- 
dile tears over this alleged outrage and both declare 
that the charter was revoked because International 
Seamen's Union "officialdom" (which is a new 
word in the Communist lexicon) object to "demo- 
cratic control" by the membership! 

The editor of the Seamen's Journal was a 
member of the ousted union of thirty-six years 
and can testify from personal experience that the 
membership always had full control until the 
Bridges element moved in and established an auto- 
cratic regime through all the well-known gangster 
tactics. 

Take, for example, the recent steam-schooner 
strike. The membership, by a coastwise referen- 
dum ballot, had voted to continue the award and 
agreement with the Shipowners' Association of 
the Pacific Coast and to arbitrate any differences. 
Notwithstanding this clear and emphatic expres- 
sion by the membership, by the real rank and file, 
the comparatively few members who attend the 
headquarters meeting nullified the anti-strike vote 
of the coastwise membership and sanctioned the 



disastrous steam-schooner strike. Where was the 
"democratic control" of the membership when an 
organized gang at headquarters forced action di- 
rectly opposite to the expressed wish and desire 
of the membership? 

Where was "democratic control" when the gang 
in the meetings at headquarters voted to "lay on 
the table" communications from the International 
secretary-treasurer wherein he insisted that the 
constitution and laws of the International Sea- 
men's Union be obeyed? 

Where was "democratic control" in the Sailors' 
Union of the Pacific when the organized gang 
at headquarters, over the protest of branch meet- 
ings, forced through a resolution inviting mem- 
bers of the notorious Communist Marine Workers' 
Industrial Union to come into the fold of the 
International Seamen's Union? 

And the echo answers : Where was it and where 
is it now ? 

The charter of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific 
was revoked and canceled because "democratic 
control" had ceased to exist in that organization. 
It was revoked in the interest of the great ma- 
jority of loyal members who actually follow the 
sea for a livelihood. It was revoked in the interest 
of all loyal members so that "democratic control" 
can be restored. 

Once before the Sailors' Union of the Pacific 
was virtually destroyed by a group of red wreck- 
ers. And, of course, the price was paid by the 
great rank and file, by the men who go to sea. 
They paid for it in reduced wages and increased 
hours. 

The wrecking crew now in control of the 
Sailors' Union of the Pacific has been working 
hard to have history repeat itself. They have 
worked overtime to achieve that object. The 
charter was finally revoked to stop their disruptive 
work, to hold all that has been gained and to make 
it possible to obtain further increases in wages 
and improvements in working conditions by or- 
derly and lawful procedure. 

Smart legal talent (with a weather eye on the 
impounded funds) has attempted to frame an alibi 
for the red wreckers, but that is all in the day's 
wor k — so far as that type of lawyers are con- 
cerned. 

In the end the common sense and the inherent 
loyalty of the membership will assert itself. And 
then "democratic control" by the membership will 
be reestablished! 



March 1,1936 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 49 

MAN'S CONQUEST OF NATURE AUSTRALIAN SEAMEN'S STRIKE 



Boulder dam, one of the greatest undertakings 
of man in his conquest of nature, has been com- 
pleted, final settlement has been agreed upon and 
the mammoth project was formally accepted on 
March 1. The contract was signed April 20, 1931, 
and the time limit set for completion of the work 
was seven years. The Six Companies found many 
difficulties to overcome and a most unruly river to 
harness, but efficient supervision, prompt action 
in emergencies, and whole-hearted cooperation 
enabled the contractors to finish two years ahead 
of the allotted time. As an object lesson in 
achievement the work is quite as noteworthy as 
are the stupendous results. 

Boulder dam impounds more water than any 
similar bulwark of prosperity in the world. It 
creates the largest artificial lake on the map of the 
earth. It will conserve 10,000,000,000,000 gallons 
of water to irrigate more than 2,000,000 acres of 
land, an area larger than the prosperous state of 
Delaware, and furnish homes for thousands of 
producers. The shore line of the reservoir, to be 
known as Lake Mead, will be 550 miles, which 
is destined to be dotted with homes and villages 
in the near future. 

The great barrier across the Colorado River 
will check floods that have ravaged the lowlands 
and filled the gulf with millions of cubic yards of 
silt from fertile valleys. It will transform a desert 
waste into a farmers' empire. It will produce 
1,800,000 electric horsepower, usable and salable 
under the recent ruling of the suprerne court. It 
will furnish lights to homes and power to fac- 
tories in three enterprising states. It may revo- 
lutionize, by evaporation, the climate of the en- 
tire Southwest and send occasional showers to 
Death Valley. 

The skyline highway, uniting Nevada and Ari- 
zona, will cross one of the costliest bridges in the 
world over a concrete wall 33 feet wide and 726 
feet above the river bed. 

Well, the job is completed and it requires re- 
straint to write or speak of this great achievement 
in any but superlative language. 



According to all available information the sea- 
men's strike in Australia was virtually broken 
when the Government invoked an old license law 
and put it into immediate effect. 

The strike was called contrary to the union's 
officers' advice. The latter pointed to the futility 
of a protest strike against an arbitration award. 
They called attention to the inevitable result of 
such a contest, and especially to the reasonable 
certainty that the Government would be compelled 
by public pressure to line up with the shipowners. 

Well, the anticipated events did happen. The 
strike was called "a strike against the Govern- 
ment itself." The Government dug up an old 
license law and in a dozen ways assisted the ship- 
owners to facilitate the operation of ships with 
licensed non-union men. 

The union evidently is in a bad way. Australian 
labor papers print columns about internecine strife 
in the Seamen's Union and to an outsider there 
does not seem to be any head or tail to it all. 

This much seems certain : the extreme radicals 
swayed the membership to call the strike over the 
earnest counsel of the union's officers. And, as 
always, the membership has paid and must con- 
tinue to pay, for taking bad advice. 



OUR ATLANTIC SUPPLEMENT 



In all things throughout the world, the men who 
look for the crooked will see the crooked, and the 
men who look for the straight will see the straight. 
— Ruskin. 



The Journal's Atlantic Supplement, which 
has been published monthly for some time, will 
hereafter be issued as a weekly. Claude M. Gos- 
horn, who has so successfully edited our Atlantic 
Supplement, has found it impossible, because of 
pressure of time, to continue with that work. 
He has been succeeded by Carl Lynch, an ex- 
perienced seaman-journalist, lately of San Fran- 
cisco. 

The weekly Atlantic Supplement will be dis- 
tributed free to members of the Atlantic District 
Unions and will continue to expose the slimy dis- 
rupters and dissect the manipulations of the var- 
ious borers-from-within who are trying to con- 
duct the affairs of the Seamen's Union from the 
uptown headquarters of the Communist party. 

As heretofore, the Journal's Atlantic Supple- 
ment will be edited and published in New York. 



He who joy would win, must share it; happi- 
ness was born a twin. — Kingsley. 



50 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March 1, 1936 



SEA-GOING WAITRESSES 



According to current reports, waiters on Brit- 
ish passenger ships are somewhat worried by 
rumors from Liverpool that the companies plan 
the experiment of replacing men waiters in the 
dining saloons with women. It is reported that 
one of the first big ships to try out the plan, 
which is said to have been successful on the 
Grace Line, will be the Queen Mary when she 
comes out in May. Males will be carried as here- 
tofore to look after the staterooms, as they are 
better adapted to the work, in the opinion of the 
experts in the catering departments of trans- 
Atlantic steamship companies. 

Veteran pursers are quoted in the New York 
Times as predicting that in a few years catering 
on Atlantic liners will be carried out by contract 
as it is now on shore. Whether or not these are 
mere idle anticipations remains to be seen. But, 
with respect to the employment of women in the 
Stewards' Department there need be no undue 
apprehension. The girl waitresses in the Grace 
Line are members of the Marine Cooks & Stew- 
ards Association of the Atlantic and Gulf. They 
pay their Union dues as cheerfully as the male 
members of the crew. And President Grange of 
the before-mentioned Union is not taking any 
chances with respect to proper contact. One of 
President Grange's most efficient delegates in New 
York is May Dillon. This young lady is an ex- 
perienced sea-going waitress. And it is reported 
she has very little difficulty in keeping the girls 
lined up ! 



THE MONROE DOCTRINE 



In a message to Congress December 2, 1823, 
President Monroe said that "the American Con- 
tinents, by the free and independent condition 
which they have assumed and maintained, are 
henceforth not to be considered as subjects for fu- 
ture colonization by any European powers." We 
would not interfere with existing colonies, but 
any attempt by a European nation to control an 
independent government in either North or South 
America would be looked upon, the President de- 
clared, "as a manifestation of an unfriendly dis- 
position toward the United States." 

In the years that have followed, the Monroe 
Doctrine has not added to our popularity below 



the Rio Grande. The Latin-American nations 
viewed it as the instrument by which the "Col- 
ossus of the North" sought to effect hegemony 
over the New World. 

On December 28, 1933, President Roosevelt 
publicly declared that the policy of our govern- 
ment was opposed to armed intervention in the 
nations to the south. The maintenance of the 
orderly processes of government on this hemi- 
sphere was, he said, the "joint concern of a whole 
continent in which we are all neighbors." 

And now the President has taken a further step 
to recast the Monroe Doctrine in a fashion that 
might make it more acceptable to our sister Amer- 
ican republics. He has written to the heads cf all 
Latin-American nations suggesting a conference 
"to determine how the maintenance of peace 
among the American republics may best be safe- 
guarded." 

Our President is versatile and, never tiring. 
More power to him and his plans to forever as- 
sure peace between all the American republics. 



TOO MUCH TALK OF WAR 



A new pamphlet on the Far Eastern situation 
by Florence Brewer Boeckel, writer on interna- 
tional relations, decries talk of war between the 
United States and Japan, saying: 

"Such a war by official estimate would cost 
forty billion dollars. The world depression which 
would follow a contest between the East and West 
would make the aftermath of the World War 
look — if there were anyone left to look at any- 
thing — like a period of prosperity." 

Mrs. Boeckel charges that interest- which 
profit by building up war scares, are now stimu- 
lating fear of war in the Pacific and are trying 
to develop the idea that it is "inevitable." I )n the 
contrary, an attack by the Japanese on the shores 
of America is recognized by naval officials as im- 
possible, she says. It would require a navy at least 
twice as large as that of the United States. Ja- 
pan's finances have been taxed by her expeditions 
in Manchuria. For her to finance now a war 
against America is out of the question. Mrs. 
Boeckel contends. Moreover, a war across the 
Pacific would mean for Japan opening the way 
for attack on her by Russia. 

As for the United States attacking Japan, there 
is no excuse for that either, the writer argues. It 
is said that the war would be fought to save 



10 



March 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



51 



America's trade with China. This trade amounted 
in 1934 to about $69,000,000. Our trade with 
Japan in that year was more than three times as 
much, $210,000,000. What is needed are trade 
agreements of mutual benefit to both countries, 
recognition of racial equality by putting Japan's 
immigration on a quota basis, and recognition of a 
common interest in peace, Mrs. Boeckel says. 



I. S. U. READY TO ACT 



FREEDOM OF THE PRESS 



Congress shall make no laiv * * * abridging the freedom 
of speech, or of the press * * * — first amendment, 1791. 

* * * nor shall any State deprive any person of life, 
liberty, or property ivithout due process of laiv * * * 

— FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT, 1868. 

The unanimous opinion rendered by the United 
States Supreme Court for "freedom of the press" 
will take the sting out of much of the bitter criti- 
cism recently aimed at the highest tribunal in the 
land. 

In delivering the opinion of the court Justice 
Sutherland went into the history of suppression 
of the press. 

As early as 1644, he recalled, the poet John 
Milton wrote, "An Appeal for the Liberty of 
Unlicensed Printing," assailing a censorship act 
just passed by Parliament. Censorship by licens- 
ing was replaced in 1712 by stamp taxes de- 
signed to suppress publications hostile to the 
Crown. These were commonly dubbed "taxes on 
knowledge" and when extended to the American 
Colonies they helped bring on the Revolution. 

Massachusetts experimented in the Seventeen 
Eighties with stamp and advertisement taxes. Op- 
position was so great they were speedily repealed. 
Since the adoption of the Constitution no State 
ever tried it again until 1934, when Huey Long, 
irked by the antagonism of leading Louisiana 
newspapers, had his docile Legislature enact the 
levy on advertisements. 

The Supreme Court, in throwing out this law, 
called it "a deliberate and calculated device in the 
guise of a tax to limit the circulation of informa- 
tion to which the public is entitled in virtue of its 
constitutional guarantees." It added: "A free 
press stands as one of the great interpreters be- 
tween the government and the people. To allow 
it to be fettered is to fetter ourselves." 



Immediately upon adjournment of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union Convention the Executive 
Board directed First Vice-President Ivan Hunter 
to proceed to the Pacific Coast to carry out the 
mandate of the convention in re the organization 
whose charter had been revoked because of fre- 
quent deliberate violations of the constitution and 
laws of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

Vice-President Hunter immediately carried out 
the orders received. He spent several days in San 
Francisco conferring with various outstanding 
men in the labor movement. 

On February 27 Vice-President Hunter made 
his only public statement, as follows : 

"After a careful survey of the situation on the 
San Francisco waterfront I have become further 
convinced that only by drastic action can we hope 
to obtain respect for the International Seamen's 
Union of America and compliance with its con- 
stitution and laws. 

"The great rank and file of our Pacific Coast 
unions are true and loyal to their International 
Union, but have been misled and virtually stuffed 
with disruptive and subversive propaganda. 

"I am making a short visit to Chicago for the 
purpose of conferring with the International Ex- 
ecutive Board, and immediately upon my return 
expect to proceed with carrying out the plans 
tentatively agreed to and approved by the many 
loyal members of our Union in this vicinity." 



It is unfortunate, perhaps, but none the less 
inevitable, the impression should be growing in 
the mind of the average plain American citizen 
that whatever legislation is designed to help him 
is unconstitutional, while legislation intended to 
aid and bolster special privilege is strictly con- 
stitutional. And in this matter the point in the 
plain man's mind is not any serious doubt as to 
the wisdom of the constitution but rather a grow- 
ing wonder as to the manner of its interpretation. 



Large fortunes are all founded either on occu- 
pation of land, or usury, or taxation of labor. — 
Ruskin. 



C. W. Deal of the Ferryboatmen's Union of the 
Pacific and Sixth Vice-President of the Interna- 
tional Sailors' Union of America, has been elected 
chairman of the Fourth Panel of the National 
Labor Adjustment Board which handles certain 
disputes under the Railway Labor Act. 



52 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March 1, 1936 



SAFETY AT SEA? 

President Furuseth Commends Editorial 
in Washington, D. C, News 



The following editorial appeared in a recent 
issue of the Washington, D. C, News: 

NO SAFETY AT SEA 

U. S. Steamboat inspectors have, in substance, form- 
ally declared that they can no longer be responsible 
for the safety of passengers traveling on American- 
flag ships. They say they haven't either the necessary 
money or men to perform adequately their duties 

We have had grim testimony that something was 
wrong with this vital Government function in the 
Morro Castle and Mohawk disasters. Yet the neces- 
sary and radical reforms have not been made by the 
Department of Commerce. 

Recommendations have been made to Congress. But 
even these, for the most part ineffectual, have met 
little more than indifference at the Capitol. Why? 

How many lives must be lost to get action? Must 
we have other Morro Castle and Mohawk tragedies 
before we can travel on our own ships confident that 
the fire-fighting and life-saving equipment, at least, 
has been thoroughly inspected? 

Must we go on with an inspection service so limited 
that even lifeboat crews cannot be properly trained 
and instructed? 

Present conditions suggest that it might even be a 
good idea to study the possibility of turning admin- 
istration and enforcement of maritime safety laws over 
to the Coast Guard. 

What does Congress intend to do about it? 

Because these few paragraphs hit the nail 
squarely on the head, President Furuseth of 
the International Seamen's Union of America, 
promptly sent the following commendatory and 
self-explanatory letter : 
Editor, News, 
Washington, D. C. 

Sir: Please accept my sincere thanks for your edi- 
torial of January 28, entitled "No Safety At Sea." 

Your heading is absolutely right and it is so well 
understood by travelers that the large majority of 
them will never travel on American vessels if there is 
a French, an English, a Dutch, a German or a Scan- 
dinavian vessel to travel on to reach the place they 
want to go. It cannot be otherwise under existing con- 
ditions. I have served more or less as a Father con- 
fessor to seamen — union and non-union — for more than 
thirty years, and men have come and told me the 
actual conditions aboard the ships because they had 
absolute faith that no pressure of any kind would in- 
duce or compel me to give the names of either the 
vessel or the men and thereby expose them to the 
terrible black list (deferred list) which was kept by 
the Sea Service Bureau and sent out for the use of the 
shipowners and their employees. 

Vessels inefficiently inspected, personnel from the 
master down through the ratings inefficient because 
laws passed have been, and are disobeyed. There 
could not have been either a Morro Castle or a Mohawk 
disaster if the officers had been properly trained sea- 
men and such safety laws as we now have had been 
obeyed. Altogether too many of our ships' officers are 
without the practical experience absolutely necessary 
for the making of real seamen. The laws which pro- 
vide for the time in which men serve before they can 



be admitted to examination to become officers are 
fairly well obeyed, but young boys from friendly or 
influential families or prominent and extensive ship- 
pers are sent on board of the vessels, not to go in the 
forecastle to live amongst the seamen and learn from 
them, not to go in the half deck as on English ships 
where apprentices are housed; they are sent to sep- 
arate cabins to live and to the wheel' house to work. 
They learn how to steer, how to use sounding ma- 
chines, how to read the log, how to distinguish flags; 
but practical seamanship, absolutely essential for the 
upkeep of the vessel, they do not learn. After some 
time they are rated as quartermasters and after hav- 
ing been quartermasters for a specific time they are 
admitted to examination, after having been four, five 
or six weeks in a navigation school, where they learn 
astronomical navigation and where they are taught 
how to write reports; but on reaching an officer's 
position on a ship they are so woefully ignorant of 
real, practical seamanship that the Master of the Morro 
Castle ran his vessel up against a twenty mile gale 
with the vessel going another twenty miles an hour, 
making forty miles of a gale to fan the flames. The 
officer in charge of the Mohawk, which was provided 
with a Telemotor steering gear, was so void of ex- 
perience and common sense that when the ignorance 
of the helmsman had destroyed the vessel's capacity 
for being steered for the time being, he did not exhibit 
the common sense of a man running an automobile in 
the street, that of stopping his vehicle when it couldn't 
be steered. In lieu thereof he undertook to change 
from mechanical steering gear to hand steering gear 
and between himself and the helmsman mixed the 
orders in such a way that the vessel was placed right 
across the bow of another vessel and was, of course, 
rammed and sunk. 

A real ship's officer would have stopped the engine 
immediately when he found that the vessel was not 
steering and would have hoisted red lights. The helms- 
man who put the Telemotor gear out of commission 
was either too ignorant or too lazy to keep the wheel 
moving and thus got the fluid into one side, emptying 
the opposite container. 

Seafaring nations know, and act upon the knowl- 
edge, that it takes more years to become a practical 
seaman than it takes weeks to learn how to find and 
use the tables in the book from which they learn 
astronomical navigation at school, and so seamen pre- 
senting themselves to examination to become officers 
are examined in practical seamanship, not in writing. 
but orally — and question after question tending to ex- 
hibit their knowledge if they have any, or expose them 
if they haven't, are unexpectedly hurled at them by the 
examiner. If they fail to answer promptly and prop- 
erly they are sent back to sea for more experience. 
Able seamen have served from three to four years 
before they reach the rating. They are not furnished 
with written instructions to be committed to memory 
or told to sit down and describe how to do some 
serious duties which the sea throws in everybody's 
lap. Part of our laws now provide that a man may 
become an Able seaman by serving one year and then 
passing an examination. The value of this provision 
is the one year. The examination is a joke, or window 
dressing, and should be abolished. If the seaman was 
made to serve three years clear in the Merchant serv- 
ice, then given an opportunity to serve one year addi- 
tional in the Navy, or the Coast Guard, he would learn 
how to handle small boats, how to keep himself clean 
and how to live and work under proper discipline. 

The boy and young man, if he comes from a better 
family, is cuddled and pushed up. If he is from the 
pure working class and is of the kind that faces a life- 
time of physical labor, obstacles are put in his way in 
a practical way now, and efforts are being made to 
substitute book learning for practical experience. The 



12 



March 1,1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



53 



sea tolerates no such hybrids as that. Ultimately it 
swallows them together with the ship and the pas- 
sengers. We have a Safety of Life at Sea Treaty under 
consideration by the Foreign Relation Committee of 
the Senate, under provision of which each nation, 
which generally means the shipowners of each nation 
are the sole judges of the sufficiency and efficiency of 
the crew of the vessel and the word crew means every- 
body on board of the vessel except the Master. In 
speaking some time ago with a United States Senator, 
very influential in maritime legislation, he read to me 
something out of a letter about vessels that will not 
burn and cannot sink, and I told him men have tried 
for centuries to build that kind of fool-proof vessels 
and during the war the President of the United States 
called to Washington, the most noted inventors in the 
country with the purpose of planning such a vessel. 
They sat together for sometime, threw up their hands 
and reported to the President that they couldn't see 
any way of doing it. 

Some shipowners do not care, and why should they? 
Until less than six months ago there was practically 
no liability resting upon the shipowner at all and such 
as there was he could and did escape, by organizing 
each vessel into a corporation with whom he made a 
contract to operate the vessel and insure her. 

If the vessel was lost this paper corporation had no 
other assets and nothing could be collected from them. 
Under our system of insurance, if you can't sell the 
vessel outright, it becomes profitable to sell her to the 
insurance company by insuring her even for more than 
her full value. Freights are insured in the same way 
and when the vessel is lost the insurer receives from 
the insurance company very often more than the value 
of the vessel or cargo lost. In addition to that we have 
a third kind of insurance called protection and indem- 
nity insurance in which the shipowner insures himself 
against the results of carrying inefficient officers and 
inefficient seamen. The insurance company pays for 
the results of ignorance and inaptitude. The premium 
on these different insurances are covered into the over- 
head expenses and then together with interest on the 
money thus invested are prorated on the freight and 
the passenger rates, so that it may be and has been 
truthfully said that the shipper and passenger pay 
increased freight and passenger rates for the privilege 
of going in a vessel with the prospect of being drowned 
or burned without any remedy obtainable afterward. 
The Seamen's Act endeavored very seriously and 
earnestly to remedy some of these evils, but through 
rulings and decisions of different parties who had the 
power to issue them, there is very little left of the 
Seamen's Act, and if the Treaty of Safety of Life at 
Sea passes and becomes law there will be nothing left 
except some extraordinary burdens placed upon Amer- 
ican vessels as an excuse for the shipowners to come 
before Congress and the public endeavoring to prove, 
and sometimes actually prove, that they cannot com- 
pete without a subsidy and the people of the United 
States, eager to have a share in the world's commerce, 
eager to develop sea power for the United States, im- 
portunes Congress to act against its better judgment 
and it sometimes passes laws that make conditions 
worse instead of better. 

We seamen petitioned for a thorough investigation 
into all these matters prior to legislation, but we 
couldn't get it. On the contrary, bills that bore the 
earmarks of having been written under the influence 
of shipowners or directly by shipowners' lawyers were 
introduced in both the Senate and House and but for 
the honesty, capacity and integrity of quite a large 
number of Senators and members of the House, these 
bills would have been passed to make conditions worse 
instead of better. Such bills as that are again intro- 
duced at this session. The Convention of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America is sitting here at 
present. Ultimately, it will reach the question of legis- 



lation, and the practical men in that convention who 
are loyal to safety at sea and to the United States will 
seek to have those bills so amended that they will help 
to create safety at sea and help to build real sea power 
for the United States. 

Thanking you again for your editorial, I beg of you 
to believe me, 

Faithfully and sincerely yours, 

ANDREW FURUSTH, 
President, International Seamen's 
Union of America. 



DISMISSAL COMPENSATION 



Representatives of the Masters, Mates and 
Pilots, Local No. 40, M.E.B.A. No. 97, and Ferry- 
boatmen's Union of the Pacific, met recently with 
the various ferryboat companies operating on San 
Francisco Bay, with reference to the Union's pro- 
posal for dismissal compensation to be paid to 
employees as a result of the building of the bay 
bridges. 

The Southern Pacific Company and Northwest- 
ern Pacific Railroad Company, refused to enter- 
tain the Union's request and refused to grant 
therefor, a formal conference under the Railway 
Labor Act, with the Unions. As a result of this 
position on the part of these companies, the Un- 
ions sent a telegram to Mr. William E. Leiserson, 
chairman of the National Mediation Board, Wash- 
ington, D. C, pointing out that these employers 
refused to grant a formal conference with the 
Unions and are therefore, violating the Railway 
Labor Act, and further pointing out that "Since 
we are exerting every reasonable effort to avoid 
any interruption of commerce growing out of this 
dispute, therefore, we respectively request your 
good offices to obtain immediate compliance by 
these carriers of the latter and spirit of the Rail- 
way Labor Act by granting us formal conference 
on the matters in dispute in accordance with the 
law." 

Meetings were also held with the Southern Pa- 
cific Golden Gate Ferries, Ltd., at which meeting 
the representatives of the company refused the 
request of the Unions. The Unions will determine 
at their meetings what action they will take with 
regard to this company's position. 

In the case of the Key System, it was agreed 
that a joint committee from the employer and the 
Unions will be set up immediately to study and 
determine the entire problem so far as Key Sys- 
tem marine employees are concerned. It is con- 
templated to analyze the group of marine em- 
ployees working for this company with the aim of 



13 



54 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March 1, 1936 



ascertaining the number that will be eligible for 
pensions under the Key's present scheme ; the 
number that will be eligible for jobs, provided 
they can qualify for such, in other branches of the 
Key System's operations, and then to work out 
some plan for those employees who will neither 
receive pensions nor be eligible for jobs. 

The representatives of the Unions were H. S. 
Strother of the Masters, Mates and Pilots, Local 
No. 40; A. Disher of the Marine Engineers Bene- 
ficial Association Xo. 97; E. J. Stillings of the 
Ferryboatmen's Union of the Pacific, and Sam 
Kagel of the Pacific Coast Labor Bureau. 

ANDREW FURUSETH 



SECRET INSTRUCTIONS 



Andrew Furuseth, the grand old man of the In- 
ternational Seamen's Union, was re-elected presi- 
dent of that organization at the closing session of 
the national convention in Washington. 

Now well past the three score years and ten 
that Holy Writ sets forth as the normal span of 
man's life, he still is as vigilant and as resolute 
in battling for the just rights of those who go 
down to the sea in ships as in the days of yore 
when first he became their champion. 

In recent years, however, Furuseth has had to 
meet attack and malicious slander from another 
quarter — from those falsely posing as the real 
friends of labor; from those who sought to under- 
mine him because he refused to bend the neck to 
the teachers and propagandists of Red Revolution. 

In the months just past the Communistic sym- 
pathizers had gone so far as to boast they would 
drive him from the position he had filled so long 
and so honorably; that they would crucify this 
honest Abe Lincoln of the sea because he de- 
nounced them and their radical plottings against 
the laws and institutions of this country. 

Once again Furuseth has proved a victor. 

Today he can throw the threats of the radicals 
back into their own faces. 

It is they who have been discomfited, not he. 

And so long as he is head of the seamen's 
union, the nation knows he will continue to fight 
these marplots. His fellow workers are to be con- 
gratulated on their wisdom and good sense in sus- 
taining him. — Editorial in Sacramento, Calif., Bee, 
February 18, 1936. 



Olaf Harold Lundeberg and his followers deny 
that the Communist borers-from-within are plot- 
ting and scheming to capture the California labor 
movement. 

But, the evidence is rather conclusive upon that 
point. 

The following are the "secret" instructions to 
the active comrades in the Communist Party: 

(Very secret.) 

Instructions to all sections. Must be followed with- 
out deviation. 

Program adopted at the State Communist Party 
Conference in San Francisco, November 24, 1935. 

1. That in each smaller Central Labor Council area 
we work for the establishment of a Rank and File 
Trade Union News Bulletin and that within a period 
of three months, bulletins must be issued in Eureka, 
Vallejo, Sacramento. Stockton, San Jose Fresno, 
Bakersfield, and Long Beach. 

2. That in each Central Labor Council area we com- 
pile a mailing list of trade-unionists which will in a 
three months' period include at least 5 per cent of the 
membership of each trade-union. 

3. That we stimulate the fight through the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor for the prevailing union rates 
of pay on all WPA projects and work toward the 
organization of relief workers into the American Fed- 
eration of Labor. 

4. That we use all Rank and File and Shop bul- 
letins to acquaint the workers with all the major cam- 
paigns of the party so as to bring them closer to the 
full program of the Communist Party and that the 
campaign for the Labor Party and the conference 
against war and Fascism receive our immediate major 
attention. 

5. That we carry on persistent campaign in all 
unions for affiliation to the State Federation of Labor. 

6. That within the next month we distribute the 
pamphlet, "A New Page for American Labor," to at 
least 5 per cent of the trade-unions in each Central 
Labor Council area. 

7. That within each Central Labor Council area 
mailing list we select a percentage of individuals to 
whom we will mail each issue of the Western Worker 
and also place these names on the active party recruit- 
ing list. 

8. That all party sections hold trade union and shop 
conferences once every three months. 

9. That each section and unit recheck their mem- 
bership at once to see that every eligible member is 
in a trade union. 

10. That the editorial staffs of the various Rank 
and File bulletins immediately put on their regular 
mailing list> the addresses of all other bulletins. 

11. That the fraction secretary of each Central La- 
bor body send in weekly reports of the Council meet- 
ings to the If cstcrn Worker. 

12. That monthly trade union conferences be held 
in Northern and Southern California. 



Credit and currency must be geared not only 
into production but likewise and primarily, into 
incomes and consumption. 



During the conference special emphasis was given 
to certain points. 

Agricultural Unions 
We are facing very difficult organization problems 
in this industry because of the seasonal and migratory 
nature of the work. L T p to the present time federal 
locals having jurisdiction over different sections of 
the industry are the only channels through which 
these workers can be organized into the American 
Federation of Labor. As yet no provisions have been 
made for union transfers from one section oi the 



14 



March 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



55 



industry to another. Therefore, at present we must 
exert all efforts to stimulate the growth of the unions 
in each section of the industry and then work towards 
amalgamation, under one international charter. The 
first step toward unity is to set up joint councils of 
agricultural unions in each area where unions exist. 

Points for Special Attention 
The pamphlet, "A New Page for American Labor," 
has been prepared so as to have the broadest possible 
appeal to all trade unions. It contains the speeches 
made by John L. Lewis and Francis Gorman on 
industrial unionism and use the Red scare to do so. 
Wherever possible we should try to have the trade 
unions order them through their official apparatus. 

Rank and File Bulletins 

Below is a partial list of the Rank and File bulle- 
tins now being issued by our party sections through- 
out the State; and including some of the more im- 
portant national bulletins: 

Waterfront Worker, Box 1158, San Francisco (In- 
ternational Longshoremen's Union) ; Seamen's Look- 
out, Box 1518, San Francisco (International Seamen's 
Union); The Teamster, San Francisco (Teamsters 
No. 85); Waterfront Worker, Box 103, Wilmington, 
California (International Longshoremen's Union); 
The Ferry Boat Worker, San Francisco (Ferry Boat- 
men's Union); Gas and Electric Worker, Box 42, 
South San Francisco (Utility Gas and Electricity); 
The Car Worker, Box 1580, San Francisco (Division 
No. 1004); The Lettuce Worker, Salinas, California 
(Fruit and Vegetable); Trade Union News, Box 1283, 
San Diego (General American Federation of Labor); 
Brake Shoe, 542 Valencia Street, San Francisco (Rail- 
road Trainmen); Draw Bar, Box 2172, Sacramento 
(Railroad Workers); Taxi Worker, Box 39, San Fran- 
cisco (Chauffeurs' Union) ; Building Trades Unionist, 
Box 1580, San Francisco (Construction Workers); 
Oil Worker, Bakersfield (Oil Workers Union); Rub- 
ber Organizer, Box 183, Lynwood, California (Rub- 
ber Workers) ; International Seamen's Union Pilot, 
Room 810, 1 Union Square, New York; Filling Sta- 
tion Rank and Filer, Box 87, Howard Building, San 
Francisco; Teacher's Voice, Box 1034, Oakland; 
Shape Up, Room 810, 1 Union Square, New York; 
Trade Union News, Box 355, Menlo'Park, California; 
The Drydock, Box 183, Lynwood, California; Food 
Workers' News, 364 Third Street, San Francisco; 
International Seamen's Union Guide, Box 984, New 
Orleans, Louisiana; The Printing Worker, 146 West 
45th Street, New York; The Horizon, Box 1079, San 
Francisco (Masters, Mates and Pilots) ; The Shake 
Out, San Francisco (Laundry Union) ; The Rural 
Worker, 1 Union Square, Room 512, New York (Na- 
tional Committee Agricultural and Rural Workers). 



SHIPBUILDING IN 1935 



The coldest spot in the world is Verkhoyansk, 
a province in Northern Siberia. The average 
winter temperature there varies between 50 and 
60 below zero, with a temperature of 94 below 
having been officially recorded. Those who berate 
the intemperance of our winter may find solace in 
the lot of Siberian prisoners under the Czarist 
regime. Incorrigibles were sent to Verkhoyansk 
after the discipline of other prison camps had 
failed. Once in this region, they abandoned all 
worldly cares, their time and energy being com- 
pletely concentrated on the problem of keeping 
warm. 



A total of 1,302,080 tons of merchant shipping 
were launched last year by the shipyards of the 
world, representing a gain of 334,661 tons, or 
about 35 per cent, over the 1934 total of 967,419 
tons, according to the annual report of Lloyd's 
Register of Shipping. These figures do not in- 
clude totals for Russia, which have not been 
available for several years. 

The yards of Great Britain and Ireland led with 
499,011 tons, but their gain of 39,134 over the 
1934 total was relatively one of the smallest re- 
corded. The United States ranked eighth with 
32,716 tons, a gain of 7,982, or about one-third. 

The most notable increase was made by Ger- 
many, which reported 226,343 tons, more than 
treble her 1934 total. France also reported a gain 
of 250 per cent, while Sweden and Denmark 
about doubled their totals. Japan and Italy were 
the only shipbuilding nations failing to improve 
upon their 1934 totals. They reported reductions 
of 6,506 and 3,971 tons, respectively. 

The nations and their tonnage launched in the 
last two years were as follows : 

1935 1934 

Great Britain and Ireland .499,011 459,877 

Germany 226,343 73,733 

Japan , 145,914 152,420 

Denmark 122,095 61,729 

Sweden _... 105,538 49,542 

Holland 57,133 46,905 

France 42,783 15,950 

United States 32,607 24,625 

Norway 25,716 18,857 

Italy 22,667 26,638 

The world total was the highest reported by 
Lloyd's since 1931 when the figure was 1,617,000 
tons, and was less than one-half of the last pre- 
war total, 3,332,000 tons, reported in 1913. Of 
the year's total 828,655 tons or about two-thirds 
of the total were built under the supervision of 
Lloyd's Register. 

Motor vessels constituted 812,956 tons or about 
62 per cent of the total launched during the year, 
a gain of 259,355 tons over the total reported in 
1934. 

A marked increase was shown also in the 
launchings of steam and motor tankers. These 
totaled 338,021 tons, as compared with only 198,- 
337 the previous year. Germany led this field with 
67,421 tons, followed by Denmark, Sweden, Great 
Britain and Ireland, Holland and Japan. 



15 



58 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March 1, 1936 



International Seamens' Union of America 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 
and the International Seafarers' Federation 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 
President: Andrew Furuseth, American Federa- 
tion of Labor Building, Washington, D. C. Vice- 
Presidents: Ivan Hunter, 1038 Third Street, Buffalo, 
X. V.; Percy J. Pryor, 5 Howes Wharf, Boston, 
.Mass.; Oscar Carlson, 70 South Street, New York 
City; D. E. Grange, 61 Whitehall Street, New York 
City; G. H. Brown, 59 Pearl Street, New York City; 
C. W. Deal, Ferry Building San Francisco, Cal; 
Jas. Hayman, 1038 Third Street, Detroit Mich.; 
Claude M. Goshorn, 810 N. Clark Street, Chicago, 
111. Editor: Paul Scharrenberg, 525 Market Street, 
San Francisco, Cal. Secretary-Treasurer: Patrick 
O'Brien, 666 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

In Ports designated by an asterisk (*) the Sailors, Firemen 

and Cooks maintain Joint Agencies. 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 

Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

5 Rowes Wharf. Phone Liberty 1449 
Branches 

BOSTON, Mass MILLER JENSEN, Agent 

330 Atlantic Avenue. Phone Liberty 1336 

NEW YORK, N. T G. H. BROWN, Agent 

59 Pearl Street. Phone Whitehall 4-3596 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa GEORGE FERGUSON, Agent 

41 South 4th Street. Phone Lombard 7543 

BALTIMORE, Md GERRITT VAN DER STAAY, Agent 

1700 Fleet Street. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Main 3524 

HOUSTON, TEXAS ROBERT J. NOVAK, Agent 

1212 75th Street. Phone Wayside 2377 

GALVESTON, Texas HARRY FLOYD, Agent 

318% 23rd Street. Phone 799 

•PROVIDENCE, R. I M. SULLIVAN, Joint Agent 

375 Richmond Street. Phone Plantation 4281 

•MARCUS HOOK, Pa N. DANIELS, Joint Agent 

2 West Third Street. Phone CHester 5-2371 

•NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Joint Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone Norfolk 34724 

•SAVANNAH, Ga CHARLES WAID, Joint Agent 

107 Whitaker Street 

•MOBILE, Ala WILLIAM ROSS, Joint Agent 

57% Government Street. Phone Dexter 1449 

•PORT ARTHUR, Texas W. F. HILL, Joint Agent 

311% Procter Stree t. Pho ne Port Arthur 1066 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTEN DERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

70 South Street. Phone John 0975 
Branches 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MOGAN, Agent 

132 Broad Street. Phone Liberty 5763 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa JOSEPH CONSIGLIO, Agent 

222 Market Street. Phone Lombard 9194 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

1700 Fleet Street. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHAS. THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Main 3524 

GALVESTON, Texas HARRY FLOYD, Agent 

318% 23rd Street. Phone 799 

HOUSTON, Texas JOSEPH LAKOVIC, Agent 

1212 75th Street. Phon e Wayside 2377 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE. President 

■61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 9-7670 and 9-7671 

Branches 
NEW YORK, N. Y. (West Side Branch) 

JAMES ALLEN, Agent 

72 Cortlandt Street. Phone Cortlandt 7-9192 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

1 Rowes Wharf. Phone Liberty 4057 

BALTIMORE, Md BERTRAM WARN, Agent 

426 East Pratt Street. Phone Calvert 0008 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa CHAS. HOUGAARD, Agent 

201 Chestnut Street. Phone Lombard 6580 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. T. KAIZER, Agent 

527 Canal Street. Phone Raymond 5666 

HOUSTON-GALVESTON, Texas 

JOSEPH W. ENGLAND, Agent 

1403 75th Street. Phone Wayside 8321 



UNITED BOATMEN'S UNION OF THE PORT OF 
NEW YORK AND VICINITY 

NEW YORK, N. Y MICHAEL WALL, Sec'y-Treas. 

105 Broad Street. Phon e Whitehall 4-9034 
r,^„^ FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
BOSTON, Mass — 5 Rowes Wharf 

NOVA SCOTIA SEAMEN'S UNION 

HALIFAX, N. S SAMUEL C. CONNELL, Sec'y-Treas. 

39 J ohn St reet 

HARBOR BOATMEN'S UNION OF CAMDEN, 
r,Tr TT 1T ^ PHILADELPHIA AND VICINITY 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa J. T. MORRIS, Secretary 

303-A Marine Building, Delaware Ave. and South St. 

FRANKLIN COUNTY BOATMEN'S UNION 
APALACHICOLA. Fla G. W. MELVIN, Secretary 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters 

CHICAGO, 111 VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary 

CLAUDE M. GOSHORN, Treasurer 

810% North Clark Street. Phone Superior 5175 

Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y J. w. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1426 West Third Street. Phone Main 1842 

DETROIT, Mich CARL WICKARD, Agent 

1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BltADHERING. Agent 

730 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, WATERTENDERS AND 

COAL PASSERS* UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

DETROIT, Mich 1VAX HUNTER, Secretary 

JAS. HAYMAX, Treasurer 

1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 

Branches 

BUFFALO N. Y I. w. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 

CLEVELAND. ° hi0 E J- SULLIVAN, Agent 

2U Blackstone Bld S-. 1426 W. Third St., Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis FRANK SULLIVAN, Agent 

730 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

CHICAGO, 111^. JOHN McGINN, Agent 

103 South Wells Street, R. 607. Phone Franklin 5784 



ASSOCIATED MARINE WORKERS OF THE PORT OF 
NEW YORK AND VICINITY 

NEW YORK, N. Y WM. A. MAHER, Sec'y-Treas. 

119 Broad Street. Phone Bowling Green 9-8455 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 
GREAT LAKES 
___ Headquarters 

BUFFALO, N. Y. J. M. SECORD, Secretary 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 
_ _ Branches 

CLEVELAND. Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

211 Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. Third St. Phone Main 1842 

DETROIT, Mich IVAN HUNTER, Secretary 

1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 

MILWAUKEE, Wis OTTO EDWARDS, Agent 

730 South Second Street. Phone Broadway 489 

CHICAGO, 111 S. R. LITTLE, Agent 

402 North Clark Street 

RIVER DISTRICT 

UNITED BOATMEN OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 
AND ITS TRIBUTARIES 

MEMPHIS, Tenn. JAMES MOORE, Secretary-Treasurer 

164 West Iowa Avenue 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

INTERNATIONAL SEAMEN'S UNION OF AMERICA 

Pacific District Office, 64 Pine Street, San Francisco Calif 
Phone Garfield 9052 

PACIFIC COAST MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, 

WATERTENDERS AND WIPERS' ASSOCIATION 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif EARL KING, Sec'y 

58 Commercial Street. Phone Kearny 3699 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash JAMES ENGSTROM, Agent 

King St. Dock, foot of King St. P. o. Box 196 
Phone Seneca 4320 

SAN PEDRO, Calif B. J. SULLIVAN. Agent 

111 West Sixth Street. Phone 2x!W 

PORTLAND, Ore J. E. FERGUSON. Agent 

111 Burnside Street. Phone Beacon 4336 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION OF 

THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO. Calif EUGENE F. BURKE See'y 

86 Commercial Street. Phone Kearny 5955 
Branches 

SEATTLE. Wash JACK CONNERB, Agenl 

Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock. Phone Main 2283 

PORTLAND, Ore WM. McCOURT. Acting 

127 South Burnside Street. 

SAN PEDRO, Calif JOSEPH O'CONNOR. Agent 

512% South Beacon Street, P. O. Box 54 



18 



March 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



59 



FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif C. W. DEAL, Secretary 

Room "B," Ferry Building-. Phone Douglas 8664 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash JOHN M. FOX, Branch Secretary 

220 Maritime Building. Phone Elliott 4928 

PORTLAND, Ore R. A. HICKOX, Branch Secretary 

520 S. W. Second Avenue. Phone Beacon 1895 

SAN PEDRO, Calif PAUL R. BENSON, Branch Sec'y 

3715 S. Pacific Avenue 

ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif ANDREW VIGEN, Secretary 

49 Clay Street. Phone Sutter 6452 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash OSCAR ANDERSON, Agent 

86 Seneca Street, P. O. Box 42. Phone Elliott 3425 

PORTLAND, Ore MARTIN E. OLSEN, Agent 

520 S. W. Second Avenue. Phone Beacon 1895 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Secretary 

86 Seneca Street, P. O. Box 65. Phone Elliot 6752 
Branch 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska GUST OLSEN, Agent 

P. O. Box A17 

COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE 
UNION 

ASTORIA, Ore ARVID MATTSON, Secretary 

P. O. Box 281 

ROGUE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
GOLD BEACH, Ore HARRY E. BRIGGS, Sec'y-Treas. 

EUREKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

EUREKA, Calif G. A. SVENSON, Secretary 

P. O. Box 541 



INFORMATION WANTED 

Wanted — Seamen who know about 
facts related to the following acci- 
dents: 

Peter Ryan, injured on the steam- 
ship Tamiahua August 15, 1934. 
Fell off the mast. Witnesses: W. G. 
Graham, Adolph Johnson, Joe Rus- 
sel, Frank Thomas, Sam Merez, and 
Z. R. McCall. 

If the witnesses write, postage 
will be refunded. If they will state 
what they know about the accident 
in letter, arrangements will be made 
to perpetuate their testimony at 
convenient places and time under 
circumstances that will not preju- 
dice them for future employment. 
Customary guaranty against loss of 
earnings while giving testimony. 
Send communication to Room 3008, 
80 Broad Street, New York City. 



Fair Enough 

Employer (to tardy office boy) : 
What's your excuse for being late 
this time? 

The Boy: Stop me if you've heard 
this one. 



Lost Out 

Boss (to office boy, who is half 
an hour late) : You should have been 
in here at eight o'clock. 

Office Boy: Why, what hap- 
pened? — Pearson's Weekly (Lon- 
don). 



Good Slogan 

Business Man: Can you give me a 
new slogan for my hosiery factory? 

Advertising Man: Sure: "Our 
Stockings Cover a Multitude of 
Shins." 



A Good Shot 

A man wounded in the head was 
rushed to the hospital, where the 
doctor asked him how it happened. 
"My wife threw a stone and hit me," 
murmured the man. 

"Well, that's the first time I ever 
heard of a woman hitting anything 
she aimed at," said the doctor. 

"Oh," said the patient wearily, 
"she was not aiming at me. She 
was throwing at a dog and I was 
behind her." 



SEAWEED 

(By Henry Wadsworth Longfellow) 

When descends on the Atlantic 

The gigantic 

Storm winds of the equinox, 

Landward in his wrath he scourges 

The toiling surges, 

Laden with seaweed from the rocks: 

From Bermuda's reefs; from edges 

Of sunken ledges, 

In some far-off, bright Azore; 

From Bahama, and the dashing, 

Silver-flashing 

Surges of San Salvador; 

From the tumbling surf, that buries 
The Orkneyan skerries, 
Answering the hoarse Hebrides; 
And from the wrecks of ships, and 

drifting 
Spars, uplifting 
Ever drifting, drifting, drifting 
On the shifting, 
On the desolate, rainy 'seas — 

Currents of the restless main; 
Till in sheltered coves, and reaches 
Of sandy beaches, 
All have found repose again. 

So when the storms of wild emotion 

Strike the ocean 

Of the poet's soul, ere long, 

From each cave and rock fastness 

In its vastness, 

Floats some fragment of a song: 

From the far-off isles enchanted 

Heaven has planted 

With the Golden fruit of truth; 

From the flashing surf, whose vision 

Gleams Elysian 

In the tropic clime of youth; 

From the strong will, and the en- 
deavor 

That forever 

Wrestles with the tides of fate; 

From the wreck of hopes far-scat- 
tered. 

Tempest-shattered, 

Floating waste and desolate; — 

Ever drifting, drifting, drifting 

On the shifting 

Currents of the restless heart; 

Till at length in books recorded, 

They, like hoarded 

Household words, no more depart. 

19 



INFORMATION WANTED 

William J. Burns was injured on 
the steamship Atlantic of the Argo- 
naut Line in April, 1935, during 
course of employment. 

Will anyone knowing his where- 
abouts communicate with him, ad- 
vising that he should write the un- 
dersigned at once. Lucien V. Axtell, 
Attorney, 80 Broad Street, New 
York City. 



Innocent 

Viewpoint has much to do with 
determining innocence. 

"Are you sure you did nothing to 
annoy your husband?" asked the 
magistrate of the woman who was 
charging her husband with assault. 

"Nothing at all," she returned de- 
cidedly. 

"Nothing at all?" demanded the 
husband's lawyer. 

"I never in my life did anything 
to annoy him." 

"Did you hit him on the head with 
a frying pan?" 

"Yes, but — " 

"And pour boiling water over him 
and push him down the stairs?" 

"Yes; I did." 

"And you said you did nothing to 
annoy him!" exclaimed the lawyer 
triumphantly. 

"That wasn't done to annoy him," 
returned the woman, hotly; "that 
was done to get even with him for 
making love to the red-headed 
woman next door." 



Husbands, Beware! 

Whether or not a man may come 
in late at night with impunity may 
depend on the type of wife he has. 

She was a big, strong woman, and 
the burglar she had tackled and cap- 
tured bore unmistakable signs of 
punishment. 

"It was very plucky of you, 
madam," said the magistrate, "to set 
upon the burglar and capture him, 
but need you have blackened both 
his eyes and knocked all his front 
teeth out?" 

"Well," said the woman, "how 
was I to know it was a burglar? I'd 
been up waiting for my husband for 
three hours, and I thought it was 
him." 



60 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



March 1, 1936 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

('"iisular Bldg., Corner Washington and 

Battery Sts., opp. New Custom House, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those hav- 
ing simply a knowledge of Navigation 
and Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen de- 
mand a man as a teacher with higher 
attainments than one who has only 
the limited ability of a seaman. The 
Principal of this School, keeping this 
always in view, studied several years 
the Maritime Law, and is now, in ad- 
dition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred subjects, 
a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average well- 
informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




Phone GARFIELD 2076 

DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 

DENTIST 

Rooms 2429-30, 450 Sutter Building 

Hours: 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

631 Pacific Bldg., Fourth & Market Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

PHONE DOUGLAS 0315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, 

Watertenders and Wipers' Association 

611 Russ Bldg. Tel. SUtter 3866 

San Francisco, California 



ALVIN GERLACK 

A ttorney-at-Law 

845 Mills Building 

Bush and Montgomery Streets 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Telephone DOuglas 1123 



Point of View 

"How did Moneybag make all his 
money?" 

"By judicious speculation and in- 
vestment." 

"How did Poorman lose all his 
money?" 

"Gambling on the stock market." 



Now in Our New Location 

"624 MARKET" 

Opposite Palace Hotel 




-BOSS- 

YOUR UNION TAILOR 



PACIFIC NAVIGATION 
SCHOOL 

CAPT. J. H. HOLM 

Instruction in Practical Navigation 

and American Citizenship 

Phone GArfield 7138 
252 Clay Street San Francisco 



Good and Sufficient 

"You want me to raise your sal- 
ary, eh?" growled a boss at his em- 
ployee. "Give me at least two good 
reasons." 

The employee gazed meekly at his 
employer and murmured, "Twins." 



Wanted the Old Idiot 

Office Boy (nervously) : Please, 
sir, I think you're wanted on the 
phone. 

Employer: You think! What's 
the good of thinking? 

Boy: Well, sir, the voice at the 
other end said, "Hello, is that you, 
vou old idiot?" 



A. 

Men! a 

Come to Hale's for your clothing 
and haberdashery. 

Just a few everyday 

VALUES 

in the 

MEN'S SHOP 

Halesworth Shirts #1.65 

Phoenix Silk Hose 50 

Hand Tailored Ties .... 1.00 
Michaels Stern Suits .... 27.50 
Halesworth Hats 3.50 

MAIN FLOOR 

HALE BROS. 

MARKET at FIFTH "' 

SUtter 8000 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 

Printing 

1122-1124 MISSION STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

We Print "The Seamen's Journal' 



Which? 
A negro hooked such a big fish 
one day that it pulled him over- 
board. As he crawled back into the 
boat he said philosophically. "What 
I wanna know is dis, is dis niggar 
fishing, or is dat fish nigKarinK?" 



Freak Fracture 
"How did you break your leg?" 
"I threw a cigarette into a man- 
hole and stepped on it." 



Worker 

First Steno: That fellow is a 
wonder. 

Second Steno: Well, introduce me 
to him, I work wonders. 



20 



1936 CONVENTION EDITION 




Official Paper of the 
International Seamen's Union of America 




A JOURNAL OF SEAMEN, BY SEAMEN, FOR SEAMEN 

Sea Power is in the seamen. Vessels are the seamen's tools. 
The tools ultimately belong to races or nations that can use them. 



Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Contents 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE THIRTY-THIRD CONVENTION OF THE INTER- 
NATIONAL SEAMEN'S UNION OF AMERICA 81-181 

(Editor's Note: — An index of the Convention Proceedings will be found on Pages 182-185) 

THE NEWS BEHIND THE NEWS 61 

PACIFIC OCEAN TRAVEL BOOMS 62 

THE STRIKEBREAKING BUSINESS 63 

MR. MORGAN'S TESTIMONY 64 

ATLANTIC NOTES 65 

NEWS AND COMMENT CONCERNING SEAMEN THE WORLD OVER 66 

EDITORIALS: 

CHANGE OF OFFICERS 68 

MUTINY OR STRIKE? 68 

SEAMEN'S JOURNAL MOVES TO WASHINGTON, D. C 69 

WHO PAYS THE BILL? 69 

A ONE-SIDED ARRANGEMENT 70 

FREE TRIPS FOR FILIPINOS 70 

THE TOWNSEND PLAN 70 

LEGAL DEFENSE 71 

BRAZIL EXCLUDES JAPANESE 71 

THE TALE OF THE INCOME TAX 72 

"MY COUNTRY THIS OF THEE" 73 

SHIPPING NEWS 74 

LABOR NEWS 76 



Vol. L, No. 4 
Whole No. 2067 



Entered at the San Francisco Postofflce as 
second-class matter. Acceptance for mailing 
at special rate of postage provided for in Sec- 
tion 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized 
September 7, 1918. 



SAN FRANCISCO 
April 1, 1936 



The American Seamen's Outlook 
for the Future 

An Editorial from a Recent Issue of the "Seamen's Journal" 

(Reprinted by request) 

Rights and privileges of union seamen, such as preference in 
employment, have never been maintained anywhere for any length 
of time unless there is a keen appreciation that every "right" carries 
a corresponding "duty" and that every "privilege" is balanced by 
"responsibility." 

Secretary Olander, in the opening paragraph of his report to the 
convention of the International Seamen's Union of America, treats 
this inescapable truth in clear and vigorous language. He says: 

"The outlook for the progress of the union in the future is brighter 
than at any previous time in the history of the organization, if all 
divisions of the International Union can be induced to develop a 
greater sense of national unity and responsibility than they have 
shown in the past and provided they agree to more orderly procedure 
in relation to the agreements into which they enter. On the other 
hand, the outlook is gloomy to say the least, if any other procedure 
is followed. The reasons for this are manifold. Attempts to evade 
responsibilities will ultimately have disastrous effects." 

Yes, the organized seamen of America are the masters of their 
own destiny! 

We can march onward to heights unknown IF all members are 
willing to accept full responsibility for the acts of our Union. 

We cannot shift or evade that responsibility. It is ours — individ- 
ually and collectively! 



THE NEWS BEHIND THE NEWS 




|HE daily newspapers throughout America 
carried confusing front page stories dur- 
ling the month about a prospective "gen- 
|eral" shipping strike in New York. Not 
one reader in a thousand could possibly 
understand what it was all about. Even those 
with a nautical background could not fathom the 
motive for a strike after the principal demand of 
the Atlantic District Unions of the International 
Seamen's Union of America had been granted. 

In fact, the strike "news" from New York 
became still more mysterious when it was learned 
that strikers were threatening only fair ships, 
i. e., ships operated by companies that had signed 
the agreement with the Atlantic unions provid- 
ing for a wage raise of five dollars per month 
(the West Coast offshore scale) and continuing 
in effect the all-important clause in the old agree- 
ment giving preference in employment to union 
members. Ships manned by non-union men and 
paying wages far below the scale were not mo- 
lested. The abortive "strike" was aimed only at 
ships manned by union men. 

Well, the recent convention of the International 
Seamen's Union of America anticipated just such 
strike threats. The convention had from day to 
day received clear and positive proof that notori- 
ous fomenters of strife were at work seeking 
to bring about a tie-up of shipping along the 
Atlantic Coast for any reason or for no reason 
whatever. 

It was because of this clear understanding of 
the situation that all the delegates at the conven- 
tion voted for the adoption of a resolution warn- 
ing the membership against the poisonous propa- 
ganda that emanated in the main from the pub- 
licity bureau of the Communist party. The reso- 
lution unanimously adopted by the convention, 
follows : 

Resolved, By the Thirty-third Convention of the In- 
ternational Seamen's Union of America, in regular 
session assembled at Washington, D. C, on February 
13, 1936, that we hereby warn the District Unions, 
members and seamen generally, of the Atlantic and 
Gulf, against the danger of yielding to the subversive 
propaganda now being circulated from anonymous 
sources by irresponsible persons, intended to stam- 
pede the seamen into a strike under circumstances 
leading straight to disaster, it being the opinion of the 
convention that strike action on the Atlantic and Gulf 



under existing conditions will not only result in de- 
feat for the men in that district, but will also seriously 
endanger the District Unions and membership in the 
Pacific District. 

It is gratifying to be able to report that while 
the plotters made plenty of noise they did not get 
very far. Ships are sailing out of New York on 
schedule and they are manned by loyal union 
members. Those who aimed to involve the At- 
lantic District Unions into an indefensible strike 
have only succeeded in exposing their own un- 
clean hands. They have been caught in their own 
slimy net. And they have increased, if that be 
possible, the volume of contempt which all loyal 
American seamen have for such malodorous 
creatures. 

The Atlantic Agreement, with its preference 
clause, was renewed on March 9, to take effect 
on March 15 with this proviso: "All ratings in- 
creased five dollars per month above existing 
scales." With this change the Atlantic Agreement 
will remain in effect to December 31, 1937. 

The shipping companies on behalf of which the 

improved and extended agreement is signed are 

the following: 

American Merchant Lines 

Baltimore Insular Line 

A. H. Bull Steamship Company 

Export Steamship Corporation 

Grace Line, Inc. 

Luckenbach Gulf Steamship Company, Inc. 

Luckenbach Steamship Company, Inc. 

Munson Steamship Line 

Panama Mail Steamship Company 

Panama Pacific Line 

Shepard Steamship Company 

United States Lines Company, Inc. 

Columbian Line 

American Foreign Steamship Company 

Waterman Steamship 

Pan-Atlantic 

Calmar Line 

Isthmian Steamship Line 

Baltimore Mail 

Standard Oil Company of New Jersey 

Sinclair Navigation Company 

Mooremac-Gulf Line 

New York and Cuba Mail Steamship Company 

New York and Porto Rico Line 

Newtex Line 

Savannah Line (Ocean Steamship of Savannah) 

Sword Steamship Company 

Clyde-Mallory Lines 

Argonaut Line 

American France Line 

American Hampton-Roads Oriole Line 

American Republics Line 

Mississippi Steamship Company 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



Black Diamond Line 

American West African Line 

Lykes Bros. 

Lykes Bros. Ripley 

Tampa-Interocean. 

The above listed companies have signed an 

agreement with the International Seamen's Union 

of America in behalf of its three Atlantic District 

Unions, namely : 

Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association, Inc. 

Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union of 
the Atlantic and Gulf 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Atlantic 
and Gulf. 

The agreement was arrived at by collective bar- 
gaining and this process is recognized by custom 
and by law as the most logical and effective 
method of maintaining just and peaceful rela- 
tions between shipowners and seamen. The agree- 
ment is not perfect and that, of course, is not so 
strange since perfection is scarcely ever seen in 
our complex modern relations. 

This much is certain, however: The agreement 
spells a substantial advance over the many lean 
years when the union was without recognition and 
when each shipowner paid as little as he pleased. 

The vast majority of the members of the At- 
lantic District Unions fully realize and appreciate 
all this. And the few misled brothers who tried 
to raise a fuss were playing a desperate part in 
a game that was hatched far from the water- 
front. The object of that game is to destroy the 
International Seamen's Union of America and 
Upon the ruins erect a structure designed primarily 
to serve world revolution with American seamen 
as pawns on the checker board. 



SEVEN NAMES IN 42 YEARS 



Some ships change their names as easy and 
almost as often as some men change stockings. 
A recently announced sale in a London shipping 
paper shows a record change of names. We quote : 

"The single deck steamer Hcdwig, ex Mary, ex 
Proga, ex Hedwig FiscJier, ex Pollux, ex Bycanc, 
ex Godrevy, 1,827 tons gross, 1,087 tons net, built 
by W. Dobson and Company, Newcastle, 1892, and 
owned by Leth and Company, Hamburg, has been 
sold to Thos. Dunlop and Sons, Glasgow, under 
the scrap-and-build scheme and been resold to 
German breakers." 



PACIFIC OCEAN TRAVEL BOOMS 

< »ne of the most significant results of the tur- 
moil in Europe is the increase in ocean travel from 
American Pacific ports. Innumerable tourists who 
would otherwise have visited France, Germany, 
Italy and England, are turning instead to Hawaii, 
Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand and Australia. Thou- 
sands of natives of New Zealand and Australia 
who were already traveling in Europe and would 
normally have preceded home via the Suez Canal, 
cancelled reservations, crossed the Atlantic and 
caught fast new American liners from San Fran- 
cisco and Los Angeles. Accommodations on prac- 
tically all American ships for the Antipodes and 
South Seas are filled for this winter season. Such 
an unexpected boom is a good thing for business 
all over America and a blessing to the American 
Merchant Marine, which has to compete with for- 
eign vessels cheaply built and much more cheaply 
operated. 

Many of our cousins from Australia and New 
Zealand are seeing America for the first time, be- 
coming acquainted with American goods. Ameri- 
can standards of living and American hospitality. 
This creates better understanding among nations 
fronting on the Pacific. 

The increase in travel from America to New 
Zealand and Australia caused the creation of 
special travel and tourist bureaus under govern- 
ment control. It is pleasant for an American tour- 
ist to be received at a strange port by government 
men speaking his own language and freely giving 
aid and advice in planning trips. What is more, 
in the Antipodes there is none of the chronic 
European practice of charging Americans four or 
live prices for everything they purchase, even to 
hotel accommodations and meals. For many years 
now European nations have regarded tourists as 
legitimate prey for gouging, and many experi- 
enced travelers are selecting other continents for 
their vacation trips. 



Fear not that tyrants shall rule forever. 
Shelley. 



The question is not how truthful we are but 
how tactful. 



The land of every country belongs, not to the 
landlords, but to the people of that country. — 
John Stuart Mill. 



The most consistent thing in life is incon- 

sistencv. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



63 



THE STRIKEBREAKING 
BUSINESS 

Factual Details by a Labor Editor 



Strikebreakers and labor spies for rent. Armed 
guards and special police, supplied for $8 per head 
per day. Mill hands and factory operators, only 
$5 per day. 

Such is one of America's most thriving, though 
perhaps least known industries today. Such it has 
been for more than half a century. 

When it comes to furnishing thugs for beating 
up strikers or sniper gunmen for shooting women 
and children bystanders, Pearl Louis Bergoff, de- 
spite his girl's name and red curls of childhood 
days, is no sissy. Third and reigning king of the 
strikebreaking industry, the "Red Demon," as he 
is commonly known, has made millions out of 
strife between labor and capital. In three short 
weeks of service during the subway strike of 1920, 
Bergoff's agency garnered $700,000 from the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co., while the Erie Rail- 
road rewarded it with $1,225,000 on another job 
that same year. At least half of these sums went 
into the pockets of the king himself. 

Edward Levinson, labor editor for the "New 
York Post," has just published a bold expose of 
that singular phenomenon of American industry, 
the gentle art of strikebreaking. His book, "I 
Break Strikes ! The Technique of Pearl L. Berg- 
off," is crammed with episodes both laughable 
and tragic. It lifts for the first time a corner of 
the blanket of secrecy which for scores of years 
has shielded the active contact between big busi- 
ness and the gangster's underworld. American 
labor is afforded a swift glimpse of the force 
against which it is pitted. All workers would do 
well to read this amazing disclosure. 

Mr. Levinson knows no hesitancy. The names 
of Rockefeller and Morgan, leading industrialists, 
financiers and high public officials arc named al- 
most in the same breath as those of the country's 
most notorious hoodlums and racketeers. "Paid 
assassins in the employ of big business," Mr. 
Levinson sums up the situation. 

Public utilities are the best customers of King 
Bergoff and others of his stripe. Utilities are less 
apt than private industry to stop in the midst of a 
good labor war to count the cost. "The Philadel- 
phia Rapid Transit Company lost $1,538,105 in 



fares during its 66-day strike in 1910," states Le- 
vinson, "and spent $836,856 on strikebreaking. As 
against this total loss of $2,374,961 in about two 
months, the wage increases demanded by the 
strikers would have cost the company $350,000 a 
year." The Interborough Rapid Transit Company 
(one of the leading subway lines in New York 
City) expended one-fourth of its net income for 
1916 to break a two months' walk-out, while "the 
Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company strike, which 
Bergoff helped break in 1920, saw an expenditure 
of $2,483,483, which left the company with a 
deficit of $2,237,690 for the six months' period 
during which the one-month strike occurred." 

THUGS LOOT WITHOUT SHAME 

And of public utilities, trolley companies are 
the most welcome clients of all. In the strike- 
breakers' parlance a transit strike is always a 
"Christmas Dinner." Here the hireling has full 
opportunity to exhibit his art. "Trolley strikes," 
Levinson writes, "mean loot with the approval 
of the owners. A trolley car to a fink crew is a 
letter of marque to steal the fares, shortchange 
the customers, and operate the car on whichever 
street pays best. When a strike becomes less ef- 
fective, and the company makes efforts to collect 
its fares, the finks will desert in droves." A pas- 
senger who gives the conductor a coin receives no 
change. When he protests he is clubbed and 
thrown off the car. 

Trolley strikes also rank foremost on the strike- 
breakers' fatality list. Out of 54 deaths directly 
attributed to Bergoff men in nine of his major 
strikes, 21, or nearly one-half of the total, repre- 
sented men, women and children ground to death 
beneath the wheels of charging trams manned by 
untrained and inexperienced operators. Exami- 
nations on the competency of the latter to manage 
street cars are a farce. If the strikebreaking crew 
runs a trolley car for three blocks without serious 
mishap it gets the job — that is, if any preliminary 
try-out is required at all. 

All too often an employer tardily decries that 
his planting of "men of intelligence, courage and 
great persuasive powers to counteract the evil 
influence of strike agitators and the radical ele- 
ment" among his workers has been in vain. Of 
their persuasive powers there can be no doubt. 
But after all, business is business even to Berg- 
off — and the loyalty of the stooges lies with the 
king rather than with the hapless employer — "The 
strikers might lose or the company might lose," 



64 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



writes Levinson, "but the strikebreaking agency 
always won. It is an axiom of the business." 

Normally, the undercover man passes through 
a complete metamorphosis. From stout preach- 
ing of trade unionsim he turns by gradual stages 
to musing or questioning doubts as to the good 
intentions of the employer; to frank suspicion, to 
open denunciation. At the same time he notes 
the ones who chime in most frequently with con- 
currence in his sentiment or who applaud the 
longest. I lis list of disloyal workers is sent — not 
directly to the employer, but to Bergoff — where 
the report is properly embellished and enlarged 
upon by true artists of the trade, until it is 
deemed suitable for the eyes of the boss. 

Once the swelling tide of discontent gains mo- 
mentum there is no stopping it. The stooge now 
apparently slowly turns conservative, at last feebly 
protesting that the union should do nothing rash, 
only to be voted down amid an uproar. When 
the strike is called the other Bergoff departments 
go into action while the stooge slips away to escort 
police to the doors of union leaders. 

Strikebreakers on duty enjoy a charmed im- 
munity from the talons of the law, because they 
are the law. Wherever they go, a certain per- 
centage of the nobles are sworn in as deputy 
sheriffs and special police. Endowed with the 
legal i tower to make arrests without the formality 
of obtaining warrants and blessed with the right 
to carry guns, hand grenades and tear gas bombs, 
these deputies — backed up by guards armed with 
clubs and brickbats — have their heyday. Degener- 
ates, the criminally insane and escaped lunatics 
have found their places among the ranks of Berg- 
off police. Since the local sheriff always gets his 
split (a kickback of a dollar a day from the pay of 
each deputy sworn in ) the more deputies, the 
merrier. 

In addition to keeping the community, in which 
the strikers live, in a state of uproar, nobles are 
also entrusted with the duty of holding in line 
the "one-time finks" — foreigners who understand 
no English, desperate unemployed or others hired 
on promises of "good, steady jobs" without 
knowledge that a strike is in progress. Nobles 
obtain as much diversion in preventing finks from 
deserting the ranks and in robbing them through 
a system of concession, as they do in embittering 
strikers against their employers. Concessions in- 
clude cigars and cigarettes, clean socks and under- 
wear, crap games, liquor, baggage checkrooms, 



prostitutes and food. Since finks are rented on 
a per diem basis it is essential to the strikebreak- 
ing agency not only that the strike be prolonged 
as much as possible, but that none of the finks, 
once landed on the scene, be permitted to escape. 
Nothing can be so disheartening to the profes- 
sional strikebreaker as a premature settlement 
of the dispute. 

MR. MORGAN'S TESTIMONY 



Some startling testimony was given by James 
Pierpont Morgan, the banker, before a senate 
committee in Washington. From the banker's own 
lips the country learned for the first time the story 
of the strenuous and persistent efforts of the late 
William Jennings Bryan, secretary of state in the 
Wilson cabinet, to prevent the American bankers 
from underwriting the Allied cause in the World 
War. 

Bryan held that to advance- money to either side 
in the European war was a violation of America's 
principle of neutrality : and from that position he 
refused to budge in spite of heavy pressure. 

According to the summary of the Morgan tes- 
timony, as given by the United Press: 

Bryan remained adamant. On the other side waa 
Robert Lansing, counselor of the state department. 
The bankers trained their fire on him. It was pointed 
out to him that unless America could advance credits 
to the belligerents, it would lose valuable trade. 

Lansing appealed to Wilson. And loans to bellig- 
erents began. 

When those loans began, this country definitely 
was committed to the cause of the Allies ; and it 
became inevitable that should the war last long 
enough, she would be forced into the conflict to 
protect the holdings of the gold gamblers of Wall 
Street. 

We now know that is exactly what happened. 
even though less than six months be tore the die 
was cast, ironically enough. Wilson had been re- 
elected on the slogan, "He kept us out of war." 

Instead of keeping us out of war, Wilson's 
policy of approving the enlistment of American 
dollars in the Allies' cause over the opposition of 
Bryan was the determining and all important 
factor in shoving us into the conflict. 

And it is not too much to say that had William 
Jennings Bryan been president instead of Wood- 
row Wilson, this country never would have been 
seduced into taking part in the World War un- 
der such hypnotic slogan^ as making the world 
safe for democracy. — Sacramento Bee. 



April 1. 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



65 



ATLANTIC NOTES 
By Carl Lynch 



Certain members of the crew of the steamship 
California who were fired and logged as a result 
of the three-day tie-up of that vessel in San 
Pedro recently, have organized themselves into 
what they are pleased to call an "I. S. U. Pro- 
visional Strike Committee" with the avowed in- 
tention of causing a general shipping strike in 
the Port of New York. 

With these members of the International Sea- 
men's Union for a front, Roy Hudson and his 
crew are hovering discreetly in the background 
pulling the wires. 

In spite of publicity in the Pilot, the Red 
Watch, the Daily Worker and like publications, 
the "strike" has in the space of less than a week 
become a rank failure. Not one ship has been 
tied up (with the exception of the California, 
whose owners sent her to drydock), and the half 
dozen vessels picketed have sailed on schedule 
with union crews. 

The fact that the so-called "strike" was only 
called against ships whose operators have signed 
agreements with the International Seamen's Union 
of America, is proof enough that this attack is an 
attack on the union and not against the ship- 
owners. Non-agreement ships paying as much as 
$18 below the union scale of $62.50 per month 
for able seamen have not been bothered at all. 

i i -f 

Mayor LaGuardia of New York City is taking 
a personal interest in the fight of the United Boat- 
men's Union to raise the wages and improve the 
working conditions of their members who are 
employed on the scows chartered to the city. 
While the owners of the scows receive eight dol- 
lars a day clear, for the use of their vessels, the 
men who do the work have been receiving only 
$60 per month. 

This week the Mayor has instructed the De- 
partment of Sanitation to contact the owners and 
instruct them to pay their men $3.50 per day. 

Secretary Michael Wall of the United Boat- 
men's Union reports that the orifice of the union 
has been moved from the third to the first floor 
of the building at 105 Broad Street. 

i 1 i 

With many more shipowners signing the At- 
lantic agreement, and organizing proceeding rap- 



idly in the few non-agreement vessels, prospects 
look very bright indeed for the next two years 
of the union's history. 

A few members of the Atlantic organizations 
have criticized the present agreement because it 
will not expire until December 31, 1937, but a 
bird in the hand is better than two in the bush, 
and a signed agreement for eighteen months is 
far greater protection than an agreement for six 
months, particularly in a period such as the pres- 
ent when economic conditions are so uncertain. 
With the signing of the new agreement, seamen 
have fought their way back to the wage scale 
that was in efTect during the greatest boom years 
our country has ever seen — and that agreement 
will protect us from a 10 per cent cut every two 
weeks in the event that the financiers see fit to 
kick the bottom out of the stock market again. 

While the present agreement is satisfactory in 
many respects, it is by no means what we want. 
And solidly organized under the proud banner 
of our international union which has led us 
through many a crisis we shall go on and up, 
improving our wage and our working conditions ; 
and increasing our standing among our fellow 
craftsmen in the American Federation of Labor 
to that point when skillful seamanship shall be 
classed among the most honored of professions ! 

And when that day dawns — and it will dawn ! — 
we will know that the life of our leader, Andrew 
Furuseth, was not lived in vain. Even if he should 
not be with us when we attain our goal, he will 
know that at last his prophecy has come to pass — 
"when a seaman is being paid enough to own a 
home and to support a wife and a couple of 
kids !" 

Of course, we cannot do these things on $62.50 
per month, but solidly, organized we will even- 
tually come into our own. We cannot hope lor 
Utopia over night. The past fourteen years have 
given us a great deal to overcome and we must 
not try to go too fast. In the words of Gus 
Brown, "Rome was not built in a day, it took 
five hundred years . . . but that great city was 
destroyed by outsiders in three months!" 

i i i 

"Jack Van der Staay, Baltimore agent of the 
Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association and proud 
owner of the ugliest (and gentlest) bulldog in 
seventeen states, was a visitor to New York re- 
cently. 



66 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



A bill relating to working hours in ships has 
been submitted by the Minister of Commerce to 
the Danish Lower Chamber. Its main object is 
to introduce the eight-hour day at sea where this 
is practicable. Whether or not the Geneva efforts 
to secure an international solution of this ques- 
tion are successful, it is generally believed that 
Denmark will not postpone the matter anew. 

The Ostend Shipping Company recently pur- 
chased a new ship and christened it after the de- 
ceased secretary of the Belgian Transport Work- 
ers' Union, Chris Mahlman. It is the biggest 
steam trawler of Belgium, its length being 140 ft., 
width 24 ft. and tonnage, 352. It returned from 
its first trip with more than 90,000 kilos of fish. 
* * * 

At a recent meeting of the British National 
Maritime Board, a new series of schedules of 
rates of pay was agreed between the shipowners 
and the officers, to come into force on March 23. 
These schedules retain the current tonnage cate- 
gories, increase the seniority and tonnage differ- 
entials in certain cases, and in every case give an 
officer a somewhat higher rate of pay than that 
ruling from 1925 until January, 1932. It will be 
remembered that in 1932 officers' salaries were 
reduced by 10 per cent. 

Here is a choice item from the current issue 
of our esteemed contemporary Syren and Ship- 
ping: "When the Majestic reached Southampton 
the other day, it was discovered that almost as 
many ash-trays as there were passengers on board 
had vanished. If ash-trays were the only articles 
favored by these souvenir-hunters the Cunard 
White Star Line got off relatively lightly, for 
stories could be told of passengers who have been 
highly indignant on being asked to deliver up 
such trifles as cream jugs and cutlery which they 
had stowed in their baggages as mementos of 
a trip." * * * 

In 1935 the British Admiralty Court made only 
four salvage awards, totaling £3,927. These 
were £2,000 to the Newfoundland for the wire- 
less rescue of the Tower Bridge, trapped in the 
ice off the coast of Labrador; £802 to the Far- 



field for the towage of the disabled Estonian 
motor vessel Wirumaa in the Channel ; £660 to 
three Bristol Channel pilots for the beaching of 
the Greek steamer Tsiropinas after she had deen 
damaged by collision ; and £475 to the trawlers 
Vinur and Lorinda for assistance rendered to the 
trawler Bengali when her propeller shaft broke 
in Icelandic waters. 

* * * 

Continued peace is assured in the Swedish ship- 
ping industry. A new agreement provides for 
substantial improvements for seamen. The wages 
of deck and engine-room ratings are restored to 
the level in force in 1933, except for ordinary 
seamen and firemen without sea service, whose 
rates of pay are increased by 1 and 3 crowns a 
month, respectively. This represents an increase 
of 4 to 5 per cent in wages. The same increases 
are granted to the catering department. The 
general provisions have also been improved. The 
principal improvement is the reduction of work- 
ing hours on days of arrival and departure from 
10 to 9. The annual holiday is extended by one 
day, and its length is now five days after one 
and a half year's service (formerly two years). 

* * * 

The rescue of four Spanish airmen, forced down 
into a storm-swept Atlantic when the engines of 
their seaplane failed, was recalled in South 
Shields, when a Spanish Naval Order of Merit 
was conferred upon a Latvian seaman, Martin 
Greve, one of four members of the crew of the 
British steamer Batna, who put out from the 
vessel in an open boat on July 1, 1934, and picked 
up the distressed aviators. Mr. Greve was pre- 
sented with the Silver Cross and Diploma of 
Spanish Naval Merit, conferred by the Spanish 
Ministry of Marine in recognition of his courage. 
The presentation was made by Mr. Robert W. 
Clouston. of South Shields, North-East Coast 
District Secretary of the British National Union 
of Seamen. 

* * * 

The members of the Australian Seamen's 
Union who took the advice of self-styled radicals 
and called a strike against an arbitration award 
are bitterly resentful. According to the Australian 
Worker of Sydney (N. S. W.), representative- 
of the Australian Council of Trade Unions and 
the Seamen's Union interviewed the Federal At- 
torney-General, Mr. Menzies, at Melbourne and 
urged that the licensing system, which has been 



April 1, 1936 THESEAMEN'SJOURNAL 67 

used to break the strike, be withdrawn. It was between the officers' and seamen's organizations, 
stated that the shipowners were dissatisfied with More recently Belgium has been added to the list, 
a large number of strikebreakers, but were unable There a contact committee has been set up, corn- 
to replace them with union men because of the posed of two members of either party. J. Chap- 
rigid licensing system. It was suggested that if elle, of the Seamen's Union, is chairman of this 
the licensing system were abandoned, the seamen committee, O'Becu, Secretary of the Officers' 
would probably return to work. Mr. Menzies sub- Union and Secretary of the Officers' International, 
sequently informed the secretary of the Australian is its secretary. The objects of the cooperation 
Council of Trade Unions, Mr. Crofts, that the are defined as follows: ( 1 ) To promote the co- 
Federal Ministry did not intend to suspend or operation between the executives of the seamen's 
withdraw the licensing system. He had been in- and officers' organizations and between the mem- 
formed by the shipowners that they were quite hers of the organizations in general. (2) To ar- 
satisfied with the licensing system and that the range discussions between the executives concern- 
ships in commission were being efficiently and ing the policy to be followed in negotiations with 
safely run by the strikebreakers. He claimed that the shipowners and their organizations about the 
the licensing system was essential to safeguard the wages and conditions of the different groups. (3) 
position of strikebreakers who had already been To take joint measures calculated to maintain and 
engaged. improve the wages and conditions of the officers 

* * * and seamen. Further, it has been agreed that de- 
Following prolonged negotiations, the British cisions must be arrived at unanimously. If nec- 

shipowners have finally conceded the seamen's essai T a J oint meeting of the executive commit- 

demand for higher wages. The application was tees m ay be convened. At such a meeting the de- 

for an increase of 9s. in the wage of full ratings cision must als0 be unanimous. 

and 6s. for lower ratings, and it was agreed that 

one-half of these increases, 4s. 6d. and 3s. respec- CRITICISM OF THE CONSTITUTION 

tively, should become effective as from February 

24, and the other half as from July 1, next. The Judge Martin T. Manton is the senior judge 

following scale of wages therefore came into of the United States Circuit Court of Appeals 

force on the former date : for the second district, with headquarters in New 

Boatswain £10 Is. Od. York. In a recent eulogy of the late Justice 

Able Seaman £ 811s.0d. oli Wendell Holmes, he declared: 

Carpenter £11 Is. 0d.-£l5 Is. Od. 

Donkeyman £ 9 Is. Od. It is not now the Constitution which is at stake in 

Greaser £ 9 11s. 0d.-£10 Is. Od. these clashes between the so-called conservative and 

Fireman £ 9 Is. 0d.-£10 Is. Od. liberal wings of the United States Supreme Court, but 

Quartermaster £ 9 Is. Od. some pet economic or social theory thrust into the 

Trimmer £ 8 11s. Od. Constitution by the exponents of the old order. 

Ordinary seaman £ 4 5s. 6d.-£ 5 lis. 6d. It is in the re f U sal of the judiciary to see that the 

Chief steward (cargo) £13 Is. 0d.-£15 ls.Od. wor i d mov es on that the danger lies. It is the belief 

Messroom steward (cargo) .... £ 7 11s. 0d.-£ 7 16s. Od. that the Constitution is the receptacle of their own 

Cook steward (cargo) £12 ls.Od. private economic doctrines. 

Chief cook (cargo) £12 Is. 0d.-£14 ls.Od. 

Cook (cargo) £10 Is. 0d.-£12 ls.Od. Of course, if a mere labor paper expressed 

* * * such an heretical opinion, it would be the subject 
Cooperation between the organizations of ship's of numerous letters of protest that it was slurring 

officers and the unlicensed personnel is progress- the character of the justices of the supreme court; 

ing everywhere. In Denmark and Norway it fre- that it was undermining popular faith in the 

quently happens that the organizations of deck judges; that it was seeking to bring the Constitu- 

officers, engineers, deck ratings, stokehold ratings tion itself into disrepute; or some other charge 

and stewards' department make joint representa- J us t as fantastical. 

tions to their respective governments. During the But these words come from a federal judge on 

recent preparatory maritime conference in Geneva a bench second in power and place only to the 

there was evidence of such cooperation in Great supreme court itself. Will the defenders of the 

Britain, with which the Transport and General divine right of the judiciary demand his impeach- 

Workers' Union is also associated. In Holland ment for high crimes or will they be satisfied if 

also direct and regular relations are maintained the charge is only an infamous misdemeanor? 

7 



68 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



Seamen's Journal 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at 525 
Market Street, San Francisco, by and under the di- 
rection of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 



Entered at the San Francisco Postoffice as second- 
class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate 
of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oc- 
tober 3, 1917, authorized September 7, 1918. 

Subscription price $1.00 per year 

Advertising Rates Furnished on Application 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be 
published, provided they are of general interest, 
brief, legible, written on one side only of the paper, 
and accompanied by the writer's own name and ad- 
dress. The Journal is not responsible for the ex- 
pressions of correspondents, nor for the return of 
manuscripts. 



MUTINY OR STRIKE 



APRIL 1, 1936 



CHANGE OF OFFICERS 



At the meeting of the Executive Board of the 
International Seamen's Union of America held in 
Chicago, March 11. 12 and 13, Vice-President 
Ivan Hunter was elected secretary-treasurer as 
successor to Secretarv-Treasurer-Elect Patrick 
O'Brien, who tendered his resignation. 

Secretary-Treasurer Hunter took office imme- 
diately but was obliged to go to the Pacific Coast 
to take personal charge of the interests of the 
International Seamen's Union of America in that 
district. 

Hereafter all communications for the secretary- 
treasurer's office of the International Seamen's 
Union of America should be addressed to: Ivan 
Hunter, secretary-treasurer, International Sea- 
men's Union of America. 666 Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, Illinois. 

Checks, drafts, money orders, etc., intended for 
the International office should be made payable to 
International Seamen s Union of America and 
should be sent to Secretary-Treasurer Hunter at 
the above address. 

The election of First Vice-President Hunter as 
secretary-treasurer created a vacancy on the Ex- 
ecutive Board. The vacancy was left open tempo- 
rarily, but each of the other seven vice-presidents 
were moved forward one number, so that the 
vacant post on the Executive Board is that of 
eighth vice-president. 



The crew of the steamship California, of the 
Panama Pacific Line, a few minutes before sail- 
ing from San Pedro, California, on March 2, 
refused to cast off the lines until the owners 
agreed to pay the West Coast scale of wages. 
The company declined to accede to these demands 
since negotiations with the Atlantic District 
Unions were then in progress in Xew York to 
bring about that very increase. 

After some delay and upon the personal appeal 
of Secretary of Labor Perkins, the crew finally 
decided to take the ship to New York. Upon 
arrival in Xew York a number of the more active 
participants in the strike were logged and dis- 
charged. This caused a lot of more or less wild 
talk about retaliation, which has just about come 
to an end at the time of going to press. 

Out of this controversy has arisen a nation- 
wide talking match centering upon the question : 
Was it mutiny or merely a strike ? 

According to newspaper reports. Secretary of 
Commerce Roper has taken the position that it 
was mutiny while Secretary of Labor Perkins 
has labelled it a strike. 

In order to understand the legal situation, it 
is, of course, necessary to inquire into the law 
and the circumstances. According to the law and 
all judicial opinions, there does not appear to be 
any doubt that seamen can go on strike in any 
safe harbor, when the ship is safely moored, with- 
out being subject to any criminal penalty for such 
action. If they are under articles at the time, they 
will, of course, be unable to collect any wages due 
them, if the law is enforced rigidly. But the 
question arises, did the crew of the California go 
on "strike." 

What is a "strike"? Without resort to a purely 
technical argument, it would seem that it is the 
act of leaving a ship, temporarily, for the purpose 
of securing some concession or remedial action 
from the shipowner in relation to work and 
wages. Did the crew of the California leave the 
job? They did not. They remained on board ship, 
occupied the crew's quarters, and performed the 
work usually required of seamen, but announced 
that they would not take the vessel to sea. It 
would be much the same as though the workers 
in a given factory decided to lay down their tools 
and then to refuse to leave the factory. Their 
right to lay down their tools is one thing, and 



8 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



69 



their right to remain in the factory is quite an- 
other thing. Thus, the right of seamen to leave 
the ship is one thing, and their right to remain 
•on duty, occupying the crews' quarters, and at the 
same time refusing to obey orders, especially 
when they are under articles, is quite different. 

It has already become reasonably certain there 
is likely to be an unpleasant aftermath to the ill- 
advised "strike" of the California's crew. The 
seamen of America have been made free by an 
Act of Congress, they have been given the legal 
right to quit their jobs when the ship is in a safe 
harbor even though they are serving under ship- 
ping articles providing for their return to the 
home port. 

But Congress assumed that this new grant of 
freedom would not be abused. If it is subject to 
frequent abuse the "right to quit" can be taken 
away. And sooner or later Congress will call upon 
the International Seamen's Union of America to 
defend and explain every unjustifiable delay, every 
unnecessary stoppage of work that interferes with 
the departure of ships and free flow of commerce. 

These thoughts are submitted to the member- 
ship for earnest consideration. The International 
Seamen's Union of America has been the under- 
dog for a long stretch of years. We have only 
recently come up for air — for a new and square 
deal. Can we afford to risk all by permitting a 
few irresponsible men to call strikes at their own 
sweet will and pleasure? 



With the enactment of state unemployment 
compensation laws by Indiana and Mississippi, 
just completed, the number of jurisdictions which 
have passed such legislation is brought to twelve. 
The ten others are Alabama, California, District 
of Columbia, Massachusetts, New York, New 
Hampshire, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wis- 
consin. Nine of these laws have been submitted 
to and approved by the Federal Social Security 
Board as meeting the requirements of the Social 
Security Law. 



No one seems to know just how many of New 
York City's 41,649 elevators were "tied up" by 
the recent fifteen-day strike. But there is no 
doubt at all that the strike was a lesson to arro- 
gant "realty" managers. Nearly all the strikers 
are back at work and wages and hours will be 
subject to arbitration. 



SEAMEN'S JOURNAL MOVES TO 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Beginning with the next issue, the "Seamen's 
Journal" will be published in Washington, D. C. 
The change was made by the recent convention for 
two reasons: First, because the nation's capital is 
more centrally located than San Francisco con- 
sidering the membership of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America, and, second, because the 
editor's job has been combined with that of legis- 
lative representative for the International Seamen's 
Union of America. After receipt of this number, 
all correspondence for the "Seamen's Jounal" 
should be addressed to American Federation of 
Labor Building, Washington, D. C. 



WHO PAYS THE BILL 



The revocation of the charter of the Sailors' 
Union of the Pacific has had a curious aftermath. 

Cunning lawyers have solemnly announced that 
repeated, deliberate and flagrant violation of the 
constitution of the International Seamen's Union 
of America does not warrant revocation of a 
charter. The official organs of the Communist 
party heartily approve this point of view. They 
are the only "newspapers" that give constant aid 
and encouragement to the erring brothers. 

Of course, the lawyers must live. And they 
can't live without fees. So the battle over the 
revocation of the charter has been transferred 
to the courts. When the fight is over and when 
the "cash on hand" has been released for dis- 
tribution, there will scarcely be enough to pay all 
the clever boys who champion every day viola- 
tions of the constitution and every hour flouting 
of agreements and awards of Arbitration Awards. 

No, the "cash on hand" will not be enough to 
pay the bill for such extraordinary legal talent. 
There will have to be a levy on the real property 
of the suspended union. And this raises an in- 
teresting point. All the realty holdings of the 
union, the partly owned building in San Fran- 
cisco and the lot in San Pedro were bought and 
paid for long before Olaf Harold Lundeberg or 
any of the shining lights now giving battle to the 
International Union had been admitted to mem- 
bership. 

Lundeberg and his followers are merely squan- 
dering union assets that were accumulated prior 
to their arrival. 

Rather than obey the constitution and the laws 



70 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



of their International Union, they prefer to in- 
dulge in a spending spree. They are having a 
glorious time because the union dues paid by 
seamen of a previous generation were not fed 
to the lawyers ! 



FREE TRIPS FOR FILIPIN* >S 



A ONE SIDED ARRANGEMENT 



The editorial columns of the New York Times 
have directed attention to one phase of the eternal 
struggle for freedom of speech and of the press 
that raises an interesting point. 

We quote from the Times: 

Voltaire told the other man, "I disagree heartily 
with every word you say, but 1 will defend to the 
death your right to say it." But what would Voltaire 
have said if one of the things which the other fellow 
was burning to state was that as soon as he, the other 
fellow, got the chance he would promptly close the 
mouth of Voltaire and everybody else who disagreed 
with him, the other fellow? 

Democracy insists that there shall be freedom of 
speech and press and ballot, and let the best idea win, or 
let the best plausible argument win, or let the largest 
number of votes win. But in great areas of Europe 
they have got rid of all this democratish nonsense 
about freedom of thought. Under the Brown and 
Black and Red dictatorships it is a case of let the best 
concentration camp win, let the best secret police win, 
let the best rifle squad win. 

Yes, indeed, the Communists, the Fascists and 
the Nazi's (that is those who have the privilege 
of sojourning in the United States) are united 
upon one thing : They all insist upon free speech 
and a free press. They must have it to carry on 
effective propaganda for their respective political 
theories, and yet, they know very well that free 
speech and a free press are not tolerated by Stalin. 
Mussolini or Hitler. Moreover, each of these 
three fanatical crews would promptly suppress 
free speech and a free press if either of them 
should ever gain control of our government. 

Certainly, even Voltaire would agree that here 
is a one-sided setup! Here is an arrangement 
that enables the disciples of alien dictators to take 
full advantage of our freedom of speech and free- 
dom of the press to strangle these liberties — when 
and if they obtain control! 



Kindness is the sunshine in which virtue grows. 
Robert G. Ingersoll. 



The Welch Bill providing fur the return of 
Filipinos to their home land at the expense of 
the United States Government passed in 1935. 
but did not become operative through lack of 
appropriation. A deficiency bill, supplying $100,- 
000 for the purpose, has now been approved by 
President Roosevelt and the House Immigration 
Committee lias approved the Welch Bill to extend 
until December 31, 1937, the time which Filipinos 
may be sent home under the bill. San Francisco 
Commissioner of Immigration Cahill explains that 
the plan contemplates payment of traveling ex- 
penses from any part of the United States to San 
Francisco, Los Angeles or Seattle, and for em- 
barkation there in transports or merchant marine 
vessels. He estimates 30,000 Filipinos on the Pa- 
cific Coast, most of them in California and ap- 
proximately one-half of this number have been 
on the relief rolls. It was believed that a large- 
number would avail themselves of the opportunity, 
but that belief has not been verified. In the Sacra- 
mento Valley district, where the number of Fili- 
pinos is estimated at 7,500, less than 50 have 
registered for return. The indications are that 
with nearly two years' time allowed them for 
return, the mass of the Filipinos will stay here, 
even if they have to remain on relief. It would 
seem proper that relief should be refused to any 
Filipino who fails to avail himself of this oppor- 
tunity to return. It should be remembered, how- 
ever, that Caucasian wives of Filipinos, or the 
children of such a union, must pay their own 
e\] tenses in returning. 



THE TOWNSEND PLAN 



The Union Label, Shop Card and Button are 
perpetual boycotts against unfair employers. 



Congress has voted to investigate the Town- 
send Plan. Why? 

It is intimated that Dr. Townsend, who origi- 
nated the plan to take care of old folks, is put- 
ting something over on the common people, that 
he is fostering a scheme economically unsound, 
utterly unworkable, quite absurd and a " fantastic 
panacea." 

Well, let us analyze a few figures. The Town- 
send plan proposes to pay to all above 60 years 
of age $200 per month. The nation's popula- 
tion has been given as 127,521,000. Approxi- 
mately 10,626,750, or one-twelfth of the popula- 
tion, are above 60. It follows that 116,894,250 



10 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



71 



are under 60. Calculating the national income at 
150,168,000,000, the allowance for those over 60 
is $25,504,000,000; under 60 at $211 is $24,664,- 
000,000. Whether this is the national income or 
not, it serves a thought. A congressman is quoted 
as stating 2 per cent of the population own 68 
per cent of the wealth. In other words, 2,550,420 
in the nation are drawing 68 per cent of the in- 
come. This is $34,114,000,000, or $13,376 each. 
This leaves $16,054,000,000 for the 98 per cent, 
who receive $128 each. This is not fantastic 
economics. It is actual living facts. 

Such a condition places the Declaration of In- 
dependence at a disadvantage. Even though it 
declares all men are created equal, they do not 
have equal opportunity today. 

In 160 years, we have given two to own 68, 
and 98 to own 32. Fantastic panacea indeed! 

This is not written as an endorsement of the 
Townsend plan. The Townsend plan may be 
unworkable but there are some things even worse 
than a somewhat fanciful plan to take care of the 
aged. One thing that is much worse is the pres- 
ent lopsided distribution of our national income ! 



LEGAL DEFENSE 



Captain Henry Taylor of San Francisco has 
just issued an interesting circular letter addressed 
to licensed officers in general wherein he advo- 
cates the formation of a Law Defense Associa- 
tion for licensed officers of the American Mer- 
chant Marine. 

The reasons advanced by Captain Taylor for 
the urgent need of adequate legal defense are 
irrefutable. We quote two pertinent paragraphs : 

United States licensed officers are the bravest of 
men and most conscientious in the performance of 
their duties. But when they are called before the 
inquisitors they seem bereft of the splendid character- 
istics of their profession and are at a loss to make any 
reasonably adequate defense in their own behalf. 

Steamboat inspectors are human and as liable to err 
as other humans. No doubt they perform their duties 
as they understand them, and to the best of their 
ability. But a board of inspectors constitutes a small 
court with certain judicial powers. These are often 
exercised to the licensed officer's disadvantage — not 
with any intent to be unfair, but because of obsolete 
laws and a lack of the judicial requisites: a properly 
balanced judicial mind, mental training and knowledge 
of the law. Such deficiencies, plus the pressure of the 
public mind, together with a desire to appear the con- 
scientious public servant, might have a most disastrous 
effect on your future in the event of a deplorable acci- 
dent such as the Morro Castle and Slocum cases. 

As stated, Captain Taylor's arguments are fault- 
less. There should be better legal defense for 



licensed officers. But is it necessary or desirable 
to form a separate and distinct association for 
that purpose? 

We think not. There are already in existence 
entirely too many licensed officers' organizations. 
At present there are at least three organizations 
which solicit members among licensed deck offi- 
cers and at least as many associations for the 
licensed men in the engine department. 

There is only one union for the unlicensed 
personnel of the American Merchant Marine and 
that is the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

Why can't all the little officers' associations 
get together into one union, or at least into one 
union for deck officers and one union for en- 
gineers ? 

Such organizations could provide every sort of 
legal defense and could certainly do it more effec- 
tively than a newly organized defense association. 



BRAZIL EXCLUDES JAPANESE 



New developments in both Japan and Brazil 
have resurrected the old problem of the so-called 
Japanese penetration of Latin-America. The Ja- 
panese in Brazil constitute the second largest 
group of nationals outside the Empire, the largest 
being in Manchukuo. According to statistics re- 
cently released by the Japanese Foreign Office, 
there were 173,500 Japanese in Brazil on October 
\ } 1934— an increase of 40,800 since 1932. This 
bears out the frequent assertions that over 20,000 
Japanese have been entering Brazil annually. 

Shortly after the publication of these figures 
came announcement that there is little chance of 
the Brazilian Government's amending the new 
constitution of 1934, under which less than 3,000 
Japanese are to be admitted annually. The par- 
ticular provision restricted immigration in the 
case of each country to 2 per cent of the total 
number of its immigrants into Brazil during the 
last fifty years. This caused much unfavorable 
comment in Japan, as it was understood to be 
primarily an exclusion measure aimed at the 
Japanese, who have formed the most important 
migratory group in recent years. 

It was understood that the number of immi- 
grants already contracted for with the Brazilian 
Government could be sent, but a dispatch reported 
1,000 more Japanese immigrants arriving in Rio 



72 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



de Janeiro as part of Japan's "unfilled quota of 
20,000." 

It is apparent that a movement of even 20,000 
Japanese yearly to Brazil provides little relief 
from the pressure at home, where in 1934 the 
net increase in population was 809,224. But with 
the Japanese quota to Brazil now reduced to less 
than 3,000, Japan's prospects for expansion in 
that direction are at least temporarily dimmed. 

Japan is not the only country that complains 
about pressure of population at home. But Japan 
is powerful and dangerous because she has seized 
on modern military and industrial developments. 
Her basic strength is not great. Japan proper 
contains 148,000 square miles — 10,000 square 
miles less than the State of California. Three- 
quarters of Japanese land cannot be tilled ; yet 
on this cramped and largely barren area, she has 
more than 64,000,000 people. Her fisheries are 
of enormous value ; but her mineral resources are 
scanty. Yet her jingoes murder their own states- 
men that they may stand on the prostrate body 
of China, and shake a dripping sword at the 
world. 

Whom the gods would destroy, they first make 
mad — but those whom the gods make mad run 
amuck over peoples who are not mad, and who 
ask only to be at peace. 

Japan under the rule of those who staged the 
recent bloody uprising would be a definite and 
serious menace to the world. 



THE TALE OE THE INCOME TAX 



Uncle Sam's income tax receipts from January 
1 to March 16 of this year totalled $361,428,990, 
a gain over last year of 45.6 per cent, or $113,- 
368,857. 

These figures tell a story of returning good 
times, at least, for those who pay income taxes. 
But the full story is not told until it is carried 
farther back. Here are the figures of income tax 
collections from January 1 to March 15 for the 
last five years. 

1932 $214,338,305 

1933 195,997,604 

1934 236,360,888 

1935 248,060,133 

1936 361,428,990 

Each year, taxes are paid on the previous year's 
incomes. The low point in 1933 marked the nadir 
of the depression in 1932. Collections this year 
are not merely 45.6 per cent greater than those 



of last. They are 85 per cent greater than those 
of 1933. And that tells the real story. 

For the prosperous groups of the United States, 
the depression is pretty well over. For the work- 
ers, it is lessened comparatively little. There was 
a S]/ 2 per cent rise in wages in 1935. which was 
cancelled by an equal increase in living costs. 
Nine million workers are still looking for jobs — 
this includes 3,500,000 now on relief jobs, which 
do not pretend to be a perfect substitute for regu- 
lar, properly paid work in industry. And as far 
as industry is concerned, only 1,024,000 more 
were employed at the beginning of this year than 
at the beginning of last. 

The prosperous prosper; but fair play for the 
workers still lags. It is highly important that 
Congress remember that fact. 



COMMUNIST INCONSISTENCY 



A Moscow announcement by the assistant Com- 
missar of War of the Soviet Union, states Russia 
has a standing army of 1,300,000, the largest in 
the world. In addition, Russia has vast reserves 
approximating 15,000,000 men, all of whom have 
had considerable military training and who can he 
equipped. She is building an enormous number of 
airplanes, and in fighting planes is believed to be 
superior to any other country. 

Since Hitler's frank declaration that the way to 
German expansion lies in the direction of Russian 
territory, the Soviets have been extremely fearful 
of attacks by some sort of a coalition of capitalistic 
nations. This, together with the threat of trouble 
with Japan in Eastern Siberia, has caused feverish 
preparation for war. 

It is Russia's right to defend herself, of course, 
just as it is the right of any other nation. 

The ironical side of the picture presents itself 
in the anti-war agitation the Communist Party, in- 
spired by official Soviet bodies, carries on in other 
countries. 

Leading Communists are found at the forefront 
in every peace parade in the United States and in 
England. Communist zealots carry huge banners 
inscribed with mottoes urging an end to capitalistic 
wars and admonishing the workers to refuse to 
fight, the while the system of government they 
advocate in Russia is arming to the teeth. 

Apparently this is another case where the same 
sauce is not good for both the goose and the 
gander. 



12 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



73 



"MY COUNTRY THIS OF THEE" 



Gold was discovered in California in January, 

1848. Artisans dropped their tools, farmers left 

their fields, lawyers fled from clients, rich and 

poor threw aside the business at hand — all in one 

overwhelming rush for the Golden West. In 1849 

the gold rush was in full tide and the chantey of 

the Argonaut filled the land : 

"Oh, California, that's the land for me! 
I'm bound for Sacramento 
With my washbowl on my knee." 

And they were welcome. But at last the gold 
was gone and the fields desolate. Then enterpris- 
ing Californians discovered the sun, advertised it 
perhaps not wisely but too well, and invited the 
world to bask in its gracious glow. 

Apparently too many of the wrong people heard 
the call, accepted the invitation and drifted toward 
the sun with the coming of the bleak days. 

Anyway, California is now trying to turn back 
the tide of indigent sun prospectors by patrolling 
the borders with forces that are reminiscent of 
the old vigilance committees and which, with 
characteristic western initiative, interpret the law 
to suit the needs at hand. 

Perhaps, under the press of business, Califor- 
nia is making a mistake in pushing around un- 
fortunate people deluded into believing they are 
free agents in a free country. It is not good for 
Americans to learn that not even the warmth of 
the sun is free to them any more and that they 
are virtual outcasts in a land that once they be- 
lieved to be "my country." 

It is a cheap defense for safe, comfortable 
people to abuse the human wreckage of a dis- 
organized social system for being wreckage. 

Such inhuman devices can no longer masquer- 
ade under the disguise of " Americanism." And 
it is a pleasure to report that some of our promi- 
nent men are beginning to gag at the subterfuge. 
For one, Charles R. Gay, president of the New 
York stock exchange, appears to be willing to 
examine the evidence dispassionately. In the 
course of a recent speech, he said : 

If 10,000,000 of our people are to be forever cut off 
from the opportunity to earn a living in industry; if 
there is no way to save our farmers except through 
endless subsidies; if currency stability is a myth and 
the only true measure of value is an "index number" — 
if we are sure of these things, then it is high time we 
got down to the business of adapting our law to the 
hard facts. 

That passage goes cleanly to the root of the 

matter without once appealing to prejudice, the 



flag or the founding fathers. Mr. Gay seems to 
understand that American indigents are seeking 
the warmth of California's sun, not because they 
are vicious, but because they can't afford coal and 
because even the warmth of human understand- 
ing has been denied them. 

Further, it is interesting to note that Mr. Gay 
seems to be trifling with the idea that if the peo- 
ple can't be made to fit the Constitution, then 
perhaps the Constitution can be made to fit the 
people. 

DIESEL ENGINEERING 



The increasing use of Diesel engines in the 
automotive, marine, stationary and locomotive 
fields will require thousands of trained men dur- 
ing the next few years. 

The Diesel engine is the power plant of the 
future! Its applications are legion in Industry 
and Commerce of the entire world. It uses cheap 
and plentiful fuel, universally obtainable. Its 
economical operation cannot be approached by 
any other engine or power generating medium. 

The Journal therefore welcomes the appear- 
ance of a new book by Orville Adams entitled 
Elements of Diesel Engineering. 

The author is a man with a specialized educa- 
tion and with experience in training men for 
business and industrial work. In addition to writ- 
ing extensively on Diesel engines, Mr. Adams is 
the author of widely sold text books and has 
helped prepare important training courses on the 
subject of operation, care and repair of all types 
of modern Diesel power plants. 

This book includes much original data based 
on the author's operating and servicing work on 
Diesel engines for over twenty years. Unneces- 
sary details, illustrations and catalogue descrip- 
tions have been eliminated in favor of discussions 
of fundamental principles, elements of operation 
and basic Diesel engine theory and practice, that 
teach Diesel engineering and trains Diesel experts. 

The book has 450 pages and 284 illustrations. 
The price is $4.00. Publishers, The Norman W. 
Henley Publishing Co., 2 West 45th St., New 
York, N. Y. 

If you wish success in life, make Perseverance 
your bosom friend, Experience, your counselor, 
Caution your elder brother, and Hope your guar- 
dian genius. — Addison. 



13 



74 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



SHIPPING NEWS 



A bulletin issued by the American Bureau of 
Shipping reports that on March 1 there were 
building in American shipyards to the classifica- 
tion of the bureau 99 vessels of 153,855 gross 
tons. Other vessels building included 37 steel 
vessels of 12,055 gross tons and one wooden ves- 
sel of 400 gross tons. Included in the American 
Bureau total are 13 tankers, ranging from 7,070 
to 11,400 gross tons. 

Meager clues seem to have blocked headway 
of the police investigation into the knife-slaying 
of George \Y. Alberts, chief engineer of the 
freighter Point Lobos, on March 22 while the 
vessel was at her berth in Oakland, California. 
The authorities are still hopeful that the offer of 
a $1,000 reward for information leading to the 
capture and conviction of the slayer or slayers 
will hasten the solution. 

The Italian salvage ship Arpionc has located the 
British steamer Washington, which was torpedoed 
by a German submarine in March, 1917. The ves- 
sel was bound for Genoa with a cargo of metals. 
The Washington lies in 55 fathoms, and the two 
divers who explored her state that the whole cargo, 
which consists of 150 tons of copper and 800 tons 
of various other metals, is still intact. After 12 
days of hard work, 50 tons of metal were brought 
up and taken to Genoa. 

W. R. Chamberlin's steam schooner Phyllis, 
long a familiar figure in Pacific ports, will sail 
the Coast no more. She lies a hundred yards 
from the rocky shore five miles south of Port 
Orford, Ore. When the vessel suddenly started 
to leak on the evening of March 9, her master 
was forced to beach her in an effort to save the 
cargo and the lives of his crew of 21. As far 
as the crew was concerned, the attempt was suc- 
cessful. The cargo, consisting of general mer- 
chandise insured by local underwriters and valued 
at about $70,000, is a total loss save for the sal- 
vage price of $1,300 paid by the wreckers. 

The consolidated report of American-Hawaiian 
Steamship Company and subsidiary companies, 
shows February net profits from operation was 
$118,976, as compared to a net loss of $51,437 
in February, 1935. After allowing for deprecia- 



tion and after capital gains or losses there was a 
net profit of $72,270 as compared to a net loss 
of $101,699 the year before. For the two months 
ended February 29 net profits from operation 
was $224,129, as compared to net loss of $59,617 
the same period in 1935. The net profit after 
allowing for depreciation and after capital gains 
or losses for the two months ended February 29, 
was $125,224 as compared to a net loss of $181,- 
993 for the same period in 1935. 

W. A. Coulter, for nearly a half century fore- 
most California painter of sea subjects, died 
March 15, aged 87. He had been ailing but a few 
days and his death was unexpected. He is sur- 
vived by his widow and two sons, James Coulter 
and Stephen Coulter. Both of Coulter's sons 
adopted the sea as a profession and served for a 
number of years afloat before coming ashore. Mr. 
Coulter's last picture upon which he was engaged 
before his death was a view of the Golden Gate 
Bridge. From his home at Sausalito he enjoyed 
a never-ending panorama of activities on San 
Francisco Bay and many of his canvasses depicted 
the scenes thus revealed. Some years ago Mr. 
Coulter painted a "Ship in a Storm" for repro- 
duction in a special edition of the SEAMEN'S 

Journal. 

Word comes from England that the Union 
Steamship Company of Xew Zealand is reported 
to have made tentative arrangements for a con- 
ference to be held in London next April between 
representatives of the British, Canadian, Austra- 
lian and Xew Zealand Governments, to discuss 
plans for a subsidy and reservation of the coastal 
trade between New Zealand and Australia. It is 
also reported that in the Dominion House of 
Commons, it was proposed to increase by £20,000 
the subsidy of the Canadian-Xew Zealand serv- 
ice. The Minister for Trade and Commerce ex- 
plained that the increase was needed to meet the 
competition of highly subsidized United States 
lines, as without it the service would probably 
have to be discontinued, and, in view of the im- 
portance of the trade with New Zealand, the 
Government felt that they were justified in giving 
this additional help. 

That fires at sea are increasing is the disturbing 
news received by British marine underwriters. The 
annual report of the Liverpool Underwriters' As- 
sociation announces that the association's records 
show that last year 292 cases of fires in steamers 



14 






April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



75 



and motorships of over 500 tons gross were re- 
ported against 278 in 1934. Of the fires last year 
57 were in bunkers and 235 in cargoes, compared 
with 49 in bunkers and 229 in cargoes during 
1934. The totals for each year were less than the 
average number of fires for the period 1925-35, 
which was 436. The figures for last year included 
26 serious cases, of which 17 were in foreign ships 
and nine in British, and of these 12 resulted in 
total losses, two of the ships lost being British and 
the remainder foreign. The Italian lines' Ansonia, 
of 13,000 tons gross, which became a constructive 
total loss at Alexandria, Egypt, last October, was 
the year's outstanding disaster. 

Transatlantic travel between Europe and the 
United States and Canada during 1935 showed a 
decided improvement compared with the volume 
in the previous year. The westbound carryings 
were 250,052 and the eastbound 247,642, while 
those for 1934 were 233,583 and 232,726, a total 
of 497,694 against 466,309. With regard to this 
increase of over 31,000, however, it should be re- 
membered that the figures do not include travel 
between North America and the Mediterranean, 
a route from which a certain volume of business 
must have been deflected to the Conference Lines 
by the Italo-Abyssinian conflict. It is interesting 
to note that the Cunard White Star carryings, 
which were 118,269 in 1934, rose to 134,362, or 
over 16,000 more last year. Most of the leading- 
lines also showed better results, an exception being 
the United States Lines, whose numbers dropped 
from 47,187 in 1934 to 43,868 last year. 

Not all the vessels built by governments these 
days are warships or superliners. The British 
admiralty, for example, has just ordered a non- 
magnetic ship of 680 tons from a Clyde construc- 
tion company. It will be constructed almost en- 
tirely of wood and bronze. This ship is to re- 
place the non-magnetic Carnegia, which was lost 
about five years ago. The new boat is named the 
Research, and is to be used almost wholly for 
scientific work. Non-magnetic ships are used to 
investigate such obscure matters as the variation 
of the earth's magnetic field. The field is always 
changing and affects compasses and navigation. 
It is thought, too, that its variation may have 
some bearing on the fact that certain areas are 
practically impervious to wireless communication. 
From the Research, also, oceanographic surveys 
will be made, and certain magnetic instruments 



will be tested. The data obtained will not be held 
for Britain alone, but will be available to the 
whole world. 

The new motorship Batory, second transatlantic 
liner built by the Gdynia America Line since 
Poland recovered her independence in the World 
War, will leave Gdynia on May 18 on her maiden 
voyage to New York. The new ship was launched 
last July at the Monfalcone shipyards in Trieste, 
Italy, and, like her sister ship, the Pilsudski, will 
be paid for in coal, which the Polish Government 
will ship to the Italian railways over a period of 
five years. She will be operated with the Pilsudski 
between New York and Gdynia, with stops en 
route at Halifax and Copenhagen, the two liners 
being scheduled to make a total of twenty round 
trips during the present year. The Batory will 
accommodate 800 passengers, and will make the 
New York-Gdynia run in eight and one-half days, 
a reduction of three and one-half days from 
former schedules. Her best accommodations will 
be tourist class. With the completion of the 
Batory, Poland will have a merchant fleet of 
eighty-six vessels of about 200,000 gross tons, a 
development in fifteen years from a one-ship mer- 
chant marine. 

The White Star line's Majestic and Homeric 
have been offered for sale for breaking-up — 
90,972 tons gross to be taken from the Atlantic 
Ferry and scrapped. Such announcements are re- 
minders of the passage of time, and of the way 
even such magnificent vessels as these become 
out-of-date and redundant. Since the Cunard and 
White Star lines were merged, seven vessels of 
the fleet (including the Homeric) have been dis- 
posed of, making a total of 277,352 tons, and this 
figure will be raised to 333,973 when the Ma- 
jestic follows her smaller consorts. Of the six 
that have already passed away, five were White 
Star liners — Adriatic, Albertic, Calgaric, Olympic 
and Doric — and only one, the Mauretania, a Cu- 
narder. The Majestic and Homeric are also ex- 
White Star ships, and when they go the only 
representatives of that fleet will be the Georgic, 
Britannic and Laurentic, totalling 73,426 tons 
gross, alongside which there will be the Cunarders 
Alaunia, Andania, Antonio, , Aquitania, Ascania, 
Aurania, Ausonia, Berengaria, Carinthia, Fran- 
conia, Laconia, Lancastria, Samaria and Scythia, 
aggregating 297,252 tons, and the new Queen 
Mary of some 80,000 tons. 



15 



76 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



LABOR NEWS 



Once more Uncle Sam has demonstrated that 
his credit is good. During March the Treasury 
undertook to borrow $1,250,000,000 at interest 
rates varying from \y 2 to 2^4 per cent. Within 
24 hours the loan was oversubscribed from five 
to seven times. 

When the Roosevelt administration came in 
three years ago, prices of stocks and bonds were 
at record lows. But on the fourth of March of 
this year the picture had undergone a marvelous 
change, and official figures were produced to show 
that the value of stocks listed on the New York 
Stock Exchange, alone, had gone up $31,000,000,- 
000 during the last three years — or practically 
enough to wipe out the national debt. 

The second meeting of the Asiatic Labor Con- 
gress, which was established at Colombo in 1934 
by workers' organizations in India, Ceylon and 
Japan, will be held in Tokyo, Japan, from 10 to 
12, April 1936. The organizations concerned in 
India and Ceylon have already accepted the in- 
vitation of the Japanese Trade Union Congress, 
and the participation of workers' delegates from 
China, the Philippines, Java and Palestine is being 
sought. 

Comprehensive legislation to bar undesirables 
from the United States has been urged upon 
Congress by Senator Reynolds of North Caro- 
lina, who contends there are 3,500,000 aliens in 
this country who are ineligible even to apply for 
citizenship. Senator Reynolds asserted that Amer- 
ica has the "worst immigration laws" of any 
country in the world, and particularly pointed to 
England's rigid restrictions against pauper im- 
migrants. 

The Business Advisory Council, composed of 
50 prominent business men who offer advice to 
the Government, particularly the Commerce De- 
partment, is reported to favor an unemployment 
census and a plan for such an undertaking in 
1937 is said to be under serious consideration in 
official quarters. No physical count of the unem- 
ployed has actually been taken since 1930, al- 
though the scientific estimates of the American 
Federation of Labor are generally accepted as 
sound and these now show the unemployed to 
number about 12,600,000. 



With the 1936 fishing season opening on June 
25, the Alaska Packer fleet is being placed in 
readiness for the annual voyage to Alaskan 
waters. First of the fishing crew is scheduled to 
sail April 1 on the Arctic. Sailing dates of other 
vessels are: KvicJiak. April 10; Chilkat, April 
15: Knak, May 1: Kvichak, May 1; Dclarof, 
May 9; Bering, May 11 ; Chirkof, May 12: Arc- 
tic, May 20. Approximately 2,~?()i) fishermen will 
make the trip, and predictions of a record catch 
are forecast this season. The men will remain in 
the Northland until the latter part of August or 
early September. 

The ability of some of the persons in the for- 
eign service of the United States to capitalize their 
experiences abroad for private profit is revealed by 
the payments which Warner Brothers Pictures. 
Inc., made to James W. Gerard, former ambassa- 
dor extraordinary and plenipotentiary of the 
United States to Germany. Upon his return to 
America Mr. Gerard wrote a book, entitled "My 
Four Years in Germany." Warner Brothers paid 
him $50,000 for the right to film his book and 
$100,000 additional as his share of the profits 
made from the picture. According to the testi- 
mony in the suit revealing these facts it cost War- 
ner Brothers $50,400 to film the book. It was 
claimed the firm made $130,000 from the movie. 

Uncle Sam conducts a big book store in con- 
nection with the Government Printing Office, 
doing a heavy mail-order business— and all the 
works of one publisher, Uncle Sam himself. In 
this book store 538,698 orders were received last 
year, with receipts of Sn.v.414.43. showing a 
clean profit of $266,321.58 — turned over to the 
federal treasury. A total of 428,950,907 publi- 
cations were distributed — nearly one-half of which 
were for the Agricultural Relief Administration, 
205,622,911, and the next largest number for the 
Federal Emergency Relief Administration. 82,- 
311,650. For sending out government publica- 
tions 3,414 mailing lists are maintained, and last 
year 27,646,607 addresses were printed. 

The long uncertainty regarding the annual and 
sick leave to which Government employees are en- 
titled was settled when President Roosevelt signed 
the two measures on this subject recently enacted 
by Congress. The measures, which are retroac- 
tive from last January 1. fix the annual leave at 
26 days, exclusive of Sundays and holidays, and 
the sick leave at 15 days. It will be possible for 
employees to let their annual leave accumulate up 



16 



April 1, 1930 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



77 



to 60 days and sick leave up to 90 days. The two 
bills apply to nearly all civilian Federal employees, 
wherever stationed, and to District of Columbia 
employees except school teachers and librarians. 
In the postal service the bills apply to depart- 
mental employees and those in the mail bag 
equipment shops. 

The extent to which individual initiative is being 
overridden by collective action in the modern busi- 
ness world is illustrated in the announcement that 
Timber Distributors, Ltd., the British organiza- 
tion formed to negotiate with the trade represen- 
tatives of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 
for all the timber purchases from the Soviet Union 
for Great Britain, have concluded a contract for 
importations valued at five million pounds ster- 
ling. The timber covered by the contract represents 
the entire British requirements from the Soviet 
Union for the next season, which begins in April. 
The British Government arranged for the quan- 
tity to be purchased after making allowance for 
importations from Sweden and Finland and the 
probable amount available from Canada. 

Many thousands of members in American Fed- 
eration of Labor unions in Philadelphia, repre- 
sented by the Trade Union Conference Against 
War, are demanding that Congress place an em- 
bargo on all trade between the United States and 
belligerent nations. Included in this large group 
are employees in various industrial plants which 
are either directly or indirectly engaged in pro- 
ducing munitions or material of value to warring 
nations. Alfred Hoffman, chairman of the organ- 
ization, recently said : "Labor groups believe that 
the Federal Government should make provisions 
to adequately compensate workers thrown out of 
employment as a result of stopping shipments to 
warring nations. This would be cheaper than war 
and probably a good deal more effective in the 
long run." 

The National Labor Relations Board reports 
that since its organization for active operation last 
September, it has received charges of unfair labor 
practices, or petitions for elections to determine 
employee representation, in 466 cases, involving 
121,499 workers (figures complete through De- 
cember 31, 1935, include cases handled in Wash- 
ington and in 21 regional offices). One hundred 
seventy-five of the 466 cases, involving 34,635 
workers, were closed during that three months' 
period. The disposition of these 175 cases illus- 
trates the present ability of the board to close more 



than one-third of the cases brought before it, 
doing so in most cases during the informal, pre- 
liminary stages, and in all cases to date before 
recourse was had to court procedure under the act. 
Some of the cases were withdrawn by the com- 
plainants ; in some insufficient reason was found 
to issue a complaint; in a very great many cases 
compliance with the law was achieved by informal 
means. 



WHO CAN ANSWER? 



President Green of the American Federation of 
Labor again emphasizes that there is still no 
prospect of work for more than a mere handful 
of the 11,400,000 unemployed. 

"If we count on improving business alone to 
put the unemployed to work, we may expect little 
improvement in this situation," he says. "In De- 
cember, 1935, business activity was 21 per cent 
above December, 1934, but employment zvas only 
4 per cent higher. Clearly re-employment is not 
keeping pace with the rise in business activity." 

Mr. Green says that gains the last half of 1935 
are of small significance, however, when compared 
with the magnitude of the problem we face. "No 
solution is in sight," he adds. "America faces the 
stubborn fact that unemployment will always be 
with us unless we insist on finding jobs for these 
millions in industry, where they can create the 
wealth for their support." 

Then Mr. Green asks: "Are we willing to ac- 
cept permanent unemployment?" 

On the answer to this question depends per- 
haps more than anything else the future of this 
nation. 



Science took a handful of sand, constructed a 
telescope, and with it explored the starry depths 
of heaven. Science wrested from the gods their 
thunderbolts ; and now the electric sparks, 
freighted with thought and love, flashes under 
all the waves of the sea. Science took a tear 
from the cheek of unpaid labor, converted it into 
steam, created a giant that turns with tireless 
arm the countless wheels of toil. — R. G. Ingersoll. 



The characteristic of human excellence is an 
imperfection that knows itself and constantly 
strains towards the perfect. — Charles Beard, B.A. 



17 



78 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



International Seamens' Union of America 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor 
and the International Seafarers' Federation 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 
President: Andrew Furuseth, American Federa- 
tion of Labor Building, Washington. D. C. Vice- 
Presidents: Percy J. Pryor, 5 Rowes Wharf, Boston, 
Mass.; Oscar Carlson, VO South Street, New York 
City; D. E. Grange, 61 Whitehall Street, New York 
City; G. H. Brown, 59 Pearl Street, New York City; 
C. W. Deal, Ferry Building San Francisco, Cal; 
Jas. Hayman, 1038 Third Street, Detroit Mich.; 
Claude M. Goshorn, 810 N. Clark Street, Chicago, 
111. Editor: Paul Soharrenberg, 525 Market Street, 
San Francisco, Cal. Secretary-Treasurer: [van 
Hunter, 666 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

In Ports designated by an asterisk (*) the Sailors, Firemen 
and Cooks maintain Joint Agencies. 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR. Secretary 

5 Rowes Wharf. Phone Liberty 1449 
Branches 

BOSTON, Mass MILLER JENSEN, Agent 

330 Atlantic Avenue. Phone Liberty 1336 

NEW YORK, N. Y G. H. BROWN, Agent 

59 Pearl Street. Phone Whitehall 4-3596 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa GEORGE FERGUSON, Agent 

41 South 4th Street. Phone Lombard 7543 

BALTIMORE, Md GERRITT VAN DER STAAY, Agent 

1700 Fleet Street. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Main 3524 

HOUSTON, TEXAS ROBERT J. NOVAK, Agent 

1212 75th Street. Phone Wayside 2377 

GALVESTON, Texas HARRY FLOYD, Agent 

318% 23rd Street. Phone 799 

•PROVIDENCE, R. I M. SULLIVAN, Joint Agent 

375 Richmond Street. Phone Plantation 4281 

•MARCUS HOOK, Pa N. DANIELS, Joint Agent 

2 West Third Street. Phone CHester 5-2371 

•NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Joint Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone Norfolk 25801 

•SAVANNAH, Ga CHARLES WA1D, Joint Agent 

107 Whitaker Street 

•MOBILE, Ala WILLIAM ROSS, Joint Agent 

57% Government Street. Phone Dexter 1449 

•PORT ARTHUR, Texas W. F. HILL, Joint Agent 

311% Procter Street. Phone Port Arthur 1066 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS AND WATERTEN DERS' 
UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

70 South Street. Phone John 0975 
Branches 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MOGAN, Agent 

132 Broad Street. Phone Liberty 5763 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa JOSEPH CONSIGLIO, Agent 

222 Market Street. Phone Lombard 9194 

BALTIMORE, Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

1700 Fleet Street. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHAS. THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Main 3524 

GALVESTON, Texas HARRY FLOYD, Agent 

318% 23rd Street. Phone 799 

HOUSTON, Texas JOSEPH LAKOVIC, Agent 

1212 75th Street. Phone Wayside 2377 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, President 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 9-7670 and 9-7671 

Branches 
NEW YORK, N. Y. (West Side Branch) 

JAMES ALLEN, Agent 

72 Cortlandt Street. Phone Cortlandt 7-9192 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

1 Rowes Wharf. Phone Liberty 4057 

BALTIMORE, Md BERTRAM WARN, Agent 

426 East Pratt Street. Phone Calvert 0008 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa. CHAS. HOUGAARD, Agent 

201 Chestnut Street. Phone Lombard 6580 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. T. KAIZER, Agent 

527 Canal Street. Phone Raymond 5666 

HOUSTON-GALVESTON, Texas 

JOSEPH W. ENGLAND, Agent 

1403 75th Street. Phone Wayside 8321 



ASSOCIATED MARINE WORKERS OF THE PORT OF 
NEW YORK AND VICINITY 

NEW YORK, N. Y WM. A. MAHER, Sec'y-Treas 

119 Broad Street. Phone Bowling Green 9-8455 

UNITED BOATMEN'S UNION OF THE PORT OF 
NEW YORK AND VICINITY 

NEW YORK, N. Y MICHAEL WALL, Sec'y-Treas. 

105 Broad Street. Phone Whitehall 4-9034 

FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 
BOSTON, Mass 5 Rowes Wharf 

NOVA SCOTIA SEAMEN'S UNION 

HALIFAX, N. S SAMUEL C. CONNELL, Sec'y-Treas. 

39 John Street 

HARBOR BOATMEN'S UNION OF CAMDEN, 
PHILADELPHIA AND VICINITY 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa J. T. MORRIS, Secretary 

303-A Marine Building, Delaware Ave. and South St. 

FRANKLIN COUNTY BOATMEN'S UNION 
APALACHICOLA. Fla G. W. MELVIN, Secretary 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters 

CHICAGO, 111 VICTOR A. OLANDER, Secretary 

CLAUDE M. GOSHORN, Treasurer 
810% North Clark Street. Phone Superior 5175 

Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y J. W. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN. Agent 

1426 West Third Street. Phone Main 1842 

DETROIT, Mich CARL WICKARD, Agent 

1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 

MILWAUKEE, Wis CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

730 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS. WATERTENDERS AND 
COAL PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

DETROIT, Mich IVAN HUNTER, Secretary 

JAS. HAYMAN, Treasurer 

1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 

Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y J. W. ELLISON, Agent 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

211 Blackstone Bldg.. 1426 W. Third St., Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, Wis FRANK SULLIVAN, Agent 

730 South Second Street. Phone Dally 0489 

CHICAGO. Ill JOHN McGINN, Agent 

103 South Wells Street, R. 607. Phone Franklin 5784 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

BUFFALO, N. Y J. M. SECORD, Secretary 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7391 

CLEVELAND. Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

211 Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. Third St. Phone Main 1842 

DETROIT, Mich- _ IVAN HUNTER, Secretary 

1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 

MILWAUKEE, Wis OTTO EDWARDS. Agent 

730 South Second Street. Phone Broadway 489 

CHICAGO, 111 S. R. LITTLE. Agent 

402 North Clark Street 



RIVER DISTRICT 

UNITED BOATMEN OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 
AND ITS TRIBUTARIES 

MEMPHIS, Tenn JAMES MOORE, Secn-tary-Treasur. r 

164 West Iowa Avenue 

PACIFIC~DISTRICT 

INTERNATIONAL SEAMEN'S UNION OF AMERICA 

Pacific District Office, 64 Pine Street, San Francisco, Calif. 

Phone Garfield 0052 

PACIFIC COAST MARINE FIREMEN, OILERS, 

WATERTENDERS AND WIPERS' ASSOCIATION 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif EARL KING, Secy 

58 Commercial Street. Phone Kearny 3699 

SEATTLE, Wash JAMES ENGSTROM, Agent 

King St. Dock, foot of King St. P. O. Box :'"'> 
Phone Seneca 4320 

SAN PEDRO, Calif B. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

111 West Sixth Street. Phone 2X38 

PORTLAND, Ore J. E. FERGUSON. Agent 

111 Burnside Street. Phone Beacon 4336 



18 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



79 



MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION OF 

THE PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif EUGENE F. BURKE, Sec'y 

86 Commercial Street. Phone Kearny 5955 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash JACK CONNERS, Agent 

Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock. Phone Main 2233 

PORTLAND, Ore WM. McCOURT, Acting Agent 

127 South Burnside Street. 

SAN PEDRO, Calif JOSEPH O'CONNOR, Agent 

512% South Beacon Street, P. O. Box 54 

FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif C. W. DEAL, Secretary 

Room "B," Ferry Building. Phone Douglas 8664 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash JOHN M. FOX, Branch Secretary 

220 Maritime Building. Phone Elliott 4928 

PORTLAND, Ore R. A. HICKOX, Branch Secretary 

520 S. W. Second Avenue. Phone Beacon 1895 

SAN PEDRO, Calif PAUL R. BENSON, Branch Sec'y 

605 S. Beacon St. 

ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif ANDREW VIGEN, Secretary 

49 Clay Street. Phone Sutter 6452 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash OSCAR ANDERSON, Agent 

86 Seneca Street, P. O. Box 42. Phone Elliott 3425 

PORTLAND, Ore MARTIN E. OLSEN, Agent 

520 S. W. Second Avenue. Phone Beacon 1895 



DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Secretary 

86 Seneca Street, P. O. Box 65. Phone Elliot 6752 
Branch 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska GUST OLSEN, Agent 

P. O. Box A17 

COPPER RIVER AND PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND 
FISHERMEN'S UNION 

CORDOVA, Alaska MISS ESTHER OLSEN, Secretary 

P. O. Box 939 

SALMON PURSE SEINERS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

SEATTLE, Wash J. F. JURICH, Sec-Treas. 

84 Seneca Street 

HERRING FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

SEATTLE, Wash P. DALE, Secretary 

84 Seneca Street 

DEEP SEA AND PURSE SEINE FISHERMEN'S UNION 

SAN PEDRO, Calif GEORGE IVANKOVICH, Sec-Treas. 

212 West Sixth Street 

COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE 
UNION 

ASTORIA, Ore ARVID MATTSON, Secretary 

P. O. Box 281 

ROGUE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
GOLD BEACH, Ore HARRY E. BRIGGS, Sec'y-Treas. 

EUREKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

EUREKA, Calif G. A. SVENSON, Secretary 

P. O. Box 541 



Youth 

Even youthfulness has its draw- 
backs. 

The octogenarian, Mr. Jones, dur- 
ing an operation for the rejuvenation 
of youth, became very impatient. 

"Don't be so restless," growled 
the nurse. 

The poor man went on moaning 
and sobbing. 

"I'm not crying because of pain," 
explained the old man, "I'm afraid 
I'll be late for school." 



The Last Straw 
"I don't mind washing the dishes 
for you," wailed the hen-pecked hus- 
band. "I don't object to sweeping, 
dusting or mopping the floors, but 
I'll be damned if I'm gonna run rib- 
bons through my nightgown just to 
fool the baby." 



An Optimist 

A negro, father of twelve children 
whom he had rocked in the same 
cradle, was putting his latest arrival 
to sleep. 

Mandy: Rastus, dat cradle's just 
about worn out. 

Rastus: Hit sho' is. You all better 
get another one, a good one, one 
that'll last. 



Home Training 

Teacher to small pupil: Spell 
4 straight." 

Pupil: S-t-r-a-i-g-h-t. 

Teacher: Correct; what does it 
mean? 

Pupil: Without ginger ale. 



Swap 
"Joe, you carry the baby and let 
me have the eggs. You might drop 
them." 



INSPIRATION 

(By Henry David Thoreau) 



If with light head erect I sing, 

Though all the muses lend their 
force, 
From my poor love of anything 
The verse is weak and shallow as 
its source. 

But if with bended neck I grope, 
Listening behind me for my wit, 

With faith superior to hope, 

More anxious to keep back than 
forward it — 

Making my soul accomplish there 
Unto the flame my heart hath lit, 

Then will the verse forever wear — 
Time cannot bend the line which 
God has writ. 

I hearing get, who had but ears, 
And sight, who had but eyes be- 
fore; 
I moments live, who lived but years, 
And truth discern, who knew but 
learnings' lore. 

Now chiefly is my natal hour, 

And only now my prime of life; 
Of manhood's strength it is the 
flower, 
'Tis peace's end, and war's begin- 
ning strife. 

It comes in Summer's broadest 
noon, 
By a gray wall, or some chance 
place, 
Unseasoning time, insulting June, 
And vexing day with its presum- 
ing face. 

I will not doubt the love untold 
Which not my worth nor want 
hath bought, 
Which wooed me young and woos 
me old, 
And to this evening hath me 
brought. 

19 



INFORMATION WANTED 

William J. Burns was injured on 
the steamship Atlantic of the Argo- 
naut Line in April, 1935, during 
course of employment. 

Will anyone knowing his where- 
abouts communicate with him, ad- 
vising that he should write the under- 
signed at once. Lucien V. Axtell, 
Attorney, 80 Broad Street, New 
York City. 



Gypped 

Judge: You are charged with vot- 
ing three times. What have you got 
to say about it?" 

Prisoner: Then I've been gypped. 
They only paid me for once. 



Good Headwork 

A young man and woman entered 
a Pullman and were immediately put 
down by other passengers as a 
bridal couple . But the pair were so 
self-possessed that the others began 
to doubt if their surmise was right 
after all. 

As the train moved out of the 
station, however, the young man 
rose to remove his overcoat, and a 
shower of confetti fell on the floor. 

The other occupants of the car 
smiled broadly, but the young man 
was equal to the occasion. 

Turning to his partner he re- 
marked loudly: "I've taken the 
bridegroom's overcoat by mistake!" 



In Advance 

First Dancer — Do you know 
what people will say about you if 
you run around with that play- 
boy? 

Second Dancer — Yes, my publicity 
men already have their instructions. 



80 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April l. 193d 



Taylor's Nautical Academy 

FOR NAVIGATORS AND MARINE ENGINEERS 
Established 1888 

Consular Bldg., Corner Washington and 

Battery Sts., opp. New Custom House, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

THIS OLD AND NOTEWORTHY 
SCHOOL is under the direct and per- 
sonal supervision of CAPT. HENRY 
TAYLOR, and equipped with all mod- 
ern appliances to illustrate and teach 
any branch of Navigation. 

The class of teachers of Navigation 
in the past have been those hav- 
ing simply a knowledge of Navigation 
and Navigation only. Conditions have 
changed, and the American seamen de- 
mand a man as a teacher with higher 
attainments than one who has only 
the limited ability of a seaman. The 
Principal of this School, keeping this 
always in view, studied several years 
the Maritime Law, and is now, in ad- 
dition to being a thorough teacher of Navigation and its kindred subjects, 
a regularly admitted Member of the Bar. 

There is no standard of education required of a pupil entering the 
School, for no matter how ignorant the seaman may be, even in the 
rudiments of common education, Captain Henry Taylor will teach and 
raise him from the depths of ignorance to the height of the average well- 
informed man, and in a comparatively short interval of time. 




Phone GARFIELD 2076 

DR. EDMOND J. BARRETT 

DENTIST 

Rooms 2429-30, 450 Sutter Building 

Hours: 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. and 

by Appointment 



PACIFIC NAVIGATION 
SCHOOL 

CAPT. J. H. HOLM 

Instruction in Practical Navigation 

and American Citizenship 

Phone GArfield 7138 
252 Clay Street San Francisco 




TOBACCO ^KrH&^I^INTERNATIONAl 




) ALL INFRINGEMENTS UPON THIS lABtl 
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BROWN & WILLIAMSON 
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BROWN & WILLIAMSON TOBACCO CORP. 



Professional Cards 



Attorney for the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific since its organization 

H. W. Hutton 

631 Pacific Bldg., Fourth & Market Sts. 

SAN FRANCISCO 

PHONE DOUGLAS 0315 



Albert Michelson 

ATTORNEY-AT-LAW 

Attorney for 

Pacific ("oast Marine Firemen, Oilers. 
Wat. rtenders and Wipers' Association 

611 Russ Bldg. Tel. SUtter 3866 

San Francisco, California 

ALVIN GERLACK 

Attorney-at-Law 
845 Mills Building 

Bush and Montgomery Streets 

SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Telephone DOuglas 1123 



- 1 S&E ■■ 



Now in Our New Location 

"624 MARKET* 

Opposite Palace Hotel 




-BOSS- 

YOUR UNION TAILOR 



THE 

James H. Barry Co. 

The Star Press 



Printing 



1122-1124 MISSION STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

We Print "The Seamen's Journal' 



Help 

Have you ever found that some 
so-called help is a hindrance? 

A man. struggling in a doorway 
with a piano, was glad of the offer 
of assistance from a passer-by. 

A fresh struggle began, and after 
half an hour's tugging and straining 
the owner of the piano remarked : 
"Phew! At this rate it will take us 
hours to get the bloomiu' thing 
out!" 

"( >ut?" almost screamed the other. 
"Why didn't you say you wanted it 
out? I've been trying to push it in!" 



20 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



81 



INTERNATIONAL SEAMEN'S UNION 
OF AMERICA 

Thirty-third Convention 

Washington, D.C., January 13 to February 15, incl., 1936 



Official Report of Proceedings 



FIRST DAY 
Monday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 13, 1936. 

The Thirty-third Convention of the International 
beamen's Union of America was called to order in the 
Gold Room of The Lee House, at 10 a. m., President 
Andrew Furuseth presiding. 

Mr. Frank Morrison, Secretary of the American 
Federation of Labor, was introduced and extended 
fraternal greetings on behalf of the Federation. 

President Furuseth reported that in accord with 
Article VIII, Section 1, of the International Seamen's 
Union of America Constitution, he had appointed the 
following Committee on Audit and Credentials: Ivan 
Hunter, Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and 
Coalpassers' Union of the Great Lakes; Percy J. 
Pryor, Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association, and 
C. H. Angle, Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the 
Atlantic and Gulf. 

REPORT ON CREDENTIALS 

Chairman Ivan Hunter, on behalf of the Committee 
on Audit and Credentials, submitted the following 
report on Credentials: 

The Committee on Audit and Credentials, appointed 
by the President in accord with Section 1 of Article 
VIII of the Constitution of the International Seamen's 
Union of America, herewith respectfully submits a 
report on credentials as follows: 

The Committee has carefully scrutinized all creden- 
tials received up to the present and has examined the 
books of the Secretary-Treasurer to ascertain the pay- 
ments made by the District and Local Unions for the 
past fiscal year, which ended November 30, 1935, as 
provided in Article VIII, Sec. 2, of the Constitution, 
in order to determine the number of delegates and 
vote to which each District and Local Union is entitled 
according to Article V, Section 2, of the Constitution. 
Tue Committee regrets to report that some of the 
credentials, on their face, contain evidence of a disre- 
gard of the laws of the International Seamen's Union 
of America. The Committee is also aware of the fact 
that internal dissension of a serious character has de- 
veloped within the International Union during the 
past year and believed there is nothing to be gained 
by evading reference to a condition of affairs which 
to many appears to constitute a deliberate disregard 
and violation of the laws, regulations, principles and 



policies of the International Seamen's Union of 
America by some of its divisions. In order to avoid 
misunderstanding and to make it clear that *he mem- 
bers of the Committee have no desire to shirk respon- 
sibility, the Committee feels obliged to say that it is 
firmly convinced that to safeguard and promote the 
interests of the general membership of the Union, 
wherever they may be there must be orderly proce- 
dure in all parts of the Union, proper recognition of 
the laws and regulations of the International Union 
and due respect for the rights of all members under 
all circumstances. The Committee is of the opinion, 
however, that the best way to deal with the problem 
is to ignore the unfortunate condition of certain of 
the credentials and to seat as accredited delegates all 
who have presented credentials from District or Local 
Unions, known to be a part of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America, in order that all may be 
accorded a voice in the discussions on the floor of the 
Convention and a vote on any decisions which may 
ultimately be reached. The Committee, therefore, rec- 
ommends the seating of delegates and apportionment 
of the vote, as follows: 

Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association, Inc 89 votes 

Delegates: 

Percy J. Pryor 15 votes 

George Cummings 15 votes 

Gustav H. Brown 15 votes 

Albert Keller 15 votes 

Adolf Kile 15 votes 

Gerritt Van der Staay 14 votes 

Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' 

Union of the Atlantic and Gulf 83 votes 

Delegates: 

Oscar Carlson 28 votes 

John Bley 28 votes 

Patrick Keane 27 votes 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the 

Atlantic and Gulf 104 votes 

Delegates: 

David E. Grange 21 votes 

James Allen 21 votes 

C. H. Angle 21 votes 

R. T. Kaiser 21 votes 

Bertram Warn 20 votes 



82 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



Harbor Boatmen's Union of Camden, 

Philadelphia and vicinity 1 vote 

Delegate: J. T. Morris 1 vote 

Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes 7 votes 

Delegates: 

Victor A. Olander 4 votes 

Patrick O'Brien 3 votes 

Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and 

Coalpassers' Union of the Great Lakes 9 votes 

Delegate: Ivan Hunter 9 votes 

Sailors' Union of the Pacific 57 votes 

Delegates: 

Ed Coester 29 votes 

Al V. Quittenton 28 votes 

Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, 

Watertenders and Wipers' Association 54 votes* 

Delegates: 

Earl King 9 votes 

James Engstrom 9 votes 

Ray Farrell 9 votes 

J. E. Ferguson 9 votes 

A. \Y. Murphy 9 votes 

Gus Oldenberg 9 votes 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Association 

of the Pacific Coast 56 votes 

I Megates: 

E. F. Burke 19 votes 

Jack Conners 19 votes 

Joseph O'Connor 18 votes 

Alaska Fishermen's Union 2 votes 

Delegate: Andrew Vigen 2 votes 

Ferryboatmen's Union of the Pacific 12 votes 

Delegate: C. W. Deal 12 votes 

The total number of delegates listed in this report 
in accord with all credentials received is thirty-one. 

The records of the International Union and the 
books of the Secretary-Treasurer also indicate that 
additional District and Local Unions from which no 
credentials have been received up to the present are 
entitled to representation as follows: 

Nova Scotia Seamen's Union 1 vote 

Columbia River Fishermen's Protective Union 3 votes 

Deep Sea Fishermen's Union of the Pacific 11 votes 

Eureka Fishermen's Union 1 vote 

Rogue River Fishermen's Union 1 vote 

United Boatmen of the Mississippi River 
and Tributaries 1 vote 

Other organizations on the books of the Interna- 
tional Union are in arrears more than three months in 
their per capita tax payments and these are, therefore, 
not entitled to representation. 

The Committee recommends that the thirty-one 



* Increased to 59 votes on second day on account of 
additional tax payment, thus allowing 10 votes each to 
five of the delegates and 9 votes to the sixth. 



delegates listed in this report be seated as delegates i 
in the Convention. 

Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) Ivan Hunter, 
(Signed) C. H. Angle, 
(Signed) P. J. Pryor. 
Committee on Audit and Credentials. , 

The report oi the committee was adopted by unani- 
mous vote and the delegates were seated accordingly. 

Under instructions of the Executive Board, a Con- 
vention reporter had been engaged to make a verbatim 
record of the proceedings of the Convention. 

Delegate Patrick J. Keane was named to act as 
Sergeant-at-Arms. 

Moved by Delegate Patrick O'Brien, .seconded and 

carried by unanimous vide, that reports and resolu- 
tions be considered in the Committee of the Whole, 
following the procedure adopted in the convention of 
1930. 

RULES OF ORDER 

Secretary Olander read the rules of order governing 
the 1930 convention, and Delegate < J'Brien moved that 
the same rules be adopted to govern the procedure of 
the present convention. The motion was seconded 
and Delegate King moved as an amendment that the 
rules be taken up seriatim. The amendment was sec- 
onded, and both the mover and seconder of the origi- 
nal motion agreed to accept the amendment. The 
motion was then carried by unanimous vote. 

Rule 1 of the 1930 Convention was adopted as read. 

Delegate King moved to amend Rule 2 to provide 
that resolution.-, might be presented after 6 o'clock 
p. m. of the second day by a majority vote of the Con^ 
vention, rather than by unanimous consent. The 
amendment was seconded, but was ruled out of order 
by the ("hair because it was in conflict with Section 8, 
Article Y ni the International Constitution. The rule 
was declared adopted because it is a part of the Con- 
stitution. 

Delegate King asked to be recorded as being op-* 
posed to the unanimous consent provision of the con- 
stitution. 

Rule .} of the \ { >M) Convention was adopted as read. 

Interruption 

Delegate King moved that two men claiming to 
represent marine firemen of Boston, present in the 
hall without credentials, be seated as fraternal dele- 
gates. The motion was seconded. 

Delegate Brown raised a point of order, which was 
sustained by the Chair, to the effect that the Inter- 
national Constitution contains no provisions for such 
proceeding. 

Delegate Engstrom then moved that the question 
of seating the men from Boston be taken up imme- 
diately after the rules of order had been finally dis- 
posed of. 

President Furuseth ruled that the Convention had 
already determined, bv unanimous adoption of the 
Credential Committee's Report, who should be seated 
as delegates representing the Firemen's Union of the 
Atlantic. 

Delegate O'Brien moved that the two men in <]ues- 
tion be asked to withdraw from the Convention. The 
motion was seconded and declared carried. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



83 



Delegate Quittenton asked to be recorded as voting 
igainst the motion. 

: Secretary Olander pointed out that the order of 
business, that of providing rules, was being disre- 
garded. 

Resumption 

Consideration of the rules of order was resumed, 
ind Rules 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 of the 1930 Convention were 
idopted as read. 

The rules as adopted are as follows: 

Rule 1. The Convention shall convene each day at 
):30 a. m., adjourn at 12 o'clock noon, reconvene at 
I p. m., and adjourn for the day at 5 p. m. 

Rule 2. All resolutions must be presented to the 
Secretary before 6 o'clock p. m. of the second day 
)f the Convention, after which resolutions may be 
ntroduced only by unanimous consent of the Con- 
tention. 

Rule 3. No resolutions will be accepted unless they 
ire presented in duplicate form. 

Rule 4. Three delegates from any two organiza- 
tions may call for a vote by roll call. 

Rule 5. No delegate shall be allowed to speak on 
iny subject longer than ten minutes, nor to speak on 
the same subject twice, until every delegate who de- 
sires to speak has had an opportunity to do so, and 
then not more than twice without the consent of the 
Convention. 

Rule 6. Any delegate may be called to order when 
speaking, and shall stop until the point of order is 
decided, and should the decision be against him he 
may appeal to the Convention. 

Rule 7. When a motion is stated by the Chair, it 
is in the possession of the Convention and cannot 
be withdrawn without the consent of the Convention. 

Rule 8. Roberts' Rules of Order shall be the au- 
thority to decide questions and rules of order not 
specified herein. 



STATEMENT OF PRESIDENT 

Vice-President Hunter presided while President 
Furuseth made the following brief statement: 

"Welcome to the Convention. The legislative report 
up to adjournment of Congress has been sent out and 
published. I hereby submit copies of the following 
bills that have been passed, namely, "Citizenship," 
"Owner's Liability," and "Load Line." I further sub- 
mit the bills, S. 3500 and S. 3501, which have been in- 
troduced by Senator Copeland, and some other bills, 
together with a letter from Mr. Bland. With reference 
to the Maritime Conference at Geneva, Switzerland, 
under the auspices of the International Labor Office, 
I have the records which were made there in the office 
and in due time they will be submitted to you. I at- 
tended the conference as the official labor delegate 
appointed by the Government of the United States. 
I had intended to visit the Scandinavian countries 
and possibly Holland before going to Geneva. That 
became impossible and I went ashore at Plymouth and 
from there to London. I was heartily received by the 
British delegation that was going, and they promptly 
put me in amongst themselves and provided for me 
to travel with them to the Convention, stay at the 
same hotel during the Convention, and return with 
them from the Convention. They further promised to 
send me a report on manning of ships prepared by 
the National Union of Seamen and submitted to the 
owners. There have been several very serious disas- 
ters at sea and four investigations, the comments 
upon which by the press was promised to be sent to 
me. A cablegram from Mr. Spence shows that this 
material left London on January 7 so that it should 
be here in a day or two, all of which will be laid be- 
fore this Convention." 

The report of the President was adopted on motion 
of Delegate O'Brien, and the bills mentioned were 
referred to the Committee of the Whole. 

At 12 o'clock noon the Convention adjourned to 
reconvene at 2 o'clock p. m. 



FIRST DAY 
Monday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2:25 o'clock 
by President Furuseth. 
Absentee: Burke. 

COMMUNICATIONS AND TELEGRAMS 

Secretary Olander, during the day, read messages 
from the following individuals and organizations: from 
the Secretary of Labor, Frances Perkins, expressing 
regret at being unable to attend the Convention; from 
Charles Bradhering, Agent of the Sailors' Union, 
Frank Sullivan, Agent of the Marine Firemen's Union, 
and Otto Edwards, Agent of the Marine Cooks' Union 



of Milwaukee; from Ernest Misland, Treasurer of the 
Marine Firemen, Oilers and Water Tenders' Union 
of the Atlantic and Gulf; from C. M. Goshorn, Acting 
Secretary of the Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes: 
from Miller Jensen, Agent of the Boston, Eastern and 
Gulf Sailors' Association, the latter four messages ex- 
pressing best wishes for a successful convention. 

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-TREASURER 

Secretary Olander read his report to the Conven- 
tion, which was referred to the Committee of the 
Whole for consideration, as follows: 



84 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1. 1936 



REPORT OF SECRETARY-TREASURER 
VICTOR A. OLANDER 



Washington, D. C, January 13, 1936. 

To the Officers and Delegates, Thirty-third Convention of 
the International Seamen's Union of America. 

Greeting: 

In accord with the laws and practices of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America, I herewith re- 
spectfully submit this report as Secretary-Treasurer. 

OUTLOOK FOR FUTURE 

The outlook for the progress of the union in the 
future is brighter than at any previous time in the 
history of the organization, if all divisions of the In- 
ternational Union can be induced to develop a greater 
sense of national unity and responsibility than they 
have shown in the past and provided they agree to 
more orderly procedure in relation to the agreements 
into which they enter. On the other hand, the outlook 
is gloomy to say the least, if any other procedure is 
followed. The reasons for this are manifold. Attempts 
to evade responsibilities will ultimately have disas- 
trous effects. 

DISTRICT AND LOCAL UNIONS 

The District and Local Unions of the International 
Seamen's Union, grouped by districts, are as follows: 

ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association, Inc., with 
headquarters in Boston, Mass., and branches in the 
following ports: 

Boston, Mass. Savannah, Ga. 

Providence, R. I. Mobile, Ala. 

New York, N. Y. New Orleans. La. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Port Arthur, Texas 

Marcus Hook, Pa. Galveston, Texas 

Baltimore, Md. Houston, Texas. 

Norfolk, Va. 

Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union 
of the Atlantic and Gulf with headquarters in New 
York, N. Y., and branches as follows: 

Boston, Mass. Savannah, Ga. 

Providence, R. I. Mobile, Ala. 

New York, N. Y. New Orleans, La. 

Philadelphia, Pa. Port Arthur, Texas 

Marcus Hook, Pa. Galveston, Texas 

Baltimore, Md. Houston, Texas 

Norfolk, Va. 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Atlantic 
and Gulf, with headquarters in New York, N. Y., and 
branches as follows: 



Boston, Mass. 
Providence, R. I. 
New York, N. Y. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Marcus Hook, Pa. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Norfolk. Va. 



Savannah, Ga. 
Mobile, Ala. 
New Orleans, La. 
Port Arthur, Texas 
Galveston, Texas 
Houston, Texas 



Associated Marine Workers of the Port of New 
York and Vicinity, with headquarters in New York 
N. Y. 

United Boatmen's Union of the Port of New York 
and Vicinity, with headquarters in New York, N. Yi 

Harbor Boatmen's Union of Camden, PhiladelphU 
and Vicinity, with headquarters in Philadelphia, Pa. 

Franklin County Boatmen's Union, Apalachicola 
Florida. 

Nova Scotia Seamen's Union, Halifax, Nova Scotia 

Fishermen's Union of the Atlantic, with head- 
quarters in Boston, Mass. 

GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 
Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes, with headquar- 
ters in Chicago, 111., and branches as follows: 

Chicago, 111. Detroit, Mich. 

Buffalo, N. Y. Milwaukee, Wis. 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Coal 
Passers' Union of the Great Lakes, with headquarters 
in Detroit, Michigan, and branches as follows: 

Chicago, 111. Detroit, Mich. 

Buffalo, N. Y. Milwaukee, Wis. 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Greai 
Lakes, with headquarters in Buffalo, N. Y., anc 
branches as follows: 



Chicago, 111. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Cleveland, Ohio 



Detroit, Mich. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 



PACIFIC DISTRICT 

Sailors' Union of the Pacific, with headquarters ii 
San Francisco, Calif., and branches in the following 
ports: 

San Francisco, Calif. Portland, Ore. 

Seattle, Wash. San Pedro, Calif. 

Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenderj 
and Wipers' Association, with headquarters in Sai 
Francisco, Calif., and branches in the following ports 

San Francisco, Calif. Portland, Ore. 

Seattle, Wash. San Pedro, Calif. 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Association of the Pa 
cific Coast, with headquarters in San Francisco, Calif, 
and branches in the following ports: 

San Francisco, Calif. Portland, Ore. 

Seattle, Wash. San Pedro, Calif. 

Ferryboatmen's Union of the Pacific, with head 
quarters in San Francisco, Calif., and branches in thi 
following ports: 

San Francisco, Calif. Portland, Ore. 

Seattle, Wash. San Diego. Calif. 



1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



Alaska Fishermen's Union, with headquarters in 
>an Francisco, Calif., and branches as follows: 

San Francisco, Calif. Portland, Ore. 

Seattle, Wash. 

Deep Sea Fishermen's Union of the Pacific, with 
eadquarters in Seattle, Wash., and branch in Ketchi- 
an, Alaska. 

Columbia River Fishermen's Protective Union, As- 
bria, Ore. 

Rogue River Fishermen's Union, Gold Beach, Ore. 
J Eureka Fishermen's Union, Eureka, Calif. 

RIVER DISTRICT 

United Boatmen of the Mississippi River and Its 
rributaries, Memphis, Tenn. 

CONVENTIONS 

The present convention is the thirty-third held by 
he International Seamen's Union of America during 
he forty-three years of its existence as a national 
Ind international union. Six years have elapsed since 
he thirty-second convention was held in January, 
p30. At that convention, the Executive Board was 
uthorized to change the convention date if it deemed 
ecessary. The country w r as then entering upon a 
eriod of economic depression which still prevails to 
)me extent. The financial condition of the various 
istrict and local unions in 1931 was such as to make 

difficult, if not impossible, for most of them to send 
elegates to a convention. For that reason the Execu- 
ve Board decided upon a postponement. 

The following year, 1932, an even worse condition 
revailed. Again a postponement was ordered. The 
>w point in the depression was reached during the 
rst quarter of 1933, and the effect upon the union 
s a whole was such that the holding of a convention 
t that time was utterly out of the question, with the 
2sult that another postponement was necessary. Pos- 
ibilities of improvement began to be apparent in the 
ummer of 1933, but had not become sufficiently ef- 
sctive to permit of a convention in January, 1934. 

During the late spring of 1933, certain developments 
Dok place, which will be discussed in other divisions 
f this report, as a result of which the membership 
f the union began to increase. But the general finan- 
ial condition of the various organizations at the end 
f that year was still such as to make it difficult to 
rrange for the holding of a representative convention, 
"he subject was, however, a matter of earnest dis- 
ussion among the members of the Executive Board. 
Jo decision was reached. 

In the fall of that year, 1934, I put the matter be- 
ore the Executive Board by stating that unless in- 
tructed otherwise I intended to issue a call for a 
leeting of the convention on the customary date, 
amely, the second Monday of the following January. 
5oard members objected, stating that the time was 
lopportune, for various reasons which seemed to be 
/ell founded. A discussion among the members fol- 
awed, with a suggestion of various dates, none of 
diich proved to be satisfactory. 

In August, 1935, I informed the president and others 
hat I intended to issue a call for the convention to 



meet on the customary date, namely, the second Mon- 
day in January, 1936, because I was of the opinion 
that any further delay would give rise to a suspicion 
that the officers of the Union did not desire to have 
a convention held at this time. I was then requested 
to withhold the call for a while longer and this I 
agreed to do. It was finally issued over my signature 
as Secretary-Treasurer, and met with no objections 
as to its date, so far as I am aware. 

One of the district unions, the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific, requested that the convention city be changed 
from Washington to San Francisco. The Executive 
Board decided that the action of the thirty-second 
convention as to the convention city was decisive 
and final, and that the Board had no authority to 
make any change in that respect. That convention, 
as has already been stated, authorized the Board to 
alter the convention date. 

THE ECONOMIC DEPRESSION 

When the Thirty-second Convention adjourned six 
years ago, the country was entering upon an era of 
economic depression of greater intensity than it had 
ever experienced in all its previous history. Private 
relief agencies soon found it impossible to meet the 
ever increasing demands of destitute and hungry 
people. The situation continued to grow steadily 
worse during the years 1930, 1931, 1932 and the early 
part of 1933. Trade union organizations everywhere 
of all sorts were declining in membership at an alarm- 
ing rate because of the inability of the unemployed 
members to continue to meet their financial obliga- 
tions. Under such circumstances it was practically 
impossible to carry on any effective organizing cam- 
paign. In this respect, the so-called "radical" groups 
which were seeking to develop organizations in oppo- 
sition to the regular labor movement were as unsuc- 
cessful as the trade unions. 

It seemed that about the only thing to do was to 
"dig in" in an effort to hold together as much as 
possible of the organizations then in existence. This 
condition of affairs was particularly acute among the 
seamen. Unemployment in the country had reached 
tremendous figures, estimated at over 13,000,000. It 
had become necessary to set up a great federal relief 
system to supply the necessities of life to many mil- 
lions of the citizens. Under such circumstances, the 
outlook for trade union activities was indeed very 
dark and seemed almost hopeless. 

This state of affairs continued, as I have already 
indicated, until March, 1933, when a political change 
took place which proved to be of great consequence 
to the trade union movement as well as to the nation 
at large. It is important that we should remind our- 
selves of the deplorable conditions which had existed 
prior to the date just mentioned, especially in relation 
to the organized labor movement, and the character 
of the events and activities which, within a few months 
thereafter, so changed conditions as to give a great 
impetus to trade union organization throughout the 
country. Those events and activities were political 
in their character in the sense that they were encour- 



M> 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



aged and carried out under the supervision and guid- 
ance of the federal administration at Washington. I 
refer particularly to the activities of the National Re- 
covery Administration as established following the 
passage of the National Industrial Recovery Act in 
June, 1933. 

The depression still continued. Unemployment had 
not yet been abated. It had been necessary to still 
further expand the public relief system. Yet, not- 
withstanding this, the organized labor movement sud- 
denly found it possible to forge ahead in a very sub- 
stantial manner. Trade union activities, doomed to 
almost certain failure had they been attempted during 
the depression, prior to June, 1933, proved to be suc- 
cessful soon after that date, as a result of new federal 
government policies. I emphasize this point for the 
following reason, namely, that since so much of what 
occurred resulted from government activities and de- 
pended for their continuance, under the circumstances, 
largely upon the attitude of the government, it is 
manifestly unwise, and indeed almost foolhardy for 
those movements or organizations which have bene- 
fited thereby to now disregard the government and 
its departments and agencies and to insist that they 
do not feel called upon to give any consideration to 
the attitude, views, requests and advice of the gov- 
ernment, other than to make it the subject of com- 
plaint and criticism. Any temper of that sort, which 
has unfortunately developed within the western divis- 
ion of the International Seamen's Union of America, 
may be frought with very serious consequences in 
the not distant future. 

NATIONAL RECOVERY ADMINISTRATION 

Immediately upon the introduction of the bill which 
afterwards became the National Industrial Recovery 
Act, in 1933, I sought diligently to acquaint myself 
with its terms and possibilities in relation to the in- 
terests of the International Seamen's Union of Amer- 
ica and its general membership. After having studied 
the act, following its passage, I proceeded to the na- 
tional capital. The shipowners had taken the position 
that they were not covered by the new law. No ship- 
ping division had been set up in the National Re- 
covery Administration. I immediately engaged in 
such activities as seemed best calculated to get some 
results for the seamen. In a very short time, the 
appointment of a deputy administrator for shipping 
was announced. I was requested to act as labor ad- 
viser and to this I agreed, although I was already 
overburdened with other duties. In the meantime, I 
sent advice to all divisions of the International, sug- 
gesting methods whereby they might submit their 
proposals and requests in the most effective manner 
to the National Recovery Administration. They fol- 
lowed my advice. 

The labor provisions of the first draft of the pro- 
posed shipping code, as submitted by the shipowners, 
were entirely unsatisfactory. It seemed to me that it 
was most essential that any shipping code which 
might be ultimately approved should contain labor 
provisions definitely calculated to not only permit 



but to encourage the development of trade unions 
within the industry. 

As an offset to the labor proposals of the shipown- 
ers, I submitted a maritime board plan which had 
been approved by the Executive Board of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union in 1930. The shipowners 
opposed that plan. It was also opposed by the repre- 
sentatives of an organization calling itself the "Ma- 
rine Workers Industrial Union." 

At the public hearings which followed, practically 
all of the legitimate trade unions in the maritime in- 
dustry endorsed the plan. In the discussion and ma- 
neuvering which followed, the labor provisions of the 
then pending code, as relating to the development of 
organization opportunities, were very materially im- 
proved. However, they lacked any definite declaration 
for the right of trade union representatives to visit 
the ships. Every effort was made to have a provision 
of that sort included and I succeeded in securing fav- 
orable action from the Department of Labor, the 
Labor Advisory Board of the N. R. A., a majority of 
the Inter-departmental Committee, appointed by the 
Government to examine the pending code, and also a 
favorable opinion of the Deputy Administrator. But 
the shipowners nevertheless continued their opposi- 
tion to that proposed clause. 

In the meantime, representatives of the "Marine 
Workers Industrial Union" were conducting a cam- 
paign against our International Union. They charged 
that the International Seamen's Union of America 
did not represent the seamen. The shipowners were 
also taking the position that our organization was not 
a representative body. They refused to meet with 
representatives of the I. S. U. of A. 

In the spring of 1934, due mainly to objections 
raised by the State Department in relation to the 
possible effect of the pending code upon foreign ship- 
ping, the Government decided to appoint another 
Inter-departmental Committee for the purpose of 
studying the subject and to delay action until some 
time in the fall. 

The seamen everywhere, while watching the prog- 
ress made in relation to other industries, had very 
properly been expecting some results from the N. 
R. A. The postponement of action was a shock. As 
a means of arousing their interest and safeguarding 
the union in its standing as a representative body, 
the secretary-treasurer's office, in 1933. had inaugu- 
rated and directed a campaign to have non-union men 
sign statements authorizing the union to act for them 
and pledging themselves to join the organization as 
soon as they were financially able to do so. Approxi- 
mately 12,000 such signatures were received and sub- 
mitted to the N. R. A. An equal number of pledge 
cards had been issued to non-union men. This en- 
abled them to feel, notwithstanding the fact that the 
unemployed among them had no money with which 
to pay initiation fees and dues, that they were never- 
theless connected with the union and were helping 
in its activities in their own interests and for the 
benefit of all seamen. The effect was, of course, to 
stimulate the desire for action. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



87 



Developments among the longshore workers were 
having a similar effect. The International Longshore- 
men's Association was also the subject of attack by 
the "Marine Workers Industrial Union." 

It was to be expected that restlessness aboard ship 
and along the docks and wharves would increase as 
soon as it became apparent that the pending shipping 
code was about to be shelved, that eventually there 
might be no code for the industry, and that seemingly 
there was little to result from the persistent activities 
of the preceding year. 

The result was a strike on the Pacific Coast, in- 
volving both seamen and longshoremen and including 
great numbers of non-union men, culminating in a 
general strike in the city of San Francisco and a set- 
tlement under Government auspices on July 31, 1934, 
providing for arbitration. Events which followed, and 
which were of very serious consequence, will be dis- 
cussed in another division of this report. 

For a time, during the code proceedings, hearings 
and conferences, the hearings being few but the con- 
ferences great in number, I was fortunate in having 
the very able assistance of Editor Paul Scharrenberg 
of the Seamen's Journal, who also served as labor 
adviser. C. W. Deal, of the Ferryboatmen's Union of 
the Pacific, served helpfully in a similar capacity in 
relation to proposed divisional codes. 

EFFECT OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 
POLICY 

During the years 1930, 1931, and 1932, and the first 
half of 1933, the economic trend was downward. Hope 
for improvement was aroused by the activities of the 
Federal administration which assumed national lead- 
ership when President Franklin D. Roosevelt was 
inaugurated on March 4, 1933. The condition of af- 
fairs at that time is best illustrated in a few words by 
the fact that almost his first act, immediately after 
his inauguration, was to declare a bank moratorium, 
closing every bank in the United States, as a means 
of checking the bank failures which had become almost 
epidemic. 

In June, 1933, the National Industrial Recovery Act 
was passed by Congress. It provided for the develop- 
ment of industrial and commercial codes of fair prac- 
tices through agreement of business groups under 
supervision of the government, and included a labor 
section which became famous as "Section 7 (a)" set- 
ting forth the right of the workers to organize. Under 
the new law, Section 7 (a) was a mandatory part of 
each code. President Roosevelt issued what was then 
known as the President's Reemployment Agreement 
which employers throughout the United States were 
called upon to sign. This was the first act that brought 
Section 7 (a) into effective operation. The result was 
a widespread impetus to trade union organization 
throughout the United States. 

As various codes were developed, further increases 
in trade union organization followed. There was a 
rise in wages and a general reduction in working 
hours. 

In May, 1935, the National Industrial Recovery 



Act was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme 
Court of the United States, in a case involving the 
sale of chickens in the state of New York. While the 
court made no comment on Section 7 (a), the effect 
of the decision was to nullify the entire act which, of 
course, included the labor section. Thus ended the 
famous National Recovery Administration experiment 
to establish business codes, minimum wages, maxi- 
mum hours and other conditions affecting business 
and labor under government guidance and supervision. 

That errors were apparent cannot be gainsaid. That 
there should be faults in administration, and to some 
extent even in the structure itself, was inevitable, in 
the rush and hurry of quickly providing for the en- 
actment and administration of a law of such wide- 
spread significance and effect, requiring government 
activity of a relatively new character. It would seem, 
however, that all of the errors and faults involved in 
connection with the N. R. A. are outweighed by one 
outstanding fact, namely, that the period of its ex- 
istence was the first in all history in this or in any 
other land in which, during a great economic de- 
pression, with millions of unemployed, trade union 
organizations found it possible to substantially in- 
crease their membership, to conduct successful strikes, 
to develop their treasures, to increase wages, reduce 
hours and secure general improvements in working 
conditions. Working people had their hopes revived 
as never before under similar circumstances. And 
these hopes were given expression in successful ac- 
tivities, resulting in material improvement for the 
workers throughout the United States. It was an 
event unique in the history of the world. 

It may be that there are insurmountable constitu- 
tional obstacles against a renewal of all the govern- 
ment activities carried on under the N. R. A. in re- 
lation to intrastate commerce, but it is undoubtedly 
possible to revive the lav in constitutional form as 
relating to interstate commerce. 

In passing, it should be stated that the tentative 
code, partially agreed upon in the maritime industry, 
never materialized because of circumstances and rea- 
sons which will be dealt with in another division of 
this report. 

PACIFIC COAST STRIKE 

In the spring of 1934, a strike took place on the 
Pacific Coast, involving seamen and longshoremen, 
which was brought to a successful conclusion on July 
31, of that year, notwithstanding the fact that when 
the struggle started the trade unions in the industry 
were in a weakened condition, both as to finances and 
membership. As soon as the strike activities started, 
I was requested to name a deputy under Article 
XVIII of the Constitution of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America relating to strikes and lock- 
outs. I responded immediately by appointing Paul 
Scharrenberg, editor of the Seamen's Journal and 
member of the International Executive Board, who 
is also secretary-treasurer of the California State Fed- 
eration of Labor, and who has had long experience 
in trade union affairs. 



88 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



I then proceeded further in a manner calculated to 
be helpful to the Pacific Coast unions and at the same 
time to promote the interests of the organizations in 
the other districts of the International Union and of 
American seamen generally. 

On May 28, I sent a telegram to the President of 
the United States, which he referred to the National 
Labor Board. That Board was then in process of 
change. The attention of various departments was 
being concentrated upon the possibility of a strike in 
the steel industry. 

Upon receipt of a telegram from the National Labor 
Board, stating that President Roosevelt had referred 
my communication to the Board, and requesting me 
to come to Washington, I replied stating that I would 
forward a written statement regarding the conditions 
prevailing in the merchant marine. I began the prep- 
aration of that statement immediately but withheld 
mailing it until there was some clarification of the 
situation in the steel industry which had been absorb- 
ing the attention of the Labor Board and other divi- 
sions of the Government. On June 14, I sent the state- 
ment to Washington. The Board was replaced by 
the then new National Labor Relations Board, with 
Mr. Lloyd Garrison as chairman. In my communica- 
tion, I proposed that since the N. R. A. was apparently 
unable to secure any results in the merchant marine, 
that it lay within the power of other departments of 
the Government to take proper action which would 
result in establishing proper labor relationships and 
employment conditions. 

My intention was to lay a foundation for activities 
that might be continued until conditions in the mer- 
chant marine were adjusted. I think I succeeded in 
doing that because I believe the letter and the general 
procedure it suggests and the policies it outlines not 
only proved of value in 1934 but will continue to prove 
useful for some time to come. 

* I sent a copy of the letter and statement to all dis- 
trict unions under date of June 15, 1934, but it is of 
such importance that it should be included in the rec- 
ords of this convention and I therefore submit a copy 
herewith, as follows: 

Chicago, Illinois, 
June 14, 1934. 
National Labor Board. 
Washington, D. C. 
Gentlemen: 

Under date of June 1, I received the following tele- 
gram from your Board: 

"We urge you to come to Washington early part of 
next week for conference on situation in Seamen's 
Unions as described in your wire of May twenty- 
eight to President Roosevelt. 

"NATIONAL LABOR BOARD." 

On the same date, I replied as follows: 
"National Labor Board, 
National Recovery Administration. 
Washington, D. C. 
"Telegram received. Will forward written state- 
ment regarding conditions now prevailing in the mer- 



chant marine. 



"VICTOR A. OLANDER. 



My telegram to the President was as follows: 

"Hon. Franklin D. Roosevelt, 
Executive Mansion, 
Washington, D. C. 

"I feel it my duty to inform you that 1 believe the 
strike of seamen now in progress on the Pacific Coast 
and the scattered strikes which are now occurring on 
the Atlantic and Gulf coasts are likely to spread in 
the very near future unless some means can be found 
to apply the general principles of the National In- 
dustrial Recovery Act to the merchant marine. The 
men have waited patiently many months for the de- 
velopment of the pending general shipping code in the 
hope that they could have their grievances adjusted 
without resort to strike action but the delay has ap- 
peared to them as practically endless with the result 
that they have reached the conclusion that they have 
no other alternative except to go on strike. If the 
deplorable conditions now existing in the merchant 
marine cannot be adjusted through the Recovery Act. 
then I venture to respectfully suggest that the Gov- 
ernment make use <>\ its powers under the Shipping 
Act a- affecting a large part oi the merchant marine 
by making the continuance or renewal of conference 
agreements under that Act conditional upon the recog- 
nition of the rights of the workers to organize and 
the establishment of proper wage and working condi- 
tions 1 am confident that notwithstanding their 
troubles, the vast majority of the men have the utmost 
faith in you and in your ability to find a way out of 
the present difficulties. On their behalf, I respectfully 
request you to give the situation your earnest atten- 
tion. 

"VICTOR A. OLANDER. Secretary-Treasurer. 
International Seamen's Union of America." 

The statement which I submit hereinafter is based 
upon a series of reports received weekly over a period 
of several months and various letters and telegrams 
which have reached this office during the past four 
weeks from officers and members of the International 
Seamen's Union of America and others at the fol- 
lowing ports: 

Atlantic and Gulf Coast: 
Boston, Massachusetts 
New York, New York 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
Baltimore, Maryland 
Norfolk, Virginia 
Mobile, Alabama 
New Orleans, Louisiana 
Port Arthur, Texas 
Galveston, Texas 

Great Lakes: 
Chicago, Illinois 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
Detroit, Michigan 
Toledo, Ohio 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Ashtabula, Ohio 
Buffalo, New York 

Pacific Coast: 

San Francisco, California 
San Pedro, California 
Seattle, Washington 
Portland, Oregon 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



89 



In presenting a general view of the prevailing con- 
ditions and the reactions of seamen employed in the 
American merchant marine, as reflected in the various 
reports and communications which I have received, 
I would like to have it clearly understood that I am 
not offering any criticism against the National Recov- 
ery Administration, nor indeed against any division 
of the present national administration. It is true, how- 
ever, that all of my correspondents do not feel quite 
as I do on this point. I venture to hope that the reme- 
dies availabe for the unfortunate labor conditions now 
prevailing throughout almost the entire merchant ma- 
rine of the United States will be applied in an effec- 
tive manner by the present administration and within 
a reasonable time. It is in this spirit that I submit 
the following statement on behalf of the International 
Seamen's Union of America and its various affiliated 
divisions and local unions. 

Statement 

The net results of the activities of the National Re- 
covery Administration in relation to the American 
merchant marine to date, a full year after the passage 
of the National Industrial Recovery Act, is that the 
shipowners are now more thoroughly organized than 
ever before in the history of the industry. This con- 
dition represents a climax to the aid and encourage- 
ment afforded them in the development of their organ- 
izations by governmental agencies since the passage of 
the Shipping Act, 1916, legalizing the so-called "con- 
ference agreements," relating to a very considerable 
portion of the merchant marine. 

The widespread and very effective organization thus 
brought about among shipowners has been for some 
time past and is still being used to prevent the sea- 
men from organizing. I used the word "seamen" here 
as referring to all classes of labor employed aboard 
ship. In the meantime the shipowners have been aided 
by the government loans, grants, subsidies and mail 
subventions, in addition to the support which the 
industry receives from the government in the develop- 
ment of harbors, the creation and maintenance of 
channels and canals and various aids to navigation 
which affect every division of the industry from ob- 
scure inland river craft to great ocean liners. 

The labor turnover in the merchant marine is 
greater than that in any other industry. The twelve- 
hour work-day and the seven-day week still prevail 
as minimum working periods in certain parts of the 
industry. Under the law, of course, seamen are al- 
ways subject to call even when "off watch" and, 
under the antiquated two-watch system, involving a 
total of twelve hours daily as a regular routine, the 
men are frequently required to stay on duty sixteen 
or eighteen hours continuously and at times the full 
twenty-four hours of a single day, except for the 
short periods allowed for meals. 

In recent years, their wages have been reduced 
time and time again. The number of men in the crews 
have been reduced and thus the work for each in- 
dividual under such circumstances has been increased. 



On inspected vessels, this reduction in the size of 
crews could not have been accomplished except by 
the consent of the responsible governmental agencies. 
The present condition in the industry is very largely 
traceable to the governmental encouragement and aid 
which was given to the shipowning corporations by 
the United States Shipping Board in the lockout of 
1921, affecting a major proportion of the industry, as 
a result of which there has been an almost universal 
denial of the right of seamen to organize and re- 
establish their trade unions on the basis of the former 
strength and scope of these organizations. Sailors of 
all ratings, marine firemen, oilers, watertenders, wip- 
ers, coalpassers, marine cooks and stewards, and in- 
deed men of every rating in every department of the 
ships, including licensed officers, have suffered as a 
result of this unfair denial of their rights. 

The hopes of all classes of seamen were revived a 
year ago when the National Recovery Act was passed 
by the Congress of the United States and the Presi- 
dent, under authority of that act, organized the Na- 
tional Recovery Administration. The jurisdiction of 
the Recovery Administration, as affecting the mer- 
chant marine, was challenged by the shipowners. 

In August, 1933, I directed the attention of the 
Secretary of Commerce to the fact that under the 
Shipping Act, 1916, it was within the power of this 
department to establish in a large part of the mer- 
chant marine the conditions contempated by the Re- 
covery Act by making the "conference agreements" 
between shipowners under the Shipping Act condi- 
tional upon the establishment of proper labor condi- 
tions. The Secretary of Commerce requested that I 
submit the matter to the Labor Advisory Board for 
such recommendations as that Board might care to 
make. This I did. 

A few days later, the office of the first Deputy 
Administrator for Shipping was opened at the head- 
quarters of the Recovery Administration. In the mean- 
time the Attorney General had ruled that the mer- 
chant marine came within the jurisdiction of the Re- 
covery Act. The Deputy Administrator began nego- 
tiations with shipowners for the presentation of codes. 
The seamen throughout the United States eagerly 
watched the developments. 

A few public hearings were held at which all in- 
terested parties were, of course, given an opportunity 
to present formal statements to the Deputy Admin- 
istrator. The actual development of codes, however, 
takes place in the numerous conferences which pre- 
cede and follow the relatively few public hearings. 

The code committees of the shipowners refused to 
meet representatives of the trade unions of the indus- 
try in any of these conferences. Indeed, it was not 
until in December that they consented to confer even 
with the Labor Advisers appointed by the National 
Recovery Administration, and then they insisted that 
their meeting with the Labor Advisers must not be 
construed as in any way giving the slightest recog- 
nition to the labor organizations of which these ad- 
visers were officers and members. That has been the 



90 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1. 1936 



position of tin- code committee of the American Steam- 
ship Owners' Association and its allied divisions 
throughout the period of code negotiations up to the 
present date. 

In these very difficult and trying circumstances, tin- 
labor provisions of the General Shipping Code were 
nevertheless materially improved, especially in the 
incorporation of sections providing for a national 
shipping labor board and divisional shipping labor 
boards to adjust labor disputes. 

Because of the persistent refusal of the representa- 
tives of the shipowners to meet with the representa- 
tives of the trade unions during the period of the 
development of the pending code, organized seamen 
everywhere expressed the opinion that in order to 
make the labor provisions workable, it would be nec- 
essary to include a section in the code setting forth 
the right of trade union representatives, under proper 
regulations, to visit and confer with seamen on board 
ship. 

The home of the seamen while at work is the ship 
upon which he serves. He lives in quarters which, by 
law, are set aside for his exclusive use. He serves 
under contract or articles during the life of which he 
is subject to certain forfeitures for absence without 
leave. Whenever shipowners undertake to oppose the 
establishment or maintenance of labor organizations 
within the industry, their first step is to prohibit trade 
union representatives from visiting the seamen aboard 
ships, a prohibition which now prevails, with a few 
exceptions, throughout the merchant marine. 

Thus the seamen, isolated from each other by the 
inherent nature of their calling, the laws under which 
they live and work and the rules imposed upon them 
by shipowners, are prevented from effectively exer- 
cising the organization rights and duties set forth or 
implied in the National Recovery Act. That, in brief, 
is why they regard the right of visitation as essential 
to any effective application of the Recovery Act as 
affecting labor in the merchant marine. Indeed it is 
a right that has always been recognized without ques- 
tion in every instance where shipowners have dealt 
with labor organizations in the past. This was true 
during the twenty years or more of collective bar- 
gaining on the Pacific Coast prior to the unfortunate 
events of 1921. It was true during the time that col- 
lective bargaining between the associations of ship- 
owners and the trade unions prevailed on the Great 
Lakes. It has been true when there have been such 
dealings on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is true 
today wherever shipowners or their associations have 
dealings with trade unions. 

The fact that the shipowners code committee has 
so persistently refused to meet with trade union rep- 
resentatives during the period of code development 
has aroused a fear on the part of seamen everywhere 
that this refusal would be continued under the code 
and that its labor provisions will, therefore, be in- 
effective and unworkable. 

This fear has found expression during months past 
in short sporadic strikes at various ports, culminating 



in the strike now affecting all ports on the Pacific 
Coast. The restlessness of other divisions of the mer- 
chant marine must be apparent to any one who care- 
to observe the situation. 

One of the major causes for dissatisfaction and fear 
on the part of seamen is the peculiarly unfair emplo) - 
ment agency systems operated by certain shipowners 
on the Pacific Coast and the Great Lakes, under 
which seamen, as a condition of employment, are 
required to register in these employment agencies and 
to carry so-called "discharge books" or ''grade books" 
in which a continuous record of their services on 
various ships is entered and which they must produce- 
before they can obtain employment. The system im- 
plies a continuous threat of blacklist. 

Private employment agencies in the merchant ma- 
rine are the subject of world-wide condemnation to 
such an extent that the League of Nations, through 
its labor division, the International Labor Office, has 
recommended their abolition and the substitution of 
public employment agencies, or agencies operated 
jointly by associations of shipowners and organiza- 
tions of seamen. A convention or treaty to that 
was drafted by the International Labor Office some 
years ago and has been ratified by a number of mari- 
time nations. 

It is the prevailing opinion among seamen, organ- 
ized and unorganized, that the National Industrial 
Recovery Administration cannot establish proper 
labor conditions in the merchant marine. This 
ing, surprising as it may seem, does not appear to In- 
due to any lack of faith in the Recovery Administra- 
tion. It is based upon a steadily growing conviction 
that the influence which shipowners have with var- 
ious divisions of the government and the aid and en- 
couragement which they have received and an- -ti!! 
receiving from the government form a combination of 
circumstances not entirely within the control of the 
Recovery Administration which will tend to unreason- 
able delay in the formation and development of the 
necessary divisional codes or in practically nullifying 
labor rights under such codes when they do become 
effective. 

The result is that there is a growing demand for 
general strike action on the part of seamen of all 
ratings in practically all ports, the prevailing opinion 
being that widespread strikes represent the only means 
through which they can secure remedies for the un- 
fortunate conditions under which they live and work. 

The vast majority of them believe very earnestly, 
however, that if the President could find time to in- 
quire into their difficulties he would quickly utilize the 
available governmental powers through the proper di- 
visions of the government to apply effective remedies 
without loss of time. In this connection, I venture to 
respectfully suggest that he might give consideration 
to the following proposals: 

1. The immediate creation of a national shipping 
labor board, as provided in the pending General Ship- 
ping Code, with the inclusion of a section to provide 
for the right of trade-union representatives to cons ill 



April 1. 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



91 



with seamen on board ship as recommended by the 
Labor Advisory Board, or by some provision or 
arrangement after the approval of the code, in its 
present form, designed to effect the purposes of the 
proposed section, or the establishment of a national 
Maritime Board of Great Britain, which has been in 
successful operation for many years. 

2. Arrangements whereby the Department of Com- 
merce will require that all "conference agreements" 
under the Shipping Act, 1916, be made conditional 
upon the establishment of proper labor conditions in 
all sections of the industry affected by such "confer- 
ence agreements." 

3. The transfer of the Sea Service Bureau, a division 
of the Shipping Board Bureau in the Department of 
Commerce, to the Department of Labor as a part of 
the United States Employment Service. 

4. The establishment by the United States Employ- 
ment Service of employment agencies for seamen 
wherever necessary, at principal ports on the Atlantic 
and Gulf Coasts, the Great Lakes, the Pacific Coast 
and on the river system. At the coast ports this may 
be done in cooperation with the offices of the United 
States Shipping Commissioners. 

5. Requirements by the Post Office Department that 
all mail subsidies, mail subventions and mail pay to 
ships of all classes are to be conditional upon the 
establishment of labor standards and relations com- 
patible with the National Recovery Administration 
program. 

6. Similar requirements as a condition for the con- 
tinuance of any loans, grants or other privileges to 
ships of any class under the control of any department 
or division of the government. 

The departments of government, cooperating with 
each other in the interests of a square deal to the 
American seamen, as those departments have been 
and still are cooperating with each other in the inter- 
ests of the shipowners can do much which will have 
a remedial effect in a very short space of time upon 
the conditions against which the seamen now complain. 

It is the belief of practically all with whom I have 
been in communication that the President of the 
United States will bring about these results if the 
matter can be brought to his attention in a manner 
that will cause him to give the subject serious thought. 
And it is my firm belief that he will give it serious 
thought if the matter is properly laid before him. 

The remedial propositions which I have outlined 
herein are not presented as a complete labor program 
for the American merchant marine. Much more must 
be done in order to give the American seaman his 
rightful place in the economic, social and political life 
of the nation. I have merely offered suggestions which 
are capable of immediate application and will will tend 
toward substantial improvements. 

I do not know whether the sort of statement I have 
now presented to you in response to your telegram is 
sufficient. If not, the fault is mine, of course. I shall 



be glad to go into further detail, if that be necessary, 
to whatever extent may lie within my power. 
Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) VICTOR A. OLANDER, 
Secretary-Treasurer, 
International Seamen's Union of America. 

Upon telegraphing to the Pacific, requesting infor- 
mation as to what the union representatives there 
believed my office could do to be helpful, I received 
a reply urging that I press the points raised in the 
above letter and statement. Some declarations fol- 
lowed from representatives of the Government which 
had a salutary effect. 

The shipowners and the waterfront employers were 
exceedingly stubborn, unwilling to surrender any of 
the arbitrary power which they had wielded over sea- 
men and longshoremen alike since the lockout of 1921. 

On July 31, 1934, however, a settlement was reached, 
under the auspices of the National Longshoremen's 
Board appointed by the Government. That board was 
to arbitrate the Longshoremen's case and to supervise 
a vote among the seamen to determine through what 
organization or by what means they desired to be 
represented in so-called collective bargaining and arbi- 
tration. 

The activities of the "Marine Workers' Industrial 
Union" against the International Seamen's Union of 
America, and the blatant and widely circulated state- 
ment of the "M. W. I. U." leaders and others allied 
with communistic interests, that the International Sea- 
men's Union of America did not represent the seamen, 
had given the shipowners an opportunity which they 
eagerly seized to make a similar claim and to bolster 
it up by pointing to the same charges emanating from 
what they called a labor organization, namely, the 
"Marine Workers' Industrial Union." The result was 
that the issue of representation was left to a vote to 
be taken under the auspices of the Board. The vote 
was initiated, and continued from month to month as 
affecting what is known as the offshore division of the 
industry. 

The steamschooner owners decided to deal with the 
union. But the vote in relation to other divisions of 
the industry on the coast dragged along. In the mean- 
time, as might be expected, excitement and restless- 
ness increased among the seamen on the coast until 
they began to take action of one sort and another 
while awaiting the result of the vote and the arbitra- 
tion which was to follow. 

There was cause for grave concern. Government 
arbitration boards and arbitrations initiated under 
Government auspices rarely, if ever, result in awards 
providing for union recognition in the sense of re- 
quiring preference in employment for union members. 
It seemed almost certain that the National Longshore- 
men's Board would follow the usual practice in that 
respect and thus set a precedent in the merchant 
marine which would be followed by other arbitration 
boards which were to be appointed to deal with similar 
matters as relating to seamen. It was, therefore, de- 



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April 1, 1936 



cided to undertake some maneuvers on the Atlantic 
Coast, the primary purpose of which was to secure the 
acceptance of a union preference clause in that dis- 
trict and thus set a precedent in the sea-going division 
of the merchant marine industry which would serve 
as a basis for similar procedure on the Pacific. 

The expected happened. The National Longshore- 
men's Board rendered an award providing that there 
should be no discrimination between union and non- 
union men, a condition under which a longshoremen's 
organization might live, at least through periods of 
tenseness and excitement, but which would be fatal to 
the organization of such migratory workers as seamen. 

I personally directed the efforts for the union prefer- 
ence clause on the Atlantic. The move proved suc- 
cessful. I notified the Pacific on November 23, 1934. 
The Atlantic agreement was completed early in De- 
cember and finally was officially signed on December 
21, 1934. The Pacific then succeeded in having the 
union preference clause inserted in the agreements 
upon which their arbitration cases were to be based, as 
affecting the offshore vessels and the steamschooners, 
but unsuccessful with the oil tankers. The steam- 
schooner agreement was signed on January 4, 1935, 
and the offshore agreement on February 25, 1935. 
A strike against oil tankers followed, which, after 
being carried on for some* time, was discontinued. 
Arbitration awards were finally made in relation to 
the other divisions. 

The restlessness engendered by thirteen years of 
arbitrary conduct on the part of the shipowners, fol- 
lowing the lockout of 1921, and their obstinacy, dur- 
ing the strike of 1934, the quibbling which many of 
them engaged in during the time the vote was being 
taken among seamen and the delays which they had 
insisted upon, continued. The excitement, suspicion 
and distrust which had thus developed among the men 
was stimulated by the activities of the extremists of 
various degrees, ranging from excited emotionalists 
with no particular political trend, to openly declared 
"reds" with Communist affiliations. A dangerous con- 
dition of affairs resulted which still continues. Not- 
withstanding the agreements and awards the Pacific 
District unions are engaging in activities which have 
prevented the establishment of the peaceful relation- 
ship which the agreements and awards were designed 
to promote. In some respects they are acting much 
like the shipowners did prior to the awards. 

Nevertheless, the unions have grown in member- 
ship. Conditions have been improved. Foundations 
have been laid which, if not destroyed by continued 
foolhardy and irresponsible action, will permit of prog- 
ress in the future. But it is time to issue a frank 
warning that unless more orderly procedure can be 
arranged for in the organization of the maritime in- 
dustry on the Pacific Coast than that which has pre- 
vailed during the past year, the result will ultimately 
be such as not only to ruin the existing organizations, 
but also to adversely affect the unions on the Atlantic 
and the Great Lakes and to hamper the progress of 
seamen for many years to come. It is a subject to 



which the convention must give its very earnest con- 
sideration and which will be further discussed in other 
divisions of this report. 

ATLANTIC AND GULF COAST MANEUVERS 

After preparations, following my letter of June 14, 
1934, to the National Labor Board to which I have re- 
ferred in another division of this report, I proceeded 
to the Atlantic Coast for the purpose of initiating a 
movement, designed to establish the union preference 
clause as a definite and up-to-date precedent in the 
seagoing division of the merchant marine industry. 
I have previously discussed the anticipated danger of 
a "no discrimination"' award by the National Long- 
shoremen's Board on the Pacific, due to the fact that 
the Government boards have never been known to 
provide for union preference, that such danger actually 
did materialize, and further that it thus became neces- 
sary to offset that precedent by another and later one 
providing for union preference. 

On September 19, 1934, I established headquarter^ 
in the Plymouth Hotel in New York City and con- 
ferred with the Atlantic and Gulf District Committee, 
with the result that on the following day, September 
20, 1934, that committee adopted a resolution for a 
strike of seamen on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts to 
take place on October X, 1934. The resolution was 
given immediate publicity. I was summoned to Wash- 
ington a few hours later by the National Labor Board. 

Immediately after the District committee had acted, 
I informed the International Executive Board and re- 
quested authority to use such International funds as 
were available for the promotion and settlement of 
the proposed strike. The amount then on hand was 
very small and seemed wholly inadequate. The board 
acted favorably upon the request and authorized me to 
go ahead. 

I proceeded with definite strike arrangements, the 
opening of special headquarters for strike activities, 
the purchase of strike buttons and printing of strike 
and picket cards, the posting of signs designating 
strike headquarters in the various ports, and made 
various other preparations for strike action. There 
was an immediate hue and cry on the part of the 
"Marine Workers' Industrial Union" to be permitted 
to become a party to these activities. They loudly 
shouted for what they called "united front" while at 
the same time they protested against the recognition 
of the International Seamen's Union of America. 

After about ten days of rather lively maneuvering 
on the part of all concerned, a group of twenty-eight 
shipowners informed the National Labor Relations 
Board that they were willing to recognize and deal 
with the International Seamen's Union of America. 
Strike preparations were thereupon halted, and on 
October 6 the District committee posted announce- 
ments on the waterfronts of the various ports, inform- 
ing the seamen that the shipowners had consented to 
negotiations on the basis of recognition of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America and that, there- 
fore, the strike was called off. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



93 



The "Marine Workers' Industrial Union" leaders 
publicly protested recognition of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America in official communications 
directed to the National Labor Relations Board, the 
shipowners and the newspapers. The "M. W. I. U." 
leaders announced their intention to force a strike on 
October 8, regardless of the attitude of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. They made the 
attempt, but without success. Their failure in this 
respect was monumental, with the result that they 
were almost utterly eclipsed on the Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts. 

The negotiations with the shipowners opened on 
October 11, 1934, and continued intermittently until 
December 21, 1934, when the agreement was finally 
signed on behalf of forty-one companies. Additional 
companies signed later, the final total being sixty-one. 

While the negotiations were in progress, certain 
groups on the Pacific, whose exact leadership I have 
been unable to ascertain, began a movement on that 
coast against ships whose owners were participating 
in the Atlantic conferences. That movement started 
in Seattle. I received contradictory reports from vari- 
ous union officials as to the responsibility for and the 
purpose of those activities. It seemed that the unions 
and the members were being manipulated by outside 
forces to prevent any union preference agreement for 
the International Seamen's Union on the Atlantic. 

Communistic agitators were actually able to circu- 
late mimeograph statements along the waterfront of 
New York, containing information as to what was 
occurring in Seattle, before I could get similar infor- 
mation, although I used both the telegraph and the 
telephone in my persistent efforts to get at the facts. 

I had taken the precaution of sending to the Pacific 
complete information as to what was transpiring in 
the negotiations on the Atlantic and had earnestly re- 
quested that I be kept thoroughly informed as to what 
was occurring on the Pacific. The responses were not 
wholly satisfactory. I pointed out the pressing neces- 
sity for establishing the union preference clause on the 
Atlantic for the reasons already stated, but this seemed 
to have no effect. The agitation continued. It was 
highly embarrassing and at several stages of the pro- 
ceedings proved almost fatal to the Atlantic nego- 
tiations. 

The work which I carried on during the months of 
September, October, November, and December, 1934, 
was the most arduous and exhausting that I have ever 
experienced. There was antagonism on all sides, even 
within the International Union itself. The District 
unions on the Atlantic and Gulf were in a pitiful con- 
dition. Their funds had been exhausted and their 
membership badly scattered. They were unable to 
maintain offices in several ports. Their income was not 
sufficient to pay the salaries of such officers as they 
had. The task of developing the union preference 
clause under such circumstances seemed impossible, 
but nevertheless it was accomplished. 

On November 22, 1934, the shipowners agreed to 
the preference clause. On the following day, No- 



vember 23, 1934, I notified the Pacific by telephone. 
It was then not yet wise to make any public announce- 
ment on the subject. 

The agreement was practically completed on De- 
cember 6, 1934, and officially signed on December 21, 

1934. I have already made reference to the agreements 
on the union preference clause which followed on the 
Pacific, the respective dates of which were January 4, 

1935, and February 25, 1935. The Atlantic agreement 
was reported to the regular meetings of members of 
the district unions on the Atlantic and was approved. 

Having failed to prevent recognition of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America, the "Marine 
Workers' Industrial Union" leaders then began the 
distribution of circulars demanding that a vote on the 
subject be taken among all seamen. In other words, 
they insisted that the International Seamen's Union of 
America should submit itself and its activities to a vote 
of the members of the M. W. I. U. and to the unorgan- 
ized seamen for the purpose of determining what the 
International Seamen's Union of America should or 
should not do. The proposal, of course, was ridiculous. 
Its purpose was to create confusion among the seamen 
with a view of preventing any further progress on the 
part of the International Seamen's Union of America. 
The attempt was a miserable failure, another total 
eclipse of the "Marine Workers' Industrial Union" 
leaders. 

A short time afterward, they announced through 
their own publication, the "Marine Workers' Voice," 
and through other communistic sheets, that they had 
decided to dissolve their organization, the "Marine 
Workers' Industrial Union," and to have its members 
seek admission into the International Seamen's Union 
of America. Although they had previously carried on 
a campaign of denunciation and misrepresentation 
against our international organization for a period of 
some years, had sought in every way within their 
power to prevent its progress, and had attempted to 
block the negotiation of the Atlantic agreement, they 
now announced that there should be only one union 
of seamen in the industry, that this should be the 
International Seamen's Union of America, that the 
Atlantic agreement represented an advance which 
could eventually be improved upon, and that, there- 
fore, all seamen, especially the "Marine Workers' 
Industrial Union" members, should now join the 
International Seamen's Union of America. It was a 
complete change of front, the evident purpose of 
which, of course, was to penetrate our International 
Union and to carry on a process of "boring from 
within." In other words, to speak figuratively, they 
decided to raid and scuttle the ship. 

I sent prompt warnings against this to all district 
and local unions and branches. The "boring" is going 
on, nevertheless, to a very dangerous extent on the 
Pacific Coast. The Atlantic District unions have main- 
tained a very creditable steadiness during the past 
year, and up to the present have successfully with- 
stood the efforts of the raiders. 

There is, of course, always a hue and cry on the 



94 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



part of the "Marine Workers' Industrial Union" lead- 
ers and their Communist Party associates that the 
affairs of the union should be administered by rank 
and file committees rather than by officers elected by 
and from the rank and file, and that this is necessary 
for proper democracy of procedure, of which they pro- 
claim themselves to be the appointed apostles. 

Yet these are the same men who actually dissolved 
their own organization, the "Marine Workers' Indus- 
trial Union," following their Atlantic fiasco and the 
action of the Communist Party leaders in urging dis- 
solution of Communist trade unions for the purpose 
of penetrating the American Federation of Labor. 
They performed this major operation of entire dis- 
solution without giving their deluded followers any- 
thing to say about it. An action of that sort is utterly 
impossible under the laws of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America, which are such as to make 
dissolution without unanimous consent preventable by 
even a very small minority. 

It is true that the name "Marine Workers' Industrial 
Union" has passed out of the scene, but the maneuver- 
ing of the leaders of that organization and their Com- 
munist allies continue under other forms and other 
names, which are less apparent to the inexperienced, 
uninformed, and unwary members. 

Agitation of the sort they are engaged in has proved 
disastrous to the success of the International Seamen's 
Union of America on two occasions in the past, 
namely, just prior to the World War on the Atlantic, 
and in 1921 on both the Atlantic and the Pacific. The 
present situation is one that calls for earnest attention 
and decisive action on the part of the convention. 

THE GREAT LAKES SITUATION 

Marine commerce on the Great Lakes has been 
affected during the depression to a greater extent than 
on the Atlantic and the Pacific. A large proportion of 
the great iron ore fleet, which represents the major 
division of Great Lakes commerce, has remained idle. 
Licensed officers from the idle ships have been em- 
ployed in positions formerly held by able seamen and 
by firemen, oilers and watertenders. As a result, it has 
been impossible since the depression to make any defi- 
nite organization progress in that district. When the 
agitation for a shipping code was in progress, and 
Section 7 (a) of the National Industrial Recovery 
Act appeared to be law, the leading organization of 
shipowners on the Great Lakes, namely, the Lake 
Carriers' Association, inaugurated a widespread "com- 
pany union" movement which had peculiar results. 
The vote taken among the men by the shipowners' 
association resulted in a majority declaring for the 
International Seamen's Union of America. The vote 
was on sheets bearing the personal signatures of the 
men and a sufficient number of those reached the 
offices of the union to indicate the result. The ship- 
owners then decided to call together the minority in 
a "company union" convention. That convention met 
in Cleveland, Ohio, early in 1934. I had instructed 
representatives of our organization to be in the city 



at the time. One of the first acts of the "company 
union" was to send a committee to our representatives 
to invite the secretary-treasurer of the International 
Seamen's Union to address their meeting. I was in 
Washington at the time. 

The convention finally adopted a resolution setting 
forth a number of demands and ending with a decla- 
ration stating, in effect, that if the shipowners did not 
agree to the demands the entire matter would be turned 
over to the International Seamen's Union of America. 
Thus ended the "company union." 

The interest aroused by the discussion of a possible 
shipping code with proper labor provisions had so 
stimulated the interest of the men that the Lake 
Carriers' Association yielded to the demands of the 
union for the establishment of the three-watch system 
on deck. This took place in the spring of 1934. The 
Lake Carriers' Association was the last of the organi- 
zations of shipowners in America to insist upon a con- 
tinuance of the twelve-hour day as the minimum work- 
day for the deck crew on the ships of its entire fleet. 
Having yielded to the demands of the union for the 
three-watch system, it will be difficult now for the 
Association to again establish the twelve-hour system. 

While the employment of a great number of licensed 
officers in positions formerly occupied by members of 
our organization or by men eligible to membership in 
the union, made organization progress on the Great 
Lakes almost impossible, it was necessary to carry on 
some educational work in order to keep the activities 
of the union within the knowledge of the men. At the 
request of the district unions, and as one means to the 
end indicated, the Executive Board authorized the 
opening and operation of an International branch at 
the port of Toledo, Ohio, during a part of the navi- 
gation season. 

Organization activities were also carried on for a 
brief period at Sault Ste. Marie, where the ships pass 
through the great "Soo locks." 

Individual companies within the Lake Carriers' As- 
sociation are experimenting with so-called "employee 
representation" plans and other methods of offsetting 
or preventing union representation. 

It may be that the union can inaugurate proceedings 
under the National Labor Relations Act in the near 
future which will result in giving the seamen of the 
Great Lakes opportunity to exercise their organization 
rights under the law. That is a subject to which the 
convention and also the officers of the districts should 
give consideration. 

THE RIVERS 

Under authority of the Executive Board, a charter 
has been issued to the United Boatmen of the Missis- 
sippi River and Tributaries, with headquarters at 
Memphis, Tennessee. Thus, there has been initiated 
a move that may well result in a widespread organi- 
zation of river men under the jurisdiction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America, if organization 
activities in that field can be properly stimulated and 
directed. I recommend that the Executive Board be 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



95 



instructed to investigate organization possibilities along 
the Mississippi River during the ensuing year, pro- 
vided funds are available for the purpose, by sending 
one of the vice-presidents or some other qualified 
officer or member to investigate and report upon con- 
ditions at the principal river ports. 

AGREEMENTS AND AWARDS 

The renewal and extension of agreements and 
awards relating to divisions of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America has been a matter of primary 
importance during recent months. The Pacific agree- 
ments and awards were subject to automatic renewal 
on September 30, unless there was notice of termi- 
nation by either side thirty days prior to that date. 

Restlessness on the Pacific was of such an acute 
character that I early anticipated the probability that 
sooner or later the International Office would be called 
upon to take some position in reference to the agree- 
ments and awards. I, therefore, made very earnest 
attempts to secure authentic copies of the original 
documents showing the precise nature and character 
of these agreements and awards. Manifestly, it was 
highly important that I should be given an opportunity 
to examine them before I was called upon to take 
action. My efforts in this respect met with no response 
of any consequence. 

On August 29, 1935, I received a telegram over the 
names of three officers, who signed themselves as 
"District Committee," requesting that I name a deputy 
under Article XVIII of the Constitution to participate 
in the serving of some notice upon the shipowners 
in relation to the agreements and awards. I answered 
promptly by repeating the request which I had made 
previously for authentic copies of documents and also 
by asking for information as to what steps had been 
taken by the alleged district committee in accord with 
Article XVIII and when that committee had been re- 
established. It had been clear that the district com- 
mittee had been prevented from functioning for many 
months. I received no reply. Later I learned that a 
notice had been served upon the shipowners over the 
signatures of certain officials signing themselves as 
"District Committee." 

Little information was sent to my office as to what 
was transpiring. It was apparent to me, however, that 
the members on the Pacific did not desire to become 
involved in either a strike or a lockout. On Sep- 
tember 23, Mr. Hugh Gallagher, chairman of the off- 
shore shipowners, called me from San Francisco by 
long-distance telephone and asked me whether the 
International Union had authorized a termination of 
the agreement and award to be effective September 30. 
I could, of course, have avoided all public responsi- 
bility by replying that I had been informed that the 
matter was being dealt with by the district committee, 
and that there was nothing for me to do in relation 
to the matter. There was grave danger, however, 
that serious consequences might follow, I, therefore, 
quickly determined upon a decisive answer in the form 
of the single word "No," and then pointed out that 
the district unions were endeavoring to secure the ad- 



justment of certain grievances. I immediately re- 
quested Mr. Gallagher to put the subject before me 
in the form of an official letter, to which I would make 
a more comprehensive reply. I then proceeded to get 
in touch with Pacific union officials by telephone to 
ascertain conditions there and to secure advice. 

The following day, September 24, Mr. Gallagher 
telephoned me that the letter had been prepared, but 
that instead of mailing it he was bringing it person- 
ally to Chicago by airplane. Again I proceeded to get 
in touch with representatives of the union on the Pa- 
cific and inform them of what was taking place. I also 
telegraphed to the Labor Bureau, Inc., San Francisco, 
which had been engaged by the Pacific unions to assist 
in negotiations with the shipowners. And, on the fol- 
lowing day, before the arrival of Mr. Gallagher, I 
talk at some length by long distance telephone with 
the representative of that Bureau. 

Mr. Gallagher arrived in the afternoon and sub- 
mitted the letter from the shipowners. I was still 
without authentic copies of the original documents 
which I had pleaded for so earnestly during many 
previous weeks. During the conversation with Mr. 
Gallagher, however, I discovered that he had with 
him certain documents as originally signed by the 
representatives of the two sides. 

After looking over those papers, I stated that I 
would give a written answer on the following day. 
I spent the entire night, until daylight the next day, 
studying the situation, and then prepared my answer, 
in which I pointed out that both sides had apparently 
overlooked what it was they were dealing with. The 
documents were in three divisions, namely, the agree- 
ment of February 25, 1935, signed by the parties to 
the dispute; the award of April 10, 1935, as signed by 
the arbitrators, and, finally, a compilation of the agree- 
ment and award, which was signed by no one. Yet 
the latter unsigned document was the one upon which 
both sides were predicating their maneuvers. 

It having been clearly apparent to me by all the 
information I could obtain from union sources on the 
Pacific that the men did not desire a strike nor lock- 
out I sought a means whereby that sort of an emer- 
gency could be avoided while at the same time an 
opportunity could be accorded to - the unions to pre- 
sent their claims for improvement. My conclusions in 
the matter are set forth in my reply to the shipowners. 
I promptly sent copies of both to the Pacific Coast 
union officials after first telegraphing them regarding 
the matter. 

In the meantime I had received copies of letters 
written by the union representatives to the shipowners 
and found therein, unfortunately, language which I 
thought at the time was due entirely to the inexperi- 
ence of those who had composed the letters. There 
was an entirely unnecessary and unwise concentration 
upon the thirty-day notice clause and entire absence 
of any reference to the right of the parties to present 
proposals for improvements under another very clearly 
worded clause. I submit the letter from the ship- 
owners, and my reply thereto as follows: 



96 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



PACIFIC AMERICAN SHIPOWNERS' 
ASSOCIATION 

San Francisco, Cal., 
September 24, 1935. 
Mr. Victor A. Olander, 
Secretary, Seamen's Union, 
666 Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, Illinois. 

Dear Mr. Olander: 

On February 25, 1935, the International Seamen's 
Union, acting on behalf of the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific; the Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, 
Watertenders and Wipers' Association; and Marine 
Cooks and Stewards' Association of the Pacific Coast, 
entered into an agreement with certain shipowners on 
the Pacific Coast fixing certain provisions and agree- 
ing to arbitrate wages, hours, and working conditions. 

The agreement signed contained the following: 

"An agreement . . . which shall be binding upon 
the parties for the period to and including Sep- 
tember 30th, 1935, and shall be considered as renewed 
from year to year thereafter between the parties 
hereto, unless any party to any such agreement shall 
give written notice to the other of its desire to termi- 
nate or amend such agreement. Any such notice shall 
be given at least thirty days prior to the expiration 
date, and if such notice shall not be given the agree- 
ment shall be deemed to be renewed for the successive 
year." 

The Award, subsequently rendered, contains identi- 
cal language in Section 46. 

On August 29 the steamship companies, party to the 
agreement, were each served with notice, reading as 
follows: 

August 29, 1935. 
Matson Steamship Co.. 
215 Market Street, 
San Francisco, Calif. 

Gentlemen: 

In accordance with Section 46 of the present exist- 
ing agreement between us, the undersigned, severally 
and jointly, hereby serve notice of a desire to amend 
said agreement, such amendments to become effective 
as of October 1, 1935. 

We request that your representatives meet with our 
representatives as soon as possible, for the purpose of 
discussing and arriving at a settlement of our mutual 
problems. 

Very truly yours. 
International Seamen's Union of America, 
District Committee. 
By (Sgd.) George Larsen 
(Sgd.) Earl King 
(Sgd.) E. F. Burke 
Sailors' Union of the Pacific. (Seal) 

By (Sgd.) George Larsen, Act. Secy. 
Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, 
Watertenders and Wipers' Associ- 
ation. (Seal) 

By (Sgd.) Earl King, Secretary. 
Marine Cooks and Stewards' Association 
of the Pacific Coast. (Seal) 

By (Sgd.) E. F. Burke, Secretary." 

You will note that the letter expresses a "desire to 
amend" and this action, according to the wording of 
the agreement, terminates the Award on September 
30th, as the language specifically provides that the 
agreement "shall be considered as renewed . . . unless 
any party . . . gives written notice of its desire to . . . 
amend such agreement." 



This notice you will note is signed by the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America, District Com- 
mittee, by George Larsen, Earl King, and E. F. 
Burke, and has the seals of the three unions, but not 
the seal of the I. S. U. 

A careful reading of the constitution does not dis- 
close the fact that a district committee has the power 
to commit the International Seamen's Union, or make 
contracts or agreements on its behalf. 

Under these circumstances and in view of the fact 
that the Committee, acting on behalf of the Unions 
and together with the Unions, has served a notice 
which terminates the Award, we wish to know if this 
Committee has been authorized to take such action. 
Very truly yours, 

Pacific American Shipowners' Association. 
By (Sgd.) Hugh Gallagher, Chairman. 
HG:bg 

INTERNATIONAL SEAMEN'S UNION OF 
AMERICA 

Chicago, September 26, 1935. 
Mr. Hugh Gallagher, Chairman, 
Pacific American Shipowners' Association, 
215 Market Street, San Francisco, California. 

Dear Mr. Gallagher: 

I beg to acknowledge receipt of your letter of Sep- 
tember 24, relative to the Agreement of February 25, 
1935, between the International Seamen's Union of 
America on behalf of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific, 
the Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, Water- 
tenders and Wipers' Association and the Marine Cooks 
and Stewards' Association of the Pacific Coast, and 
the Arbitration Award dated April 10, 1935, based 
upon the aforesaid February Agreement, with specific 
reference to the clauses relating to written notice for 
termination, amendment or renewal. 

You direct my attention to a letter dated August 2 l >, 
1935, signed by certain officials of the Pacific District 
Unions, namely, Messrs. Larsen, King and Burke, 
serving notice under "Section 46 of the present exist- 
ing agreement" that the District Unions "desire to 
amend said Agreement, such amendments to become 
effective as of October 1, 1935," and this you construe 
to be, in effect, "a notice which terminates the Award." 

According to the copy of that letter, as quoted in 
your communication, it was signed by the officials re- 
ferred to above, not only as the secretaries of their 
respective district unions, but also as District Com- 
mittee, International Seamen's Union of America. 

In the concluding paragraph of your letter, you say, 
"Under these circumstances and in view of the fact 
that the committee, acting on behalf of the unions and 
together with the unions, has served a notice which 
terminates the Award, we wish to know if this com- 
mittee has been authorized to take such action." 

The International Seamen's Union of America is a 
party to the Agreement and the Award and has not 
authorized any committee or person to serve any 
notice terminating the Award nor to take any other 
action which might properly be construed as expre-^- 
ing a desire to terminate or having the effect of termi- 
nating or cancelling the Award. 

I presume that committee and the officials to whom 
you refer acted in accord with the instructions of their 
respective district unions, but they were not author- 
ized to and did not act for the International Seamen's 
Union of America nor, as I understand it, was it their 
intention to terminate either the Agreement or the 
Award, but simply to bring about conferences at which 
certain unsatisfactory conditions might be adjudicated 
either through mutual agreement or by arbitration. 

I believe the difficulty in the situation arises out of 
the failure of the parties on the Pacific Coast to tinder- 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



97 



stand the terms of the Agreement and the Award. For 
instance, there is no such thing as "Section 46" of 
either the Agreement or the Award. "Section 46" ap- 
pears in the "Compilation of Matters covered by- 
Award and Agreement," as attached to the Award 
proper of April 10, 1935. The corresponding section 
in the Agreement is Section 1 of the February docu- 
ment. 

The parties have evidently been laboring under the 
misapprehension that there is no way under the Agree- 
ment by which points of dissatisfaction may be ad- 
judicated except by serving notice thirty days prior 
to the terminating or renewal date, namely, Septem- 
ber 30th. That is an error which probably arose out 
of a failure to understand the rights of the respective 
parties under Section 3 of the February Agreement, 
which is repeated in the "Compilation of Award and 
Agreement" as Section 48. It is evident that in rela- 
tion to the situation under discussion, attention has 
been concentrated upon paragraph 3 of that section 
as possibly placing certain limitations upon the sort 
of grievances and disputes which might be considered 
by the Labor Relations Board, during the period in 
which the Agreement and the Award is in full force 
and effect. Any doubt on that point can readily be 
dissipated by an examination of the fourth paragraph 
of the section referred to, which provides that "all 
grievances and disputes, including the interpretation 
of this agreement, or said award, or any matter not 
covered thereby or hereby," may be brought before 
the Board for determination, and the following para- 
graph provides, in effect, that this may be done upon 
twenty-four hours written notice and, further, that in 
event of a disagreement the matter shall be submitted 
to arbitration. This is in full harmony with the gen- 
eral purpose of the Agreement and the Award and 
presents the method by which unsatisfactory con- 
ditions may be brought up for remedial action at any 
time, the only restriction being that there shall be 
neither strike nor a lockout but that, upon failure of 
agreement, arbitration shall be resorted to. 

In conclusion, let me reiterate very emphatically 
that the International Seamen's Union of America has 
not served any notice of the termination of the Agree- 
ment or the Award and has not received any notice 
of any desire for termination on the part of any of the 
steamship companies who are parties thereto. 
Very truly yours, 

Victor A. Olander, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 

I later received a copy of a letter sent by representa- 
tives of the unions making reference to my communi- 
cation and stating definitely that the organization did 
not intend to terminate the agreement and award. But 
again there was such unwise and unnecessary empha- 
sis upon the language of the thirty-day clause as to 
give to the shipowners an opportunity to claim that 
the unions had actually served notice of termination. 

I wrote to the Pacific unions asking why this was 
persisted in, if it was true, as they had stated to me, 
that the members did not want to become involved in 
a strike or a lockout. It looked as though someone 
were deliberately manipulating both the officers and 
the committees in such manner as to lay the founda- 
tions for a complete termination of both the agree- 
ment and the award. I insisted that this should not 
be done without the members being fully informed in 
relation thereto. Fortunately, the principal danger 
period, namely, September 30th, passed without a seri- 
ous break having taken place. 



About the first of October, a letter reached my 
office addressed to "International Seamen's Union of 
America, 59 Clay Street, San Francisco, California," 
from the Shipowners' Association of the Pacific, by 
F. J. O'Connor, President, with a notation that copies 
had been sent to our Chicago office as well as to the 
headquarters of the Pacific District Unions, in which 
the steamschooner owners raised the question as to 
whether the notices of the union representatives on 
August 29 were intended to cause a termination of 
the award on September 30. The letter, by the way, 
was dated September 30. I made no immediate reply, 
but when another letter on the subject, dated Octo- 
ber 4, reached me, I decided that it was necessary for 
me to answer. 

The October 4 letter indicated that the union repre- 
sentatives on the coast had replied to the previous 
communication stating that the notice referred to did 
not constitute a notice of termination. My reply to 
that letter was as follows: 

October 9, 1935. 
Mr. F. J. O'Connor, President, 
Shipowners' Association of the Pacific Coast, 
256 Mission Street, 
San Francisco, California. 

Dear Sir: 

I am in receipt of signed copies of two letters, one 
dated September 30, 1935, and the other October 4, 
1935, addressed to the "International Seamen's Union 
of America, 59 Clay Street, San Francisco, California," 
in which you raise certain questions relative to the 
existing agreement and arbitration award. 

The International Seamen's Union of America has 
not served nor has it authorized any person or com- 
mittee to serve any notice that might be properly 
construed to constitute a notice of termination of the 
agreement and award, nor has this office received any 
notice of such character from your organization. 

The agreement of January 4, 1935, presents ample 
opportunity for either side to bring up any and all 
points of dissatisfaction. There is a very definite 
method of arbitration provided for in event of dis- 
agreement. 

Very truly yours, 

Victor A. Olander, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 

I had taken scrupulous care to inform the Pacific 
Coast union representatives of everything that was 
transpiring in my office in relation to their difficulties, 
and I frequently sought their advice as to what should 
be done. The "negotiating committee" on the Pacific 
was, of course, informed of all this, yet, in reporting 
to the membership, that committee made no reference 
to the matter other than a brief paragraph stating that 
they had "proof" that my office had been in communi- 
cation with the shipowners and insinuating that this 
had been embarrassing to the committee. 

Of course, they had "proof" of everything that I had 
done because I had kept the union representatives 
fully informed. Again, it would seem as though there 
were a deliberate purpose on the part of someone on 
the Pacific to maneuver the organizations there into 
either a strike or a lockout without the members be- 
coming aware as to just by whom and how it was 
being done. 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



Throughout these proceedings I did not receive a 
singe protest or criticism of any sort from any union 
source on the Pacific Coast regarding the procedure 
I was following. Yet, the sort of a report I have indi- 
cated was made to the members. That report was 
withheld from my office and I did not see it until I 
made insistent demands for it just prior to the opening 
of this convention. 

During recent months there have been an avalanche 
of charges directed against the Pacific unions for al- 
leged violations of agreements. These charges have 
not only been made by shipowners, but by representa- 
tives of the Government and have been repeated time 
and time again. The union representatives on the 
Pacific have handled the situation in a manner seemed 
calculated to pile up evidence against their own organi- 
zations. It cannot be all charged to inexperience nor 
to blundering. It seems clear that there is something 
more sinister than that in the situation. 

Recently I learned, some time after the move began, 
that through so-called "job action," by the members, 
some forty or fifty steamschooners were tied up on the 
Pacific Coast, contrary to the agreement and award. 
The International office has been in receipt of letters 
from the Shipowners' Association of the Pacific Coast 
under date of December 30, 1935, and January 6, 1936, 
charging violation of agreement in respect to these 
ships and asking for action by the International Union. 
In my reply I simply stated that I would submit the 
letters to the convention. 

The protests against this sort of a situation which 
have been lodged with the Government, not only by 
shipowners but by other business interests, and the 
failure of the Pacific Coast representatives to either 
show earnest effort to remedy the situation or at least 
to make effective replies and explanation, has caused 
a most serious reaction at the national capital, not 
only against them, but to some extent against the 
whole International Union. I have made repeated 
efforts to establish more orderly procedure on that 
coast and have sent frequent warnings and protests 
against prevailing tactics, but without any result. In- 
deed, most of my communications remained unan- 
swered. 

The Executive Board adopted a resolution definitely 
instructing officers and members everywhere to carry 
out agreements, but without results. 

The most serious result in this situation is the effect 
upon the Government and its various departments, not 
excepting the Department of Justice. 

The Atlantic agreement expired December 31, 1935. 
Following negotiations between representatives of the 
unions and the shipowners, conferences are in prog- 
ress at the time this report is written, for a continu- 
ance of peaceful relations on the Atlantic. The At- 
lantic and Gulf District Committee has requested that 
a vote be taken on the Atlantic and Gulf by the Inter- 
national Union, under Article XVI of the Constitution 
on any renewal proposal that may be recommended 
by the District Committee. That request has been 
granted by the International Executive Board. 



The pressure of work in connection with regular 
office duties prevented me from personally attending 
the Atlantic conferences held during recent weeks. 
I, therefore, requested Fifth Vice-President Patrick 
O'Brien to act in my place. He was exceedingly help- 
ful and his assistance was welcomed and appreciated 
not only by myself, but also by the Atlantic and Gulf 
District Committee. 

MARITIME FEDERATION OF THE 
PACIFIC COAST 

The Pacific Coast divisions of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America have affiliated with an organi- 
zation known as the "Maritime Federation of the 
Pacific Coast," which is endeavoring to direct the 
activities of the unions engaged in the maritime indus- 
try on that coast. In becoming a part of that feder- 
ated body, unions appear to have in some measure 
disregarded their own constitutions and also the laws 
of the International Union. The Maritime Federation 
officials appear to pay little attention to their own 
constitution, according to reports which have reached 
the International office. Activities of union members 
seem to have been initiated and directed in some oc- 
casions from the headquarters of the Maritime Feder- 
ation rather than from the headquarters of the unions. 

In order to fully understand the state of affairs in 
this respect, it is not only necessary to examine the 
laws of the various organizations affected, and the 
Maritime Federation itself, but also to examine into 
the activities carried on by the officials. The Feder- 
ated body is acting in a manner contrary to the laws 
of the American Federation of Labor. The interests 
of a number of national and international unions are 
involved. The situation should receive the attention 
of the American Federation of Labor and presumably 
is being considered by the officers of that parent bodv, 
and it should also be given attention by this con- 
vention. 

ACTIONS OF THE EXECUTIVE BOARD 

The actions taken by the International Executive 
Board during the past six years, since the adjourn- 
ment of the thirty-second convention in 1930, were as 

follows: 

1930 

January. Granted charter to Tillamook County 
Fishermen's Union, Bay City, Oregon. 

February. Authorized payment of $135 salary to 
Vice-President Oscar Carlson. 

March. Granted charter to Pensacola Fishermen's 
Union, Pensacola, Florida. 

March. Resolution on death of Vice-President 
Thomas Conway. 

April. Granted charter to Harbor Boatmen's Union 
of Camden, Philadelphia and vicinity. 

May. Authorized payment of $5 per week to Inter- 
national Seafarers' Federation. 

August. Authorized payment of $250 to Attorney 
Winter S. Martin, Seattle, Washington, in the case of 
Langness vs. Green. 
November. Postponement of convention date. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



99 



December. Endorsement of celebration of two hun- 
dredth anniversary of George Washington. 

1931 

January. Representation at fourth annual confer- 
ence on Merchant Marine. 

January. Adoption of proposal to urge formation of 
National Maritime Board. 

May. Ordered printing of 1,500 additional copies of 
Journal for use in Great Lakes District. 

June. That charter be granted to fishermen of San 
Diego, California, provided proper application is re- 
ceived and approved by Pacific board members. 

September. President Furuseth and Secretary-Treas- 
urer Olander selected as delegates to convention of 
American Federation of Labor. 

October. Granted request for change of name of 
Fishermen's Union of San Diego to the United Fisher- 
men's Union of Southern California. 

December. Postponement of convention. 

1932 

January. Defeated proposal to call meeting of Ex- 
ecutive Board. 

March. Granted charter to Ferryboatmen's Union of 
Puget Sound. 

March. Granted Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes 
exemption from payment of arrearage of per capita 
tax. 

July. Defeated proposal to close Washington office 
during adjournment of Congress. Majority did not 
vote. 

July. Reduced size of Seamen's Journal to sixteen 
pages as an economy measure. 

July. Accepted Journal Editor's proposal for reduc- 
tion in his salary to $50 per month, subject to recom- 
mendation that regular salary be restored when funds 
permit. 

July. Reduced bond of Secretary-Treasurer as an 
economy measure. 

September. Decided that two delegates be sent to A. 
F. of L. convention. 

October. Selected President Furuseth and Secretary- 
Treasurer Olander as delegates to Cincinnati conven- 
tion of American Federation of Labor. 

October. Adopted resolution to affiliate with Rail- 
way Labor Executives Association. 

November. Approved appointment of Ivan Hunter, 
C. M. Goshorn and John McGinn as audit committee. 

1933 

February. Granted charter to Franklin County Boat- 
men's Union of Apalachicola, Florida. 

March. Granted charter to Seamen's Union of Hali- 
fax, Nova Scotia. 

March. Declined to grant request to Alaska Fish- 
ermen's Union to raise its initiation fee and lower its 
dues. 

March. Approved Scharrenberg proposal in relation 
to financing publication of the Journal. 

August. Approved proposal to grant charter to 
fishermen at St. Petersburg, Florida. 



August. Selected President Furuseth and Secretary- 
Treasurer Olander as delegates to American Federa- 
tion of Labor convention. 

September. Granted exemption of per capita tax to 
Marine Cooks and Stewards' Association of the Pa- 
cific Coast. 

September. Granted charter to Pacific Coast Marine 
Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers' Associa- 
tion, and canceled charter of Marine Firemen, Oilers 
and Watertenders'' Union of the Pacific. 

November. Executive Board meeting, November 10, 
1933, Washington, D. C. Executive Board members 
present: Furuseth, Pryor, Carlson, Hunter, Scharren- 
berg, Olander. District and local union officials pres- 
ent: Grange, Goshorn, Brown, Angle, Morris. The 
union officers listed had been called to Washington 
to attend N. R. A. code hearings, November 9 and 10. 
The general situation was discussed. Actions: (1) 
Scharrenberg was requested to return east as quickly 
as possible and then to remain east pending possible 
code settlement. (2) Instructed Secretary-Treasurer 
to send appeal to District unions for funds to defray 
expenses in relation to pending code activities. (3) 
Requested that each District and local union agree 
during present emergency and until next convention 
no action on questions of policy or which is likely to 
hamper the work of the International Union be made 
effective unless approved by International executive 
board. 

1934 

March. Decided to issue charter to Ferryboatmen's 
Union of the Pacific in lieu of present local charters 
of ferryboatmen. 

April. Granted charter to Associated Marine Work- 
ers of New York and vicinity. 

June. Granted charter to United Boatmen of New 
York. 

August. Selected President Furuseth and Secretary- 
Treasurer Olander as delegates to American Federa- 
tion of Labor convention. (Secretary Olander did not 
attend the convention.) 

September. Exempted Columbia River Fishermen's 
Union from per capita tax arrearage. 

September. Approved strike call of Atlantic and 
Gulf District Committee and authorized expenditure 
of funds by Secretary-Treasurer to promote or settle 
proposed Atlantic and Gulf strike. 

December. Appointed Percy J. Pryor, Oscar Carl- 
son and David E. Grange as labor members of Joint 
Board of Mediation and Conciliation under Atlantic 
agreement. 

1935 

January. Adopted resolution that bills for lawyers' 
fees and briefs shall be paid only after approval by 
executive board, and authorized payment of bills sub- 
mitted by Attorney H. W. Hutton, San Francisco 
($750), and James H. Barry Printing Company, San 
Francisco ($169.73). 

January. Granted exemption of per capital tax ar- 
rearage to Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association; 
Marine Firemen, Oilers, and Watertenders' Union of 



100 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



the Atlantic and Gulf, and Marine Cooks and Stew- 
ards' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf. 

February. Appointed alternates for labor member 
of Joint Board of Mediation and Conciliation under 
Atlantic agreement. Named Brown, Missland and 
Glander. 

February. Authorized expenditure of funds for or- 
ganizing purposes on Great Lakes. 

February. On recommendation of Pacific District 
Committee, appointed Roy Farrell, Lars Turner and 
Thomas J. McGlinchey to serve on Labor Relations 
Committee under steam schooner agreement. 

March. Authorized payment of hospitalization ex- 
pense for President Furuseth. 

March. Exempted United Boatmen of New York 
from arrearage of per capita tax. 

May. On recommendation of Pacific District Com- 
mittee, appointed S. A. Silver, Roy Farrell and T. J. 
McGlinchey as members of Labor Relations Commit- 
tee under Pacific off-shore agreement. 

May. Adopted resolution instructing all officers and 
members to live up to all agreements. 

July. Granted charter to United Boatmen of the 
Mississippi River and its tributaries. 

July. Authorized Secretary-Treasurer to make nec- 
essary expenditures for protection of the International 
Union. 

July. Authorized extension of printing and circula- 
tion of Seamen's Journal. 

July. On appeal of Paul Scharrenberg against ex- 
pulsion verdict of Sailors' Union of the Pacific, de- 
clared action of the District union to be illegal and 
of no effect for the reason that the so-called charges 
did not warrant action under the laws of the union 
and that the proceedings against Scharrenberg were 
clearly unconstitutional and void. 

July. Instructed Sailors' Union of the Pacific to 
rescind resolution opening its books to members of 
the M. W. I. U, because said resolution is contrary 
to the constitution of the International Union. 

July. Select President Furuseth and Secretary- 
Treasurer Olander as delegates to American Federa- 
tion of Labor convention. 

August. Approved Northern Trust Company as ad- 
ditional depositary for funds of the International 
Union. 

September. Approved appointment and employment 
of International organizers and publication of Atlantic 
Supplement of Seamen's Journal. 

October. Exempted Harbor Boatmen's Union of 
Philadelphia from arrearage of per capita tax. 

November. Instructed Secretary-Treasurer to ar- 
range for services of convention reporter to make ver- 
batim record of the Thirty-third Convention of the 
I. S. U. of A. 

November. Approved report of Secretary-Treasurer 
in relation to International representatives and organ- 
izers, and Atlantic Supplement of Journal. 

December. On appeal, pending final decision, the 
board suspended expulsion verdict as rendered against 
Harry Miller by the Marine Cooks and Stewards' 
Association of the Pacific Coast. 



December. Authorized opening of Pacific District 
Office at San Francisco as western division of Secre- 
tary-Treasurer's office. 

December. Elected Ivan Hunter as First Vice-Presi- 
dent to fill vacancy in that position. 

December. Authorized payment of $150 to Peters 
Publishing Company, Seattle, Washington, in re case 
of Langness vs. Green. 

December. On appeal in the case of Harry Miller, 
reversed action of Marine Cooks and Stewards' Asso- 
ciation of the Pacific Coast and ordered reinstatement 
of Harry Miller to full membership status. 

CHARTERS 

During the past six years charters were issued by 
the International Seamen's Union of America, under 
the direction and authority of the Executive Board. 
to the following: 
May, 1930 — Fishermen's Union of l'cnsacola, Pensa- 

cola, Florida. 
May, 1930 — Harbor Boatmen's Union of Camden, 

Philadelphia and vicinity, Philadelphia, Pa. 
April, 1930 — Tillamook County Fishermen's Union, 

Bay City, Oregon. 
July, 1931 — United Fishermen's Union of Southern 

California, San Diego, California. 
March, 1933 — Nova Scotia Seamen's Union, Halifax, 

Nova Scotia. 
March, 1933 — Franklin County Boatmen's Union, 

Apalachicola, Florida. 
September, 1933 — Ferryboatmen's Union of I'u^et 

Sound, Seattle, Washington. 
September, 1933 — Pacific Coast Marine Firemen. 

Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers' Association, San 

Francisco, California. 
April, 1934 — Associated Marine Workers of the Port 

of New York and vicinity. New York, N. Y. 
June, 1934 — United Boatmen's Union of the Port of 

New York and vicinity, New York, N. Y. 
July, 1935 — United Boatmen of the Mississippi River 

and its tributaries, Memphis, Tennessee. 

Applications for charters are now pending from 
several organizations of fishermen on the Pacific 
Coast. After fruitless attempts to secure reports and 
recommendations from the Pacific District Commit- 
tee, I assigned an International organizer to investi- 
gate the applications and to submit a report thereon. 
The information thus obtained is available for the 
consideration of the convention. 

The list of new charters submitted above does not, 
of course, include charters to branches of existing 
district unions. Such branch charters are issued with 
little formality upon the request of the district unions 
when new branches are opened. 

The charter to the Pacific Coast Marine Firemen. 
Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers' Association was 
granted following the cancellation of the charter of 
the Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union 
of the Pacific, due to local difficulties, on recommen- 
dation of the Pacific District Committee. 

The charter granted to the Ferryboatmen's Union 
of Puget Sound was voluntarily surrendered when 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



101 



the name of the Ferryboatmen's Union of California 
was changed to. Ferryboatmen's Union of the Pacific 
and its jurisdiction extended accordingly, with proper 
restrictions. 

The charter issued to the Fishermen's Union of 
Pensacola, May, 1930, was returned in May, 1931, 
with a report that the organization was not successful. 

No information has been received which would in- 
dicate that the United Fishermen's Union of Southern 
California is functioning. The same is true of the 
Tillamook County Fishermen's Union. 

NATIONAL MARITIME BOARD PLAN 

In 1930, the Executive Board of the International 
Union gave consideration to the advisability of at- 
tempting to secure the establishment of a national 
maritime board in the United States similar to the 
National Maritime Board which has operated for many 
years in Great Britain. Publicity was given to the 
subject in the September, 1930, issue of the Seamen's 
Journal. 
,» In January, 1931, the Executive Board approved 
£ the proposal and in a circular letter under date cf 
j February 5, 1931, the secretary-treasurer informed all 
district and local unions and branches of the Interna- 
J tional Union regarding the matter. Efforts to induce 
jjj the shipowners to give it consideration have failed. 
£ Early in 1934, the United States Senate adopted a 
'A resolution calling upon Government Departments to 
5 investigate the matter, to bring the parties involved 
v together and to submit a report to the Senate. Action 
5 in response to the resolution was held in abeyance 
^ pending possible code developments. The development 
( of strikes and other activities prevented action in the 
months that followed. The plan was used as a buffer 
to offset the original proposals of the shipowners dur- 
ing the code hearings. It was approved not only by 
the Executive Board of the International Seamen's 
Union of America but also by official representatives 
of the National Organization of the Masters, Mates 
and Pilots of America, the National Marine Engineers 
Beneficial Association, and other legitimate trade 
unions in the maritime industry participating in the 
hearings. It was opposed by the shipowners and by 
the now disbanded "Marine Workers Industrial 
Union." 

The plan consists of a simple proposal for a na- 
tional arrangement under which definitely recognized 
organizations of the workers in the merchant marine, 
including all organizations of seamen of all grades, 
and representatives of associations of shipowners, 
should meet and negotiate trade union agreements. 
In recent months it has been made the subject of 
utterly ridiculous misrepresentation by alleged "pub- 
licity committees" within our own organization who, 
contrary to the facts as they appear in the official 
records of the district unions, have circulated state- 
ment that the plan provides for three representatives 
from the shipowners, three from the government and 
three from the seamen and that the issues would be 
decided by "three shipowners and three politicians." 
The maritime board plan contains no such provision 



nor anything like it. It simply provides for equal rep- 
resentation on the same general procedure as ordi- 
narily carried out in negotiations for trade union 
agreements, but places the whole subject on a national 
basis. It can be established voluntarily, without legis- 
lation, either upon the initiative of the parties in the 
industry or under the leadership of the departments 
of the Federal Government having relation to the mer- 
chant marine. 

I present the subject to the convention because of 
the action of the Executive Board thereon. 

VIOLATIONS OF CONSTITUTION 

It is with very great regret that I am obliged, as a 
matter of duty, to report that there have been viola- 
tions of the Inernational Constitution, as construed 
by the Executive Board, on the part of certain district 
unions. The main case in this respect is that of the 
Sailors' Union of the Pacific, involving the adoption 
by that organization of a resolution in contravention 
of the International Constitution, Article I, Section 2, 
second paragraph, a section which prohibits member- 
ship to men who are members of or advocating prin- 
ciples and policies of any dual organization or any 
organization hostile to the International Seamen's 
Union of America, its aims and purposes. The execu- 
tive Board instructed the union in question to re- 
scind the resolution and the union refused. The organi- 
zation referred to is also acting in violation of the 
provisions of the constitution requiring the election of 
a permanent presiding officer at its headquarters. It 
has further declined to abide by the International law 
in relation to a provision of the International Consti- 
tution concerning appeals. The records in relation to 
the matter are available for submission to the conven- 
tion. 

In all fairness I must also report that while I am 
obliged to direct attention to the particular organiza- 
tion named, I have no means of knowing what, if 
anything, certain other organizations in the district 
have done in relation to the same subjects. Reports 
received at the International office from the Pacific 
Coast Marine Firemen. Oilers, Watertenders and 
Wipers' Association and the Marine Cooks and Stew- 
ards' Association of the Pacific Coast in recent months 
have been so meager and infrequent as to contain 
little information. 

APPEALS 
The International Executive Board, on July 29, 1935, 
rendered the following decision which is self-explana- 
tory : 

INTERNATIONAL SEAMEN'S UNION 
OF AMERICA 
Decision of the Executive Board 
July 29, 1935. 
In the case of 
Appeal of PAUL SCHARRENBERG against 
the action of the SAILORS' UNION OF THE 
PACIFIC (a part of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America) in declaring him ex- 
pelled. 

DECISION 
The Executive Board of the International Seamen's 
Union of America has given careful and thorough 



102 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



consideration to all evidence and documents submitted 
in the case of the Appeal of Paul Scharrenberg against 
the action of a meeting of the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific in declaring him expelled from membership. 
The Executive Board hereby sustains the appeal of 
the said Paul Scharrenberg and decides that the ex- 
pulsion declaration against him is illegal and there- 
fore null and void and that he is a full member in good 
standing in the Sailors' Union of the Pacific and the 
International Seamen's Union of America of which 
said Sailors' Union is a part. The alleged expulsion 
is illegal and of no effect for the reason that the 
so-called charges against the said Paul Scharrenberg 
did not warrant or justify any action against him 
under the laws of the Union. The proceedings against 
the said Paul Scharrenberg were clearly unconstitu- 
tional and void. 



I hereby certify that the above is a true and correct 
copy of the decision of the Executive Board in the case 
referred to. 

(Signed) Victor A. Olander, 
Secretary, Executive Board, 
International Seamen's Union of America. 

Washington, D. C, 
July 29, 1935. 

Paul Scharrenberg is the editor of the Seamen's 
Journal, official publication of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America, and is a member of the 
International Executive Board. As soon as I learned 
of the alleged charges against him, I requested the 
Pacific District Committee to arrange for a verbatim 
transcript of the trial committee proceedings, at the 
expense of the International Union. I sent this re- 
quest to more than one of the District union officials 
in an effort to make sure that the matter would be 
properly attended to. There was no response. It was 
evident that the Pacific District Committee was not 
functioning. It had previously failed to respond on 
other matters. 

Under date of June 10, 1935, Editor Scharrenberg 
wrote to the International Office, reporting that an 
expulsion verdict had been rendered against him by 
the Sailors' Union of the Pacific, and filing an appeal 
to the International Executive Board against the 
action of the District Union. So far as I know it was 
the first appeal case to be submitted for action by an 
individual member of a district union. There were 
no established precedents to serve as guides to pro- 
cedure. I, therefore, used extreme care to obtain all 
available records in the case for submission to the 
Executive Board. I submitted copies of the complete 
records thus secured to each member of the Interna- 
tional Executive Board. Opportunity was offered the 
Board members for an exchange of views by corres- 
pondence. Finally, the decision of the Board was 
rendered as stated herein. I reported it to the Sailors' 
Union of the Pacific by telegram on July 29, 1935, 
followed by letter of the same date. I received no 
response. 

Editor Scharrenberg sent a check to the Interna- 
tional Office in payment of his membership dues. In 
order to complete the record of the case in a tangible 
manner, I accepted the payment on behalf of the In- 
ternational Union, entered it upon the books of the 



International Union, issued an official receipt ackowl- 
edging the payment, and then sent an International 
Union check for the amount to the Sailors' Union 
of the Pacific as dues received for Paul Scharrenberg 
and transmitted to the District Union for entry on its 
books. The check was returned to the International 
Office by the District Union with a letter stating that 
Editor Scharrenberg was not a member. The letter 
made no reference to the expulsion, nor did it mention 
the decision of the Executive Board, but it neverthe- 
less serves to indicate a final refusal on the part of the 
Sailors' Union of the Pacific to act in accord with the 
decision of the Board. The matter is herewith sub- 
mitted to the convention for such further considera- 
tion and action as the convention may deem wise and 
proper. 

On October 23, 1935, Harry Miller appealed to 
the International Executive Board from an expulsion 
verdict rendered against him by the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards' Association of the Pacific Coast. I imme- 
diately sent for the records of the case and after ex- 
amining the document, I recommended suspension of 
the verdict in order to permit the member to sail, 
pending a final decision of the Board. Copies of all 
records in this case have been sent to the Executive 
Board members for final action. The case is brought 
to the attention of the convention at this time because 
it presents evidence that the District union involved 
refused to investigate reports that three Pacific union 
representatives had proposed to representatives of the 
shipowners that the International Union be eliminated 
from the Pacific agreement and award. 

An appeal affecting the Alaska Fishermen's Union 
is pending. This case relates to payments required by 
laws of the District Union from members under cer- 
tain circumstances. The appeal was filed by the Seat- 
tle representative of the union and several members. 
The Secretary-Treasurer is now in correspondence 
with the parties in order to secure information to de- 
termine whether the subject matter of the complaint 
is within the jurisdiction of the Executive Board un- 
der the constitution of the International Union. The 
case is included in this report simply as a matter of 
information. It does not require convention action 
at this time. 

A DANGEROUS PROPOSAL 

There are evidences of a movement to eliminate the 
International Seamen's Union of America from the 
Pacific agreements and awards. Through government 
sources, I was informed that statements had been 
made on August 6, 1935, at a conference between 
representatives of the government, representatives of 
Pacific shipowners, representatives of the National 
Organization of Masters, Mates and Pilots of Amer- 
ica and representatives of the National Marine Engi- 
neers Beneficial Association, at Washington, D. C, 
that three Pacific district union representatives had 
privately called on two representatives of the Pacific 
shipowners at Washington with a promise of peace 
on the Pacific if the shipowners would agree to elimi- 
nate the International Seamen's Union of America 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



103 



from the Pacific agreements and awards and to sub- 
stitute the Maritime Federation of the Pacific for the 
International Union. I sought information from other 
sources and secured a verification of the report. Later 
the representatives of the shipowners issued public 
statements on the subject, which appeared in the 
San Francisco newspapers. President Furuseth had 
reported the matter to the Sailors' Union of the Pa- 
cific. His telegram was read to a meeting of the union 
and recorded in the minutes. Afterwards, I referred 
to the peculiar incident in letters to the Pacific District 
union's officers. Recently I wrote to the Pacific Dis- 
trict unions and their branches requesting copies of 
any reports which may have been submitted to the 
unions on the subject by the men sent to represent 
them at the Washington conference last August. Re- 
sponses from some of the branches indicate that they 
had received no such report. I am awaiting additional 
replies. It would seem strange, indeed, if reports on 
a question of such vital importance have been with- 
held from the general membership on the Pacific 
Coast by their representatives and officials. The names 
of the three representatives involved are Engstrom 
of the Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, Water- 
tenders and Wipers' Association; Tillman of the 
Sailors' Union of the Pacific, and Schmidt of the 
Marine Cooks and Stewards' Association of the Pa- 
cific Coast. 

Upon receiving copies of propositions made to the 
Pacific shipowners by the "negotiating committee," 
representing the District Unions of Sailors, Firemen 
and Cooks, I learned that one of the proposals was 
to eliminate the name of the International Seamen's 
Union from the union preference clause of the agree- 
ments and awards. This was followed by a demand 
from the Sailors' Union of the Pacific that the labor 
representatives on the Labor Relations Committee 
be named by the District union instead of the Inter- 
national Executive Board, thus proposing, in effect, to 
eliminate the International Union from another clause 
of the agreements and awards. A similar suggestion 
was made in a letter received from the Secretary of 
the Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, Water- 
tenders and Wipers' Association. 

I directed attention of the Pacific District officers 
to these highly significant moves, one following the 
other and all tending to the same end, namely, the 
elimination of the International Seamen's Union of 
America from the Pacific District agreements and 
awards. They made no reply. 

It is obvious that I would be remiss in my duty as 
an officer of the International Union if I failed to re- 
port this matter to the convention. It is for the dele- 
gates to decide what should be done about it. 

DISTRICT OFFICES 

In order to establish a source of communication on 
the Pacific Coast which could be relied upon to re- 
spond promptly to inquiries from the International 
Union, it became necessary to establish a western 
division or branch of the International Secretary- 



Treasurer's office at San Francisco, California. This 
was done a few weeks ago under authority of the 
Executive Board. The necessity for an International 
Union center in each district has been apparent for 
some time past. During the past several years, how- 
ever, and until recent months, the finances of the In- 
ternational Union have been insufficient to provide 
for any such offices. 

I recommend that the Executive Board be instructed 
to arrange for such district offices at such times and 
places and for such periods as in the judgment of the 
Executive Board may seem to serve the best interests 
of the International Union and its general member- 
ship. 

It is not necessary to provide for any amendments 
to the constitution in this respect. The Executive 
Board need not be tied to any inflexible rule in regard 
to the matter by any hard and fast constitutional 
provision. Proper administration will require changes 
from time to time. It seems obvious that a great In- 
ternational Union the main sections of which are or- 
ganized on the basis of districts covering large areas, 
cannot give proper attention to all details of inter- 
national organization work and activities through a 
single office. District international union centers op- 
erating under the supervision of the International 
office are a necessity. 

DISTRICT COMMITTEES 

Under the laws of the International Seamen's Union 
of America, district committees consisting of three 
representatives from each district union are provided 
for in each district. This regulation was adopted at a 
time when it was not anticipated that there would be 
more than four district unions in a given district. The 
number has increased to six in one district with the 
probabilities that when new charters are issued there 
will be eight in that district, thus presenting a situation 
in which the district committee will consist of twenty- 
four members representing unions whose headquarters 
are at different ports. I use the term "district union" 
here as meaning an organization having a headquarters 
at one port and branches at other ports. I believe the 
question of reorganization of district committees war- 
rants attention of the Convention. 

The Pacific Committee has apparently not func- 
tioned to any extent during the past several months. 
The Atlantic and Gulf District Committee has been 
active throughout the year. The district committee 
on the Great Lakes has given attention to a number 
of important matters, especially as relating to railroad 
vessels operating under the Railway Labor Act. 

SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

The Seamen's Journal, official publication of the 
International Seamen's Union of America, is issued 
at regular monthly intervals. It is edited and printed 
at San Francisco, Calif., and its business management 
is handled by Editor Paul Scharrenberg. Financial 
reports relating to the publication of the Seamen's 
Journal follow: 



104 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1. 1936 



Financial Report of the Seamen's Journal 

Covers issues from December 1, 1929, to December 1, 
1935, inclusive. 

Balance on hand December 15, 1929 $ 178.86 

Receipts 

From Advertisements $ 4,252.76 

From Subscriptions and Extra 



Copies 



.20 $ 5,319.82 



Disbursements 



Remitted to V. A. Olander, Sec- 
retary $ 4,300.00 

Paid for Bookkeeping, etc 780.00 

Paid for Commissions 57.60 

Express Charges and Taxes 7.46 

Subscriptions and Books, etc 34.19 

Office Supplies 19.58 

Tax on Checks and Check Re- 
turned 2.16 $ 5,200.99 



Recapitulation 

Receipts (Including Balance on Hand) $ 5,319.82 

Disbursements 5,200.99 



Balance on Hand December 1, 1935 $ 118.83 

Audited and found correct. 

E. F. BURKE, 
GEORGE LARSEN. 
San Francisco, December 18, 1935. 

The combined accounts of the Secretary-Treasurer 
and the Editor give the following information con- 
cerning the total receipts, disbursements and net cost 
of publishing the Seamen's Journal for the period of 
the six years, as indicated: 

DECEMBER 1. 1929, TO NOVEMBER 30, 1935 

Expenditures 

Printing, Mailing, etc. (Includes 
Printing of 1930 Convention 
Proceedings) $20,804.96 

Editor's Salary 5,500.00 

News Service, etc 445.65 

Rent, Bookkeeping, Stenographic 

Services, etc., at San Francisco 1,372.99 

Commissions Paid on Advertising 57.60 $28,181.20 



Receipts 

Advertisements $ 4,252.76 

Subscriptions and Extra Copies.. 888.20 5,319.82 

Net Cost of Publication $22,861.38 

Atlantic Supplement 

An Atlantic Supplement of the Seamen's Journal 
has been issued in recent months for special distribu- 
tion on the Atlantic Coast. It is printed in New York 
City. The cost of publication to the end of the fiscal 
year, November 30, 1935, is shown in the Annual 
Financial Report, the total being $1,296.04. Claude 
M. Goshorn is serving as editor of the Supplement 
and is also rendering service in the secretary-treas- 
urer's office. 



LEGISLATION 

The subject of legislation as affecting seamen is 
usually dealt with in the report of the president and 
not in the report of the secretary-treasurer. This is 
due to the fact that as chairman of the standing Legis- 
lative Committee, President Furuseth is the legislative 
representative of the International Union. I, there- 
fore, refrain from any report on the subject of legis- 
lation, other than to offer some brief comment in 
relation thereto. The International Union is attempt- 
ing to secure a revision of the immigration and de- 
portation laws as affecting seamen, to obtain legisla- 
tion to outlaw private discharge books and private 
employment offices as operated by shipowners, to 
further define the liability of shipowners and to en- 
hance the interests of the seamen, the traveling public 
and the merchant marine in other respects. This In- 
ternational Union has successfully opposed attempts 
to repeal the existing liability laws and the substitu- 
tion of a compensation act for such laws as a means 
of providing payments for injuries. The International 
Union is also engaged in actively promoting legisla- 
tion to improve working conditions, to strengthen the 
provisions of the laws relating to manning, to abl* 
seamen certificates and to other matters. It is endeav- 
oring to extend the rights of seamen as set forth in 
the freedom clause of the Seamen's Act, through the 
International Labor Office, to the seamen in the ports 
of all other nations. The union is also cooperating 
with the American Federation of Labor in the interest 
of general labor legislation relating to all da- 
workers. 

The legislative activities of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America, broad as they now are in 
scope and effect, must be increased. This is inescap- 
able. The federal administration is proposing legis- 
lation designed to make substantial changes in the 
national merchant marine policies and practices. The 
United States has officially entered the membership 
of the International Labor Office. Various conven- 
tions (treaties) and recommendations submitted by 
the International Labor Office call for study and 
action. A number of these affect the seamen. The 
relation of federal social security legislation to sea- 
men must be considered and acted upon. 

It is probable that the membership of our organi- 
zation in Canada may increase. Attention must be 
given to the laws of Canada as relating to seamen. 
All of which clearly indicates the necessity for in- 
creased watchfulness and activity on the part of the 
International Union in the legislative field. There will 
be periods in which the task will be beyond the pow- 
ers of a single legislative representative at the na- 
tional capital, and when he will require the active 
service of well-informed and capable assistants. The 
performance of legislative duties requires personal 
appearances before committees of congress and other 
government agencies under circumstances in which 
every word uttered is a matter of official record. It 
errors are made, that which is said on one occasion 
may arise as troublesome and even dangerous at an- 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



105 



other time. Failure to supply information when it is 
asked for will tend to destroy the standing and use- 
fulness of the legislative representative. When bills 
are being acted upon in either house of congress, 
quick decisions must be made by the legislative repre- 
sentative when there is neither opportunity nor time 
to consult with the Executive Board or with other offi- 
cers of the International Union. 

Seamen are governed by law in relation to their 
living and working conditions to a greater extent 
than any other class of workers. The subject of leg- 
islation is therefore of greater consequence to them 
than it is to others. Careless procedure in the field 
of maritime legislation must be avoided at any cost. 

LEGAL STATUS 

The outstanding feature of the Seamen's Act is its 
provision under which the seamen's labor contract is 
no longer enforceable under penalty of imprisonment, 
when the ship is in a safe harbor. 

Legal status is a highly important element in the 
lives of all men. In the dictionary it is defined as, 
"The condition of a person by which the nature of 
his legal personality is determined, and therefore the 
nature of the legal relations to the state or to other 
persons into which he may enter." 

In other words, legal status in relation to men 
determines very largely what others may do to them. 
It is well to remember that the legal status of seamen 
in all nations except the United States of America is 
below that of other workers in those countries, in that 
their laws still provide for the enforcement of sea- 
men's labor contracts by imprisonment. The gains 
made by American seamen in this respect must be 
carefully safeguarded. The right to quit must be used 
properly or it may be quickly lost. The seamen of 
America are not yet free from the effects of their long 
servitude under the fugitive seamen's laws. Legal 
status very largely determines social and economic 
status. A mere change in the law does not release men 
from habits, customs and practices of the past. These 
cling through the years and wear off slowly, unless 
altered by intelligent action and education. Let us 
not forget that though we have as yet not made the 
best use of our freedom, it is nevertheless our most 
sacred possession. There is much more that could and 
should be said on the subject. It is not yet fully un- 
derstood by many seamen. 

NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT 

The passage of the National Labor Relations Act, 
under which the National Labor Relations Board op- 
erates, marks a definite trend in national government 
policy which is certain to have a far reaching effect on 
the organizations of seamen, including not only the 
International Seamen's Union of America, but also 
the organizations of licensed officers and others. There 
may be some doubt as to the power of Congress to 
enact such legislation in relation to workers and em- 
ployers in local communities and in intrastate com- 
merce. But there can be no doubt regarding the power 
of Congress to legislate in that manner concerning 



seamen and shipowners. The navigation clause of the 
federal Constitution is so broad as to give Congress 
great powers to regulate navigation processes, espe- 
cially in relation to ships and water craft in general, 
even within state limits. In addition, Congress also 
has power over shipping under the interstate and 
foreign commerce clause of the Constitution. 

The general opinion in the organized labor move- 
ment is favorable to the kind of legislation represented 
in the National Labor Relations Act. The operation 
of that Act may be interferred with by the courts 
because of its intrastate effects. But regardless of 
this, it is highly probable that future developments 
in relation to labor in general will be much the same 
as that which has been experienced in the railway 
transportation industry, where the use of labor board? 
established by law has developed steadily since the 
passage of the original railway labor law many years 
ago. Trade union officials should therefore train them- 
selves in the procedure calculated to obtain the best 
results for the workers through the National Labor 
Relations Board and other means of a similar sort 
which may be developed in the future by the federal 
and state governments. This applies especially to the 
representatives of organized seamen of all classes. 
It is a subject which should be given earnest attention 
by every official of the International Union and by ail 
district union officials. 

THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT 

The problem of placing seamen fully within the 
scope of benefits under the Federal Social Security 
Act, as recently passed by Congress, should be given 
attention by the convention. Consideration should 
also be given to the question of state laws on the same 
subject. Reports indicate that divisions of the federal 
government concerned with the transportation indus- 
try, including the merchant marine are considering 
unemployment insurance legislation for seamen. Ad- 
ministrative details in a national social security law 
for seamen will necessarily be somewhat different from 
those applicable to workers on land under state laws. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 

The United States is now an official participant in 
the International Labor Office, the labor division of 
the League of Nations. The subject of international 
relations and international law as affecting seamen 
has always been a matter of deep concern on the 
part of the International Seamen's Union of America. 
Prior to the entry of the United States into the I. L. 
O., we sent our own representative to Geneva (Swit- 
zerland), to be present when Maritime Conferences 
were held under the auspices of the International La- 
bor Office. President Furuseth returned only a few 
weeks ago from Geneva where he attended the recent 
Maritime Conference as the first official American la- 
bor delegate to such conference. A Regional American 
Labor Conference, under the auspices of the Interna- 
tional Labor Office, convened on January 2 at San- 
tiago, Chile. There are, therefore, increased oppor- 
tunities and also increased need for greater activities 



106 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1. 1936 



and watchfulness on the part of our International 
Union in the field of international relations, interna- 
tional action and international law, as affecting sea- 
men. The matter should receive the careful attention 
of the convention. 

CANADA 

The Nova Scotia Seamen's Union, at Halifax, N. S., 
has been organized under a charter of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America. There may be 
occasions to issue charters to other groups of seamen 
in Canada in the near future. Consideration must 
therefore be given to the maritime laws in Canada. 
In this connection, attention is directed to the report 
of the secretary-treasurer as the subject of Canadian 
law as contained in the convention records of 1930. 

SKILL 

Individual skill in any occupation is something 
which belongs to the individual worker, or which he 
lacks. It is of primary importance to him because it 
is a measure of his ability to take care of himself as 
well as to serve others. That is as true of seamen as 
it is of other workers. The need for skill in the mer- 
chant marine is obvious. Safety of life and property 
as well as the power to compete is dependent upon 
skillful and efficient workers — seamen of all grades 
and in all departments of the ship. In recognition of 
this fact, the Philadelphia convention of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union in 1921, adopted a report on 
skill and efficiency which has been reaffirmed by suc- 
ceeding conventions. That report should be reaffirmed 
by this convention, with the understanding that the 
actual operation of the plan outlined in the report 
cannot be attempted until funds are available. 

ABLE SEAMEN CERTIFICATES 

The number of able seamen certificates issued by 
the U. S. Department of Commerce, through its In- 
spection Service, under the provisions of the Seamen's 
Act as passed in 1915, reached a total of 194,957 on 
June 30, 1934, that being the date of the most recent 
government report on the subject at the time the com- 
pilation was made to ascertain the total. The report 
for the year ending June 30, 1935, is probably now 
available. 

The number of certificates issued is far in excess 
of the number of able seamen employed even during 
the most prosperous times. This is accounted for, of 
course, by the fact that there is a tremendous labor 
turn-over in the American merchant marine. The 
records show the number of able seamen certificates 
issued in the various districts since 1915 and up to 
June 30, 1934, to be as follows: Atlantic and Guif, 
128,359; Great Lakes, 34,025; Pacific, 31,969; Rivers, 
604. Total, 194,957. 

A compilation of government reports showing the 
number of able seamen certificates issued at each of 
the various inspection offices (by ports) has been 
prepared by the secretary-treasurer's office and is 
available for the information of the delegates. 

Substantial improvements in the regulations gov- 



erning the issuance of the certificates have been made 
recently. Copies of the new regulations were sent 
to all district and local unions and branches by the 
secretary-treasurer. 

LIFEBOATMEN CERTIFICATES 

A compilation of the U. S. Inspection Service re- 
ports by the secretary-treasurer's office for the period 
beginning with the passage of the Seamen's Act in 
1915, and up to June 30, 1934, shows that a total of 
194,397 lifeboatmen certificates have been issued. The 
regulations governing the issuance of these certificates 
have recently been made more stringent. A report of 
this subject was sent to all district and local unions 
and branches by the secretary-treasurer. 

REPORTS OF OFFICERS 

Under the laws and practices of the International 
Seamen's Union of America, separate reports are 
submitted to the convention by the president and the 
secretary-treasurer. In past years the report of the 
president has related mainly to the subject of legisla- 
tion and litigation, that is, to the general subject of 
laws. This is largely due to the fact that the president 
is also serving as the legislative representative of the 
Union. The secretary-treasurer's report has covered 
the general scope of the conditions and administration 
of the affairs of the International Union and the 
various district and local unions and their activities 
and progress. The interests of seamen are bound up 
in maritime law to such an extent that it is difficult 
if not impossible to keep the reports of the two 
officers entirely separate. As a. matter of fact, there 
were occasions a number of years ago when the legis- 
lative report was included in the report of the secre- 
tary-treasurer, although he took but a small part in 
the actual legislative work. Neither of the two meth- 
ods of reporting have been entirely satisfactory. It is, 
therefore, recommended that in the future the report 
to the convention be made by the Executive Board, 
instead of by the president and secretary-treasurer, 
with the necessary provision that the secretary-treas- 
urer must continue to present the usual financial 
report on his own responsibility, which can be done 
by including his report within the general report of 
the Executive Board. That is the method used by the 
American Federation of Labor in recent years. If 
approved by the convention, it will of course necessi- 
tate some amendment to the constitution of the Inter- 
national Union. 

JURISDICTION 

Jurisdiction claims on the part of organizations of 
workers on land over men employed at sea have de- 
veloped within the past year. Some applications for 
separate charters in the merchant marine have been 
received by the American Federation of Labor. While 
nothing very serious has appeared in this respect up 
to the present, the claims are of a greater variety 
than has been evident in previous years. It may be 
that they are merely sporadic incidents which will 
have no important consequences but they will never- 
theless require some attention. 



April 1,1936 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 107 

Pursuant to the usual procedure, the financial statement is submitted as follows: 

ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT 

December 1, 1934, to November 30, 1935 

Cash on Hand, December 1, 1934 $ 1,003.31 

Receipts 

Per Capita Tax {For receipts by organizations, see Exhibit A, attached) $51,658.64 

Charter Fees 10.00 

Pending Charter Fees and Tax 104.00 

International Membership Books 4,290.88 

Seamen's Journal, Advertising 700.00 

Miscellaneous 254.35 57,017.87 

$58,021.18 
Disbursements 

American Federation of Labor, Tax $ 1,950.00 

Seamen's Journal — 

Printing, Mailing, etc $4,114.24 

News Services 65.67 

Rent, Misc. Office Expenses and Stenographic Services 563.79 

Editor's Salary 1,050.00 5,793.70 

Seamen's Journal (Atlantic and Gulf Supplement) — 

Printing, Mailing, etc $ 475.89 

Editor's Salary and Traveling Expense 820.15 1,296.04 

President— Salary $1,560.00 

—Travel and Expense 1,587.22 3,147.22 

Secretary-Treasurer — Salary $ 450.00 

—Travel and Expense 408.77 858.77 

Executive Board, Travel and Expense 359.84 

Convention Expenses 31.78 

Office Expense — 

Rent, Supplies, Postage, Telegraph and Telephone Service, etc.: 

Washington Office $ 910.75 

Chicago Office 3,360.99 $4,271.74 

Stenographic Expense: 

Washington Office $1,110.00 

Chicago Office 1,176.37 2,286.37 6,558.11 

Printing and Binding — 

Membership Books $4,714.93 

General 170.89 4,885.82 

Legislative Expense 3,855.17 

Organizing Expense — 

Atlantic and Gulf District $5,126.01 

Great Lakes District: 

Toledo, O., Branch $ 899.23 

Miscellaneous 1,047.11 1,946.34 

Pacific District 765.00 

River District 136.84 7,974.19 

Delegates to American Federation of Labor Convention, Travel and Expense 357.10 

Memberships — 

National Women's Trade Union League 5.00 

Miscellaneous 184.00 37,256.74 

Cash on Hand, November 30, 1935 $20,764.44 

Recapitulation 

Cash on Hand, December 1, 1934 $ 1,003.31 

Total Receipts 57,017.87 $58,021.18 

Total Disbursements $37,256.74 

Cash on Hand, November 30, 1935 20,764.44 58,021.18 



108 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL April 1,1936 

Exhibit A 
RECEIPTS BY ORGANIZATION 
Atlantic and Gulf District: 

Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association: .--„ 

Per Capita Tax $ y,//0.o0 

International Membership Books 913 - 28 1*0,683.88 

Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf: 

Per Capita Tax * i'eS|K 1iw;i Rn 

International Membership Books 1,52U.»U IU.0M.8U 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf: 

Per Capita Tax •-I'nnn ,, o i a , - 

International Membership Books ^ (,U() 11,924.65 



80.30 
249.10 



Associated Marine Workers of the Port of New York and Vicinity: 

Per Capita Tax 

United Boatmen of the Port of New York and Vicinity: 

Per Capita Tax ... 

Harbor Boatmen's Union of Camden, Philadelphia and Vicinity: 

Per Capita Tax 267 - 44 

Nova Scotia Seamen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 8 M.20 

International Membership Books 8.00 59.20 

Great Lakes District: 

Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes: 

Per Capita Tax f 846.10 

International Membership Books 32.00 878.10 

Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Coalpassers' Union of the Great Lakes: 

Per Capita Tax $ 1,135.53 

International Membership Books 80.00 1,215.53 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Great Lakes: 

Per Capita Tax $ ';7.55 

International Membership Books 80. 00 177.55 



Pacific District: 

Sailors' Union of the Pacific: 

Per Capita Tax % 5,411.50 

International Membership Books 400.80 5312.30 



Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers. Watertenders and Wipers' Association: 

Per Capita Tax $ 3,791.15 

International Membership Books 320.00 4,111.15 



Marine Cooks and Stewards' Association of the Pacific Coast: 

Per Capita Tax $ 5.481.50 

International Membership Books 336.00 5,817.50 



Alaska Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 1 1,118.00 

Columbia River Fishermen's Protective Union: 

Per Capita Tax 154.50 

Deep Sea Fishermen's Union of the Pacific: 

Per Capita Tax $ 1.237.40 

International Membership Books 40.00 1,277.4(1 



Eureka Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 6.00 

Ferryboatmen's Union of the Pacific: 

Per Capita Tax 1,376.72 

Rogue River Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 17.40 

River District: 

United Boatmen of the Mississippi River and its Tributaries: 

Charter Fee $ 10.00 

Per Capita Tax 71.00 81.00 



$55,959.52 

Other Receipts 1,058.3! 



Total Receipts, all sources, for Fiscal Year $57,017.87 



April 1.1936 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 109 

FINANCIAL REPORTS FOR FIVE PREVIOUS YEARS 

The financial reports for the five previous years, covering the period from December 1, 1929, to Novem- 
ber 30, 1934, were submitted each year, in mimeographed form, to the Executive Board and to all district and 
local unions and branches. The reports were audited by a committee authorized by the International Executive 
Board. In order to preserve the continuity of financial records in the Convention proceedings, there is sub- 
mitted the following report for the five years referred to: 

DECEMBER 1, 1929, TO NOVEMBER 30, 1930 
Receipts 

Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association, Inc.: 

Per Capita Tax $ 2,155.50 

International Membership Books 28.00 $ 2,183.50 

Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes: 

Per Capita Tax $ 572.45 

International Membership Books 70.00 

Donation to Gompers' Memorial Fund 25.00 667.45 

Sailors' Union of the Pacific: 

Per Capita Tax $ 1,493.40 

International Membership Books 70.00 1,563.40 

Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf: 

Per Capita Tax 919.10 

Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Coalpassers' Union of the Great Lakes: 

Per Capita Tax 2,058.65 

Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union of the Pacific Coast: 

International Membership Books 80.00 

Alaska Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 2,006.00 

Deep Sea Fishermen's Union of the Pacific: 

Per Capita Tax $ 1,801.50 

International Membership Books 70.00 1,871.50 

Ferryboatmen's Union of California: 

Per Capita Tax 1.468.47 

Marine Cooks' and Stewards' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf: 
Per Capita Tax: 

Boston Branch $ 481.20 

Baltimore Branch 267.40 

Galveston Branch 2.80 

Norfolk Branch 3.30 754.70 

Columbia River Fishermen's Protective Union: 

Per Capita Tax 79.50 

Eureka Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax ..._ 58.70 

Coquille River Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 10.50 

Rogue River Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 39.00 

Tillamook County Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 65.50 

Fishermen's Union of Pensacola: 

Per Capita Tax 139.55 

Harbor Boatmen's Union of Camden, Philadelphia and Vicinity: 

Per Capita Tax 122.10 

Charter Fees 20.00 

Seamen's Journal, Receipts from Advertising 1,400.00 

Interest on Bank Deposits 207.38 

Total Receipts $15,715.00 



110 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL April 1, 1936 

Disbursements 

American Federation of Labor, Tax '. * 1,800.00 

Seamen's Journal: , 

Printing, Mailing, etc. (Includes Printing of Convention Proceedings) $ 6,185.19 

News Services oo.ol 

Editor's Salary ___ 1,200.00 7,450.80 

Annual Convention, General Expense 643.47 

Officers' Salary and Expense: 

President's Salary $2730.00 

Travel Expense 510.90 

$ 3.240.90 

Secretary-Treasurer, Salary $ 450.00 

Travel Expense 278.06 

728.06 3,968.96 

Office Expense: 

Rent, Supplies, Postage, Telephone, etec $ 1,587.82 

Stenographers 3,661.00 5,248.82 

Printing and Binding: 

Membership Books $ 626.40 

General 443.17 

Organizing Literature 84.81 1,154.38 

Litigation, Attorney's Fees, Court Costs, etc 452.66 

American Federation of Labor, Expense of Delegates to Convention 456.45 

Executive Board Members Traveling 88.61 

National Women's Trade Union League: 

Yearly Affiliation 5.00 

Donations: 

National Consumers' League $ 10.00 

Gompers' Memorial Fund 100.00 

Contribution for Gompers' Fund Forwarded 25.00 135.00 

Engrossing Memorials and Floral Pieces 103.00 

Travel, Claude M. Goshorn, in re: Inspection Service 91.65 

Investigation 103.60 

Workers' Education Bureau, Per Capita Tax 150.00 

Total Disbursements $21,852.40 

Recapitulation 
Cash on hand, November 30, 1929 $13,721.96 

Receipts December 1, 1929, to November 30, 1930: 

Per Capita Tax $13,744.62 

International Membership Books 318.00 

Seamen's Journal, Advertising 1,400.00 

Charter Fees 20.00 

Sailors' Union Contribution 25.00 

Interest 207.38 15,715.00 

Total $29,436.96 

Disbursements, December 1, 1929, to November 30, 1930 $21,852.40 

Cash on hand, November 30, 1930 7.584.56 

Total $29,436.96 

DECEMBER 1, 1930, TO NOVEMBER 30, 1931 
Receipts 
Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association, Inc.: 

International Membership Books $ 28.00 

Sailors' Union of the Pacific: 

Per Capita Tax $ 1,809.00 

International Membership Books 70.00 1,879.00 

Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf: 

Per Capita Tax 790.50 

International Membership Books 160 00 950 50 



April 1,1936 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 111 

Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Coalpassers' Union of the Great Lakes: 

Per Capita Tax 1,319.01 

International Membership Books 160.00 1,479.01 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf: 
Boston Branch: 

Per Capita Tax 461.20 

Baltimore Branch: 

Per Capita Tax 52.55 

Galveston Branch: 

Per Capita Tax .60 514.35 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Great Lakes: 

Per Capita Tax $ 50.00 

International Membership Books 80.00 130.00 

Marine Cooks tand Stewards' Association of the Pacific Coast: 

International Membership Books 80.00 

Ferryboatmen's Union of California: 

Per Capita Tax 1,067.24 

Harbor Boatmen's Union of Camden, Philadelphia and Vicinity: 

Per Capita Tax 247.10 

Alaska Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 2,129.00 

Deep Sea Fishermen's Union of the Pacific: 

Per Capita Tax 1,345.50 

Columbia River Fishermen's Protective Union: 

Per Capita Tax 73.50 

Eureka Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 109.40 

Rogue River Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 27.30 

Fishermen's Union of Pensacola: 

Per Capita Tax 63.02 

United Fishermen's Union of Southern California: 

Charter Fee $ 10.00 

Per Capita Tax 47.70 57.70 

Seamen's Journal — Receipts from Advertising 950.00 

Interest on Bank Balances 60.73 

Total Receipts $11,191.35 

Disbursements 

American Federation of Labor, Tax $ 1,800.00 

Seamen's Journal: 

Printing, mailing, etc $ 3,639.78 

News Services 68.00 

Editor's Salary 1,200.00 4,907.78 

Officers' Salaries and Expense: 

President— Salary $2,432.50 

—Traveling Expense 478.79 2,911.29 

Secretary-Treasurer— Salary 480.00 3,391.29 

Office Expense: 

Rent, Supplies, Postage, Telephone, etc $ 1,467.43 

Stenographers : 2,686.00 4,153.43 

Printing and Binding: 

Membership Books $ 440.75 

General 184.20 

Organizing Literature 106.00 730.95 

Litigation, Attorneys' Fees, Court Costs, etc 475.00 

American Federation of Labor, Expense of Delegates to Convention 502.24 

National Women's Trade Union League, Yearly Affiliation 5.00 

National Consumers League, Donation 5.00 

Workers' Education Bureau, Per Capita Tax 150.00 

Total Disbursements $16,120.69 



112 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL April 1, 1936 

Recapitulation 

Cash on hand, December 1, 1930 $ 7,584.5(3 

Receipts, December 1, 1930, to November 30, 1931: 

Per Capita Tax $ 9,592.62 

Charter Fees 10.00 

International Membership Books 578.00 

Seamen's Journal, Advertising 950.00 

Interest on Bank Balance 60.73 11,191.35 

Total $18,775.91 

Disbursements, December 1, 1930, to November 30, 1931 16,120.69 

Cash on hand, November 30, 1931 2,655.22 

Total $18,775.91 

DECEMBER 1, 1931, TO NOVEMBER 30, 1932 
Receipts 
Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes: 

Per Capita Tax $ 102.40 

International Membership Books 28.00 $ 130.40 

Sailors' Union of the Pacific: 

Per Capita Tax 1,751.10 

Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Coalpassers' Union of the Great Lakes: 

Per Capita Tax 1,049.25 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf: 

Boston Branch: 

Per Capita Tax 41.20 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Great Lakes: 

Per Capita Tax 64.80 

Ferryboatmen's Union of California: 

Per Capita Tax 871.18 

Harbor Boatmen's Union of Camden, Philadelphia and Vicinity: 

Per Capita Tax . 40.10 

Alaska Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 1,724.00 

Deep Sea Fishermen's Union of the Pacific: 

Per Capita Tax $ 820.80 

International Membership Books 75.00 895.80 

Eureka Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 80.70 

Rogue River Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 16.55 

Seamen's Journal — Receipts from Advertising 850.00 

Union Labor Life Insurance Company — Dividend .25 

Litigation — Reimbursement, Vincenzo Siciliano Case 202.66 

Interest on Bank Balances 7.61 

Total Receipts $ 7,725.60 

Disbursements 

American Federation of Labor, Tax $ 880.00 

Seamen's Journal: 

Printing, Mailing, etc $ 2,930.87 

News Services 70.76 

Editor's Salary 800.00 3,801.63 

Officers' Salaries and Expense: 

President — Salary $2,487.50 

—Traveling Expense 179.73 2.667.23 

Secretary-Treasurer — Salary 245.00 2,912.23 

Office Expense: 

Rent, Supplies, Postage, Telephone, etc 852.22 

Stenographers 1,647.00 2,409.22 

Printing and Binding: 

Membership Books 27.00 

General 51.25 7^.25 

National Women's Trade Union League, Yearly Affiliation 5.00 

Workers Education Bureau, Per Capita Tax 40.00 

Miscellaneous 15.00 

Total Disbursements $10,231.33 



April 1,1936 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 113 

Recapitulation 
Cash on hand, December 1, 1931 $ 2,655.22 

Receipts, December 1, 1931, to November 30, 1932: 

Per Capita Tax $ 6,562.08 

International Membership Books 103.00 

Seamen's Journal, Advertising 850.00 

Interest on Bank Balances, Litigation, etc 210.52 7,725.60 

Total $10,380.82 

Disbursements, December 1, 1931, to November 30, 1932 10,231.33 

Cash on hand, November 30, 1932 149.49 

Total $10,380.82 

DECEMBER 1, 1932, TO NOVEMBER 30, 1933 
Receipts 
Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association: 

Per Capita Tax $ 54.00 

Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes: 

International Membership Books 46.00 

Sailors' Union of the Pacific: 

Per Capita Tax $ 938.80 

International Membership Books 72.00 1,010.80 

Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf: 

Per Capita Tax $ 54.00 

International Membership Books 40.00 94.00 

Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Coalpassers' Union of the Great Lakes: 

Per Capita Tax $ 970.35 

Donation, Legal Expenses in McCrea Case 125.00 1,095.35 

Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers' Association: 

Charter Fee 10.00 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Great Lakes: 

Per Capita Tax $ 50.00 

International Membership Books 40.00 90.00 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Association of the Pacific Coast: 

Per Capita Tax 208.10 

Ferryboatmen's Union of California: 

Per Capita Tax 752.16 

Ferryboatmen's Union of Puget Sound: 

Charter Fee 10.00 

Harbor Boatmen's Union of Camden, Philadelphia and Vicinity: 

Per Capita Tax 1 12.50 

Alaska Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 2,188.00 

Deep Sea Fishermen's Union of the Pacific: 

Per Capita Tax _ $ 1,320.90 

Donation, Shipping Code Expenses 250.00 1,570.90 

Eureka Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 6.00 

Franklin County (Fla.) Boatmen's Uni^n: 

Charter Fee $ 10.00 

Per Capita Tax 14.28 24.28 

Nova Scotia Seamen's Union: 

Charter Fee $ 10.00 

Per Capita Tax 38.40 

Membership Books 4.00 52.40 

Seamen's Journal — Receipts from Advertising $ 400.00 

Teamsters and Auto Truck Drivers No. 85, San Francisco — 

Donation Toward Expenses of Andrew Furuseth, President, in Legislative Campaign 2,000.00 

Total Receipts $ 9,724.49 



114 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL April 1, 1936 

Disbursements 
American Federation of Labor, Tax $ 710.00 

Seamen's Journal: 

Printing, Mailing, etc $ 1,966.60 

News Services 65.37 

Editor's Salary 650.00 2,681.97 

Officers' Salaries and Expense: 

President— Salary $2,000.00 

—Traveling Expense 131.51 $ 2,131.51 

Secretary-Treasurer — Traveling Expense 195.90 2,327.41 

Office Expense: 

Rent, Supplies, Postage, Telephone, etc $ 1,151.19 

Stenographers, etc 318.50 1,469.69 

Printing and Binding: 

Membership Books $ 183.16 

General 116.18 299.34 

Delegates to American Federation of Labor Convention — Travel and Expense 338.49 

Shipping Codes — Travel and Miscellaneous Expense 463.73 

Litigation, Attorney's Fees, Court Costs, etc 125.00 

Total Disbursements $ 8,41 5. 63 

Recapitulation 
Cash on hand, December 1, 1932 $ 149.49 

Receipts, December 1, 1932, to November 30, 1933: 

Per Capita Tax $ 6,707.49 

Charter Fees 40.00 

International Membership Books 202.00 

Seamen's Journal, Advertising 400.00 

Donations 2,375.00 9,724.49 

Total $ 9,873.98 

Disbursements, December 1, 1932, to November 30, 1933 8,415.63 

Cash on hand, November 30, 1933 1,458.35 

Total $ 9,873.98 

DECEMBER 1, 1933, TO NOVEMBER 30, 1934 
Receipts 
Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes: 

International Membership Books $ 64.00 

Sailors' Union of the Pacific: 

Per Capita Tax $ 2,920.76 

International Membership Books 160.00 

Donation, Expenses Relating to Shipping Codes 500.00 3,580.76 

Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertenders' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf: 

International Membership Books 131.68 

Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Coalpassers' Union of the Great Lakes: 

Per Capita Tax $ 1,070.55 

International Membership Books 90.00 

Donation, Expenses Relating to Shipping Codes 1,000.00 2,160.55 

Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers' Association: 

Per Capita Tax $ 1,869.85 

International Membership Books 642.56 2,512.41 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf: 

International Membership Books 40.00 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Great Lakes: 

International Membership Books 80.00 

Marine Cooks and Stewards' Association of the Pacific Coast: 

Per Capita Tax ; 1,953.80 

International Membership Books 80.48 2,034.28 



April 1,1936 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 115 

Ferryboatmen's Union of the Pacific: 

Per Capita Tax 1,336.63 

Associated Marine Workers of the Port of New York and Vicinity: 

Charter Fee $ 10.00 

Per Capita Tax 62.55 72.55 

United Boatmen's Union of the Port of New York and Vicinity: 

Per Capita Tax $ 225.60 

Charter Fee 10.00 235.60 

Alaska Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 800.00 

Deep Sea Fishermen's Union of the Pacific: 

Per Capita Tax 1,362.50 

Columbia River Fishermen's Protective Union: 

Per Capita Tax 51.50 

Eureka Fishermen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 6.00 

Franklin County (Fla.) Boatmen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 13.49 

Nova Scotia Seamen's Union: 

Per Capita Tax 38.40 

Seamen's Journal: 

Receipts from Advertising 500.00 

Union Labor Life Insurance Co. Dividend .50 

Total Receipts $15,020.85 

Disbursements 
American Federation of Labor: 

Tax $ 600.00 

Seamen's Journal: 

Printing, Mailing, etc $ 1,968.28 

News Services 76.05 

Editor's Salary 600.00 2,644.33 

Officers' Salaries and Expense: 

President— Salary $2,080.00 

—Traveling Expense 118.31 $ 2,198.31 

Secretary-Treasurer— Salary 390.00 2,588.31 

Office Expense: 

Rent, Supplies, Postage, Telephone, etc $ 547.65 

Stenographic Expense (Washington, D. C, and Chicago Offices) 1,145.00 1,692.65 

Printing and Binding: 

Membership Books $ 2,446.68 

General 225.69 2,672.37 

Organizing Expense 235.00 

Shipping Code Expense: 

Printing, Stenographic Services, Traveling and Miscellaneous Expenses 1,244.99 

Atlantic and Gulf District Strike Preparations and Settlement Expense: 

Office Room, Printing, Telephone and Telegraph, Stenographic Services, Miscellane- 
ous Traveling Expense, Salaries, etc $ 2,822.16 

Secretary-Treasurer— Traveling Expense, Salary and Hotel 681.08 3,503.24 

Litigation, Attorney's Fees, Court Costs, etc 290.00 

National Women's Trade Union League: 

Yearly Affiliation Fee 5.00 

Total Disbursements $15,475.89 



116 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



Recapitulation 
Cash on hand, December 1, 1933 $ 1,458.35 

Receipts, December 1, 1933, to November 30, 1934: 

Per Capita Tax $11,711.63 

Charter Fees 20 - 00 

International Membership Books 1,288.72 

Seamen's Journal, Advertising 500.00 

Donations 1,500.00 

Miscellaneous 50 15,020.85 

Total $16,479.20 

Disbursements, December 1, 1933, to November 30, 1934 15,475.89 

Cash on hand, November 30, 1934 1,003.31 

Total $16,479.20 

COMPARATIVE STATEMENT 

The totals of receipts and disbursements of the International Office for the past six fiscal years weir as 
follows: 

1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 

Receipts $15,715.00 $11,191.35 $ 7,725.60 $9,724.49 $15,020.85 $57,017.87 

Disbursements 21,852.40 16,120.69 10,231.33 8,415.63 15,475.89 37,256.74 



IMPROVEMENT IN FINANCES 
The financial condition of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America has improved very materially 
during the past year. The cash on hand in the Inter- 
national Office, at the end of the fiscal year, as de- 
posited in banks approved by the Executive Board, is 
greater than that reported to any other convention 
of the International Union, with the exception of a 
single year following the World War. There has also 
been a very substantial increase in membership. 

The present amount in the International Treasury 
was accumulated mainly by keeping the administra- 
tive costs of the Union at lower levels than would be 
practical in the future, the amount arising from 
$1,003.31 on November 30, 1934, to $20,764.44, on 
November 30, 1935. The Secretary-Treasurer's office 
must not be expected to continue that rate of accumu- 
lation in the future if administrative details and or- 
ganization work are to be put on a sound and lasting 
basis necessary to the future progress of the organi- 
zation as a whole. 

CONCLUSION 

Immediately after I became the secretary-treasurer 
of the International Seamen's Union of America, I 
sought ways and means through which the usefulness 
of the International Office to the organization as a 
whole might be improved. The fact that I was ex- 
pected to serve on only a very limited part time basis 
with a nominal salary of ten dollars per week, and 
that at times I found it necessary to operate the office 
without any remuneration whatsoever, has, of course, 
been a serious handicap. I was obliged to earn my 
living through the work performed for divisions of 
the labor movement other than the International Sea- 
men's Union of America. Yet I have managed to find 
time, although with great difficulty, to engage in ac- 
tivities on behalf of the International Union fully equal 
in scope and significance to the work of many trade 
union officials employed on a full time basis. That 



has been possible, of course, only by serious overwork. 
The volume of business in the International Office 
has grown to such proportions that it now requires 
not only the full time services of an active official 
free from other work, but also greater office facilities, 
more stenographic service, and the aid of permanently 
employed international field representatives. Under 
the laws and practices of the International Union, the 
secretary-treasurer is the main executive officer, al- 
though prior to the time I undertook the duties of the 
office, neither the law nor the practices on this sub- 
ject has proved to be effective. This was due largely, 
and perhaps entirely to old habits and practices having 
their origin in the days when the district unions were 
isolated from each other and acted upon an entirely 
independent basis. Times and conditions have changed 
since then. The laws of the International Union and 
to some extent the laws of the district unions have 
been adjusted. But habits and practices, always ten- 
acious in their adherence to individuals and groups, 
continue, with relatively little change. I have made 
many efforts to improve matters in this respect, but 
the responses I have received have not been as en- 
couraging as might have been expected in view of 
prevailing circumstances during the past decade. There 
must be a greater degree of national unity in our or- 
ganization than that which has prevailed in the past if 
we are to move forward with any substantial degree 
of success. 

I am grateful for having had the opportunity to 
serve the International Seamen's Union of America as 
its secretary-treasurer. 

Fraternally submitted, 




Secretary-Treasurer. 
International Seamen's Union of America. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



117 



Secretary Olander, in a brief statement, informed 
the convention that it would no longer be possible 
for him, after the convention, to carry on the duties 
of Secretary-Treasurer. 

Opportunity was given at this time for the introduc- 
tion of resolutions, after which a motion to adjourn 
was made by Delegate O'Brien. 

TRIBUTE OF RESPECT TO MEMBERS OF 
CREW OF "IOWA" 

The motion to adjourn was held in abeyance while 
brief statements were made concerning the tragedy 
which occurred at the mouth of the Columbia River, 
in which 34 members of the crew of the ship Iowa 
of the States Line, all members of the Union, lost 
their lives. 

Delegate Engstrom contended that he had asked 
the privilege of the floor to make such statement, and 
that before he had an opportunity to do so, the motion 
to adjourn had been made. He was informed by the 
Chair that he now had the privilege of making his 
statement, and was asked by Secretary Olander to 
make the statement concerning the disaster for the 
record. Delegate Engstrom continued to speak on 
the matter of his not being given the floor previously, 
and Editor Scharrenberg then made a statement set- 
ting forth briefly the facts surrounding the disaster. 

Following the statement, the delegates rose and 
stood in silence for a brief period as a tribute of re- 
spect to the members who had lost their lives. 



DAILY PROCEEDINGS 

The question of furnishing the delegates with a daily 
synopsis of the Convention proceedings was raised by 
Secretary Olander and was discussed briefly. Secre- 
tary Olander offered a motion that the Secretary be 
authorized to furnish the delegates with such a record. 

Delegate Engstrom rose to a point of order, on the 
ground that the motion to adjourn was the only thing 
in order and that he had been previously refused the 
privilege of taking the floor because the motion to 
adjourn had been made. 

Secretary Olander withdrew his motion on account 
of the objection raised by Delegate Engstrom, but 
stated that nevertheless he would proceed to make ar- 
rangements for furnishing a daily mimeographed 
synopsis of the proceedings and report to the dele- 
gates, because he was certain that they wanted that 
to be done. 

RESOLUTIONS 

Secretary Olander announced the introduction of the 
following resolutions: Nos. 1 and 2 by Delegate Ed 
Coester, Sailors' Union of Pacific, No. 3 by Delegate 
Andrew Vigen, Alaska Fishermens' Union. Referred 
to Committee of the Whole. 

The motion to adjourn was carried, and at 4:50 
o'clock p. m. the Convention adjourned to 9:30 o'clock 
Tuesday morning, January 14. 



SECOND DAY 
Tuesday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 14, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:30 o'clock 
by President Furuseth. 

The roll call showed all delegates present. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Secretary Olander read a message of greeting from 
Joseph W. England, Agent, on behalf of the Houston, 
Texas, Branch of the Marine Cooks and Stewards' 
Union of the Atlantic and Gulf. 

He also reported having sent the following telegram, 
in accordance with the expressed wish of a number of 
delegates after adjournment of the session of yes- 
terday: 

Washington, D. C, January 13, 1936. 

Convention of International Seamen's Union of 
America, in regular Convention assembled, has unani- 
mously directed me to extend heartfelt condolence to 
the relatives and dependents of the thirty-four men 
who lost their lives on the freighter Iowa, wrecked at 
the mouth of the Columbia River. Please convey this 
expression of our deep sympathy to all concerned. 

Victor A. Olander, 

Secretary-Treasurer, 

International Seamen's Union of America. 

The above telegram was sent to all headquarters 
and branches of the District Unions of Sailors, Fire- 



men and Cooks and Stewards in San Francisco, Port- 
land and Seattle, also to the Masters and Pilots' 
Locals and to Locals of the M. E. B. A. organiza- 
tions. 

The telegram was approved and made part of the 
record. 

PACIFIC FIREMEN 

Secretary Olander informed the Convention that the 
Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders 
and Wipers' Association had paid additional per capita 
tax in an amount sufficient to entitle that District 
Union to five additional votes, and asked that he be 
authorized to make the appropriate change in the roll 
call record. 

A motion to concur in the request of the Secretary 
was adopted. 

Delegate Brown, Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Associa- 
tion, requested immediate consideration of Resolution 
No. 4, which is as follows: 

RESOLUTION NO. 4 

By Percy J. Pryor, Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Asso- 
ciation, Inc. 

WHEREAS, To conclude the Atlantic Agreement 
it is necessary to have the existing agreement ratified 



118 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



by the membership under the Constitution of the 
International Seamen's Union of America; and 

WHEREAS, The time limit allowed for voting un- 
der Article XVI, Section 4, is seven days, which, in 
the opinion of the Atlantic Delegation, is too short for 
canvass purpose, therefore be it 

RESOLVED, That Article XVI, Section 4, be 
amended by striking out the word "seven" in line 6 
of Section 4 and insert word "fourteen," so as to read: 
"Section 4. The Convention of the Executive Board 
may order the polls kept open during any number of 
consecutive meetings, not exceeding four, or any num- 
ber of consecutive days, not exceeding fourteen. Dis- 
trict and Local Unions may regulate the manner of 
voting and of canvassing the vote, but shall permit 
no member to vote more than once on the same propo- 
sition." 

The request for immediate consideration of the reso- 
lution was granted, and the resolution was adopted 
with but one dissenting vote. 

Vice-President O'Brien: The Constitution is 
amended accordingly. 

Secretary Olander suggested that it might be well 
to adjourn for the day and give the Committee on 
Audit and Credentials an opportunity to work further 
on the audit of the books and accounts and also to 
afford those delegates who wished to attend a session 
of the National Congress an opportunity to do so. 

Delegate Engstrom moved that an adjournment be 
taken to 9:30 o'clock Wednesday morning, January 15. 
The motion was seconded and carried, and the Con- 
vention adjourned at 10:05 a. m. 

INTRODUCTION OF RESOLUTIONS 

During the day the following additional resolutions 
were introduced: 

No. 5 By Delegate Ferguson 

No. 6 By Delegate Ferguson 

No. 7 By President Furuseth and Delegate Olander 

No. 8 By Delegate Quittenton 



No. 9 By Delegate Quittenton 

No. 10 By Delegate Quittenton 

No. 11 By Delegate Vigen 

No. 12 By Delegate Keller 

No. 13 By Delegate Coester 

No. 14 By Delegate Quittenton 

No. 15 By Delegate Coester 

No. 16 By Delegate Van der Staay 

No. 17 By Delegate Van der Staay 

No. 18 By Delegate Ferguson 

No. 19 By Delegate Burke 

No. 20 By Delegate Conners 

No. 21 By Delegate Kile 

No. 22 By Delegate Quittenton 

No. 23 By Delegates Murphy, Engstrom, 

Connors and King 

No. 24 By Delegate Deal 

No. 25 By Delegate Quittenton 

No. 26 By Delegate King 

No. 27 By Delegate King 

No. 28 By Delegate King 

No. 29 By Delegate Murphy 

No. 30 By Delegate O'Brien 

No. 31 By Delegate Hunter 

No. 32 By Delegate Angle 

No. 33 By Delegate Quittenton 

No. 34 By Delegate Engstrom 

No. 35 By Delegates Quittenton, Coester 

No. 36 By Delegate Morris 

No. 37 By Delegates Engstrom, Murphy 

No. 38 By Delegate King 

No. 39 By Delegates Quittenton, Coester 

No. 40 By Delegate Ferguson 

No. 41 , By Delegate Quittenton 

No. 42 , By Delegates Farrcll, Oldenberg 

No. 43 By Delegates Ferguson, Engstrom 

No. 44 By Delegate Quittenton 

No. 45 By Delegates Quittenton, Engstrom, Connors 

No. 46 By Delegate Olander 



THIRD DAY 
Wednesday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 15, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order by President 
Furuseth at 9:30 o'clock. 

The roll call showed all delegates present. 
Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Secretary Olander read telegrams containing ex- 
pressions of good will and the hope for a successful 
Convention from the following: George Larsen, Sec- 
retary of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific; R. E. 
Dickey, Agent pro tern, of the Eastern and Gulf Sail- 
ors' Association, Baltimore Branch; and W. H. El- 
kins, Agent pro tern, of the Marine Cooks and Stew- 
ards of Baltimore. 



FISHERMEN 

Secretary Olander reported that after an extended 
conference with representatives from the various Fish- 
ermen's groups who are in the city and after going into 
the entire situation with them, he wished to recom- 
mend that the Convention approve the issuance of a 
charter to the Herring Fishermen of the Pacific and 
to the Salmon Purse Seiners' Union of the Pacific. 

He further recommended that the Copper River 
and Prince William Sound Fishermen's Union which 
had a charter issued some years ago, be granted ex- 
emption from their arrearages, thus reviving the old 
charter. 

Delegate Engstrom moved the adoption of the Sec- 
retary's recommendation with reference to these three 
groups. 



April 1, 1936 



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119 



The motion was seconded and carried. 

Secretary Olander then recommended that repre- 
sentatives from the above groups who show proper 
credentials be permitted to sit in the Convention with- 
out a vote. 

A motion to adopt the Secretary's recommendation 
was carried. 

With reference to the San Pedro group, Secretary 
Olander recommended that this matter be left in the 
hands of the Secretary for further investigation. 

On motion of Delegate Carlson, the recommenda- 
tion of the Secretary was approved. 

Delegate Quittenton asked to be recorded as being 
opposed to the recommendation. 

With reference to the Cod Fishermen's group, the 
Convention concurred in the recommendation of the 
Secretary that further time be given to act upon this 
matter. 

INTRODUCTION OF RESOLUTIONS 

Delegate Quittenton asked unanimous consent to 
submit two resolutions which he said had been adopted 
at a recent meeting of his organization and had been 
received by him after the time limit for the introduc- 
tion of resolutions had expired. Unanimous consent 
was given, and the resolutions, numbered 47 and 48, 
were introduced and referred to the Committee of the 
Whole. 

On motion of Delegate Grange, the Convention, at 
10:05 a. m., was resolved into the Committee of the 
Whole for consideration of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

The Committee of the Whole took up for considera- 
tion the report of the Secretary-Treasurer and by 



unanimous action concurred in the sections of the 
report appearing under the following captions: 

Outlook for the Future. 

District and Local Unions. 

Conventions. 

The Economic Depression. 

National Recovery Administration. 

Effect of Federal Government Policy. 

Pacific Coast Strike 

A motion was adopted to concur in that portion of 
the Secretary's report under the above caption, and 
Delegate Coester asked to be recorded as objecting 
to that portion of the report dealing with the U. S. 
Employment Service. 

A motion was made to concur in that portion of 
the Secretary's report under the caption, "Atlantic 
and Gulf Coast Maneuvers." 

The subject matter was discussed at some length 
by Secretary Olander, during which he elaborated to 
some extent on the facts contained in this portion of 
the report. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 12:15 p. m. the Committee of the Whole arose and 
reported progress to the Convention. 

Delegate Grange announced that a dinner would be 
given in the Lee House on Saturday evening, Janu- 
ary 18, to Mrs. Victor A. Olander, in appreciation of 
the good work done by Secretary Olander for the 
members on the Atlantic Coast. He invited all dele- 
gates to attend. 

At 12:20 p. m. the Convention adjourned to 2 o'clock 
p. m. 



THIRD DAY 
Wednesday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order by President 
Furuseth at 2 o'clock. 

The roll call showed all delegates present. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

A letter containing fraternal greetings and best 
wishes of the Cleveland Branch of the Sailors and 
Marine Firemen's Union of the Great Lakes was read 
by Secretary Olander. 

Secretary Olander was authorized to make the nec- 
essary arrangements for the taking of a Convention 
photograph. 

President Furuseth stated that he was in entire ac- 
cord with the statement made at the morning session 
of the Committee of the Whole by Secretary Olander 
on that part of his report under the caption, "Atlantic 
and Gulf Coast Maneuvers." 

At 2:10 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for further considera- 
tion of the Secretary's report. 



Committee of the Whole 

Discussion was resumed on that portion of the re- 
port under the heading, "Atlantic and Gulf Coast 
Maneuvers," and the following took part: Delegate 
Murphy, President Furuseth, Delegate Grange, Dele- 
gate Deal, Delegate Engstrom, Delegate Ferguson, 
Delegate Quittenton, and Delegate Farrell. 

The motion to concur in the section of the Secre- 
tary's report under the caption, "Atlantic and Gulf 
Coast Maneuvers," was carried, the following dele- 
gates asking to be recorded as voting no: Quittenton, 
King, Ferguson, Murphy, Oldenberg, Coester, Eng- 
strom. 

Secretary Olander, on a question of personal privi- 
lege, made a statement in reply to an article appearing 
in The Voice of the Federation (issue of Friday, January 
6, 1936), which contained a personal attack upon him. 

Delegate Deal moved that the statement of Secre- 
tary Olander, in which he amplified that portion of 
his report under the caption, "Atlantic and Gulf Coast 



120 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



Maneuvers," he transcribed in full and circulated 
among seamen who are employed on ships under the 
jurisdiction of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

It was suggested by Secretary Olander that there 
might be other statements made later during the Con- 
vention that it would be advisable to circulate among 
the membership, and in compliance with that sugges- 
tion Delegate Deal temporarily withdrew his motion, 
with the understanding that it would be again sub- 
mitted and acted upon before the Convention adjourns. 

The Committee of the Whole arose to report to 
the Convention. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

The Convention reconvened at 4:55 p. m., and the 
Committee of the Whole arose and reported progress. 

Delegates Van der Staay, Bley and Warn, of Balti- 
more, were excused, by unanimous consent of the 
Convention, from attendance at the morning session 
of January 16 in order that they might attend the fu- 
neral of a fellow member in Baltimore, with the un- 
derstanding that if a roll call vote should be taken in 
their absence their co-delegates would be privileged 
to cast the vote for them. 

At 5 o'clock p. m. the Convention adjourned to 9:30 
o'clock Thursday morning, January 16. 



FOURTH DAY 
Thursday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 16, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order by President 
Furuseth at 9:30 o'clock. 

The roll call showed all delegates present except 
Delegates Bley and Warn, who were excused by 
action of the Convention on the previous day to attend 
a funeral. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Secretary Olander read a telegram from C. R. 
French, Secretary-Treasurer of M. E. B. A. No. 38, of 
Seattle, acknowledging with thanks the message of 
sympathy from the Convention relating to the victims 
of the Iowa disaster. 

At 9:35 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for the further consid- 
eration of pending matters. 

Committee of the fV/iole 
Consideration of the report of the Secretary-Treas- 
urer was resumed. 



The Great Lakes Situation 

The committee by unanimous action concurred in 
the portions of the Secretary-Treasurer's report under 
the following captions: 

The Great Lakes Situation. 

The Rivers. 

That portion of the Secretary-Treasurer's report 
under the caption, "Agreements and Awards," was 
read to the Committer. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 10:20 a. m. the Committee of the Whole arose 
and reported progress to the Convention. 

President Furuseth informed the Convention that 
Miss Frances Perkins, the Secretary of Labor, would 
address the Convention at 1 o'clock. 

A motion to recess until 12:45 p. m. was adopted, 
and the Convention recessed at 10:25 a. m. 



FOURTH DAY 
Thursday Afternoon Session 



Pursuant to the motion adopted at the recessing 
of the morning session, the Convention reconvened 
at 12:45 p.m., President Furuseth in the chair. 

The roll call showed all delegates present. 

VISIT BY SECRETARY OF LABOR 

President Furuseth appointed Delegates Brown and 
Pryor as a committee to escort the Secretary of Labor 
to the hall. 

President Furuseth presented Miss Frances Perkins, 
Secretary of Labor, for a short address in which she 
gave the delegates interesting information in relation 
to the gains in employment, payrolls, production, farm 
income, profits and dividends since March, 1933. 



At the conclusion of her address, Secretary Perkins 
invited the delegates to visit the Department of Labor 
Building. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

Secretary Olander read the following report of the 
Committee of the Whole: 

The Committee of the Whole has considered vari- 
ous sections of the report of the Secretary-Treasurer 
and recommends approval of the report appearing un- 
der the following titles: 

Outlook for the Future. 

District and Local Unions. 

Conventions. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



121 



Economic Depression. 

National Recovery Administration. 

Effect of Government Policy. 

Pacific Coast Strike. 

Atlantic and Gulf Maneuvers. 

The Great Lakes Situation. 

The Rivers. 

Delegate O'Brien moved the adoption of the com- 
mittee's report, and the motion was seconded and car- 
ried by unanimous vote. 

At 1:15 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for consideration of pending 
matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

Delegate Hunter moved the adoption of the portion 
of the Secretary-Treasurer's report, under the caption, 
"Agreements and Awards." The motion was seconded. 

The matter was discussed by Delegates King, 



Burke, Farrell, Oldenberg, Quittenton, Murphy, 
Scharrenberg, Engstrom, and Secretary Olander. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 5:05 p. m. the Convention reconvened, and the 
Committee of the Whole arose and reported progress. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Secretary Olander read a telegram from Robert 
Humphrey, agent pro tern, of the Baltimore Branch of 
Marine Firemen, Oilers and Water Tenders' Union, 
wishing the Convention success. 

The question of the position to be taken by the 
Convention with reference to legislation now pending 
in Congress affecting the use of fish traps and fixed 
appliances for the catching of fish was briefly dis- 
cussed, and action deferred until the morning session, 
pending the receipt of additional information. 

At 5:20 p. m. the Convention adjourned to 9:30 
o'clock Friday morning, January 17. 



FIFTH DAY 
Friday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 17, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:30 o'clock 
by President Furuseth. 

The roll call showed all delegates present. 

President Furuseth reported that the Congressional 
Committee hearing as affecting the use of fish traps 
and fixed appliances for the catching of fish had been 
called off for the time being, but that opportunity 
would be afforded to file statements with the com- 
mittee, or to make additional statements before the 
committee if its sessions were reconvened. 

Resolution No. 23 Withdrawn 

Delegate Engstrom requested unanimous consent to 
the withdrawal of Resolution No. 23, which provided 
that Myer Byne and Jack Moutal be seated as fra- 
ternal delegates, stating that in the light of additional 
facts which had been presented to the Convention, 
the sponsors of the resolution desired to withdraw it. 
Delegates A. M. Murphy, Connors and King, who 
signed the resolution, concurred in the request made 
by Delegate Engstrom. The resolution was as fol- 
lows : 

By Delegates J. W. Engstrom, Earl King, A. M. 
Murphy, P.C.M.F.O.W. & W. Assn. 

WHEREAS, Myer Byne, book No. 766 and Jack 
Moutal, book No. 603, were duly elected at a regular 
business meeting of the M.F.O.W. & W. Union of 
Atlantic and Gulf, Boston Branch; and 

WHEREAS, The entire membership present has 
confidence to nominate, elect and send them as Fra- 
ternal Delegates to the Thirty-third Convention of 
the International Seamen's Union of America; there- 
fore be it 

RESOLVED, That these Brothers, having shown 
that they have the welfare and interests of the mem- 



bership at heart, they be seated as Fraternal Dele- 
gates. 

Unanimous consent was given, and Resolution No. 
23 was withdrawn. 

By unanimous consent the following resolution, 
which was agreed upon by the delegates representing 
Fishermen, was read to the convention, by the Secre- 
tary, for immediate action: 

Resolution No. 49 

By Delegates of Fishermen. 

WHEREAS, The settlement of Alaska is being de- 
layed and in fact prevented and the maintenance of 
fish traps and other fixed fishing gear and the right 
to erect and operate such fishing gear makes it prac- 
tically impossible for either white or native fishermen 
to make a living in Alaska in competition with this 
monopoly which has come to these times from the 
feudal ages, and settlement in Alaska can best be pro- 
moted by giving encouragement to men accustomed 
to obtain their living partly from fishing and partly 
by raising sustenance from the soil; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, By The International Seamen's 
Union of America in Convention assembled, that we 
urge upon Congress the necessity to first prohibit all 
traps or other stationary gear and legalization of the 
size and use of the purse seine. 

The resolution was adopted by unanimous vote. 

At 9:55 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for consideration of pend- 
ing matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 
Discussion was resumed on that portion of the Sec- 
retary's report under the caption, "Agreements and 



122 



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April 1, 1936 



Awards," and the following took part: Delegate Far- 
rell, President Furuseth, Editor Scharrenberg, Dele- 
gates Oldenberg, Quittenton, Coester, Deal, Grange, 
Van der Staay, and King. 

During the discussion Delegate O'Connor offered 
an amendment to the pending motion (the pending 
motion being to adopt that part of the Secretary's 
report under the caption, "Agreements and Awards"), 
that discussion in relation to the tanker strike on the 
Pacific be closed until that question comes properly 
before the committee. The amendment was seconded, 
but was later withdrawn by the mover, with the con- 
sent of the seconder, after a discussion as to parlia- 
mentary procedure. 



Vice-President O'Brien then asked the committee 
to express themselves as to whether they favored 
strict adherence to the rules in future discussions 
coming before the committee, to the end that the dis- 
cussions be confined strictly to the question before 
the committee. By unanimous consent the committee 
agreed to the suggestion of the Chair. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 11:55 a. m. the convention reconvened, and 
Secretary Olander reported progress, on behalf of 
the Committee of the Whole. 

At 12:05 p. m. the Convention adjourned to recon- 
vene at 2 o'clock p. m. 



FIFTH DAY 
Friday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order by President 
Furuseth at 2 o'clock. 

The roll call showed all delegates present. 

FISHERMEN'S DELEGATES 

Secretary Olander reported that the following rep- 
resentatives of the Fishermen's groups have submit- 
ted proper credentials, were seated with voice but no 
vote in the Convention by previous action, and were 
now present: 

Herring Fishermen's Union of the Pacific — John 
Reines. 

Salmon Purse Seiners' Union of the Pacific — Con- 
rad H. Espe. 

Copper River and Prince William Sound Fisher- 
men's Union — C. Chester Carlson and Harry Stuhr. 

In this connection Secretary Olander submitted the 
following report: 

"The old charter held by the Copper River and 
Prince William Sound Fishermen's Union was issued 
under the name, 'Fishermen's Union of Prince Wil- 
liam Sound and Vicinity.' That old charter has been 
revived by the action of the Convention in granting 
exemption from payment of arrears. I recommend 
that the name on the charter be changed to read, 
'Copper River and Prince William Sound Fishermen's 
Union'." 

Delegate Deal moved the adoption of the Secre- 
tary's recommendation. The motion was seconded 
and carried bv unanimous vote. 



At 2:10 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole to continue the discus- 
sion of pending matters. 

Committee of the W hole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

The discussion continued on that portion of the 
Secretary's report under the caption, "Agreements and 
Awards," and the following took part: 

Delegates King, Van der Staay, Brown, Grange, 
Quittenton, Kaiser, Farrell, Engstrom, Carlson 
(Oscar), A. W. Murphy, President Furuseth and Sec- 
retary Olander. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 5:30 p. m. the Convention reconvened, President 
Furuseth in the chair. 

The Committee of the Whole arose, and, through 
Secretary Olander, reported progress. 

COMMUNICATION 

Secretary Olander read a telegram signed by John 
P. Glander, Assistant to the President, and Joseph 
Arras, Treasurer of the Marine Cooks and Stewards' 
Union of the Atlantic and Gulf, extending felicitations 
and expressing the hope that a successful settlement 
of all problems might be arrived at. 

At 5:35 p. m. the Convention adjourned to 9:30 
o'clock Saturday morning, January 18. 



SIXTH DAY 
Saturday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 18, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:30 o'clock 
by President Furuseth. 

The roll call showed all delegates present. 



COMMUNICATIONS 

Secretary Olander read a telegram signed by J. H. 
Van Court, Acting Agent of the New Orleans Branch 
of the Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the At- 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



123 



lantic and Gulf, extending best wishes for the success 
of the Convention; also a telegram signed by F. Bruck, 
Acting Secretary of the Marine Cooks and Stewards 
of the Pacific at San Francisco, acknowledging the 
Convention's expression of sympathy for the relatives 
and friends of the victims of the Iowa disaster. 

Correspondence with Mr. Turner W. Battle, of the 
Department of Labor, including an invitation extended 
to him by the President to address the Convention on 
the King Bill, and Mr. Battle's reply to the effect that 
a previous engagement prevented him from accepting 
the invitation was read. 

Delegate A. W. Murphy asked to be excused from 
further attendance at this session, due to a severe cold. 
The request was granted. 

At 9:40 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for further consideration of 
the Secretary-Treasurer's report. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

Delegate Hunter moved that debate on the portion 
of the Secretary's report, entitled "Agreements and 
Awards," cease at 11:30 o'clock a. m. and that a vote 
then be taken. 

The motion was seconded and carried. 

Discussion was then continued on this portion of 
the Secretary's report, and the following took part: 
Delegates Burke, Conners, Ferguson, Van der Staay, 
Farrell, Quittenton, Grange, Scharrenberg, President 
Furuseth, and Secretary Olander. 

During the discussion Delegate Murphy, who had 
been excused on account of illness, made a request 
through Delegate Farrell that certain remarks he 
had made concerning a former officer of the Firemen's 
Union of the Pacific, now deceased, be deleted from 
the record. The committee concurred in the request. 

In accordance with the motion adopted at the open- 
ing of the session, debate on that portion of the Secre- 
tary's report under the caption, "Agreements and 
Awards," was closed. 

The motion to concur in the Secretary's report un- 
der the caption, "Agreements and Awards," was 
adopted by the Committee of the Whole. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 11:50 a. m. the Convention reconvened, President 
Furuseth presiding, and Secretary Olander, on behalf 
of the Committee of the Whole, reported progress. 

Delegate Grange moved that the rules be suspended 
and the Convention remain in session to act on the 
report of the Committee of the Whole in relation to 
the part of the report of the Secretary-Treasurer 
under the caption, "Agreements and Awards," and 
until a roll call vote had been taken. The motion was 
seconded. 

An amendment was offered to provide that when 
the roll call vote had been taken, the Convention then 
adjourn to 9:30 o'clock Monday morning, January 20. 
The amendment was accepted by the mover of the 
original motion and the seconder, but after some 
discussion, was withdrawn. 



The motion to suspend the rules and remain in 
session until the roll call vote was taken was then put 
to vote and carried. 

Secretary Olander read the following report for the 
Committee of the Whole: 

Agreements and Awards 
(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, pages 95-98) 

The Committee of the Whole recommends approval 
of that section of the Secretary's report under the 
caption, "Agreements and Awards," and asks imme- 
diate consideration thereon. 

Delegate Grange moved the adoption of the recom- 
mendation. The motion was seconded. 

Delegate Quittenton requested a roll call vote, 
which request was concurred in by the Convention. 

Roll Call Vote 

Secretary Olander proceeded with the roll call, with 
the following result: 

Yes: Pryor, Cummings, Brown, Keller, Kile, Van 
der Staay, Carlson, Bley, Keane, Grange, Allen, 
Angle, Kaiser, Warn, Morris, Olander, O'Brien, 
Hunter, Deal — Total, 305 votes. 

No: Coester, Quittenton, King, Engstrom, Farrell, 
Ferguson, Murphy, Oldenberg, Burke, Conners, 
O'Connor, Vigen — Total, 174 votes. 

President Furuseth: In accordance with the vote 
as announced by the Secretary, that portion of the 
Secretary's report under the heading, "Agreements 
and Awards," has been adopted. 

Delegate Morris requested permission to be excused 
from further attendance at the Convention, so that he 
might attend to urgent business at his home port. 
The request was granted. 

Delegate Morris also requested that Delegate Keller 
be permitted, at the proper time, to take up Resolu- 
tion No. 36, which Delegate Morris had introduced. 

Delegate O'Brien moved that the Convention give 
immediate consideration to the resolution. The mo- 
tion was seconded and carried. 

Secretary Olander read the resolution, as follows: 

Resolution No. 36 

By Delegate J. T. Morris, Harborboatmen's Union 
of Camden, Philadelphia and vicinity. 

WHEREAS, Certain organizations of licensed offi- 
cers are encroaching on the jurisdiction of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America by compelling 
unlicensed men on certain harbor craft to join said 
organizations of licensed officers, therefore be it 

RESOLVED, That the Executive Board of the In- 
ternational Seamen's Union of America be instructed 
to take the necessary steps to properly assert the juris- 
diction of the union in relation to harbor boatmen. 

Delegate Coester moved the adoption of the resolu- 
tion. The motion was seconded and carried. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Secretary Olander read a telegram of greeting 
signed by R. Chapdelaine, Agent pro tern, of the New 
York Branch, Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association. 

Delegate Coester moved that the Convention con- 



124 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1. V)ih 



tinue in session Saturday afternoon and Sunday. The 
motion was seconded. 

Delegate Grange moved as an amendment that the 
Convention now adjourn to 9:30 o'clock Monday 
morning, January 20. The amendment was seconded. 

Delegate Coester, after some discussion, withdrew 
his motion, with the consent of the seconder. 

MIMEOGRAPHING OF RESOLUTIONS 

Secretary Olander informed the Convention that 
some of the delegates had requested that copies of the 



resolutions submitted to the Convention he furnished 
the delegates, and stated if that was the desire of the 
Convention he would arrange to have them mimeo- 
graphed and ready for distribution on Monday. 

Delegate King moved that the suggestion of the 
Secretary be complied with. The motion was sec- 
onded and carried. 

Delegate Grange moved that the Convention ad- 
journ to 9:30 o'clock Monday morning, January 20. 
The motion was seconded and carried, and the Con- 
vention adjourned accordingly at 12:40 p. m. 



SEVENTH DAY 
Monday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 20, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:30 o'clock 
by President Furuseth. 

The roll call showed all delegates present, with the 
exception of Delegate Morris, excused by action of 
the Convention on Saturday. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Secretary Olander read a telegram signed by J. Be- 
hagen, Acting Agent; T. Evans, B. Stuart, and J. 
Dixon, extending the greetings and best wishes of the 
West Side Branch, New York. 

At 9:35 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for further consideration of 
the Secretary's report. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

Secretary Olander read that portion of his report 
under the caption, "Maritime Federation of the Pacific 
Coast." 

Delegate Brown moved the adoption of that portion 
of the report. The motion was seconded. 

Delegate Engstrom moved that discussion and ac- 
tion on this section of the report be deferred until the 
committee had reached that portion of the report un- 



der the caption, "A Dangerous Proposal." The mo- 
tion was seconded. 

After a brief discussion Delegate Engstrom with- 
drew his motion, and Editor Scharrenberg moved that 
consideration of the section of the Secretary'- report 
entitled "A Dangerous Proposal" be given at the same 
time as that section entitled "Maritime Federation of 
the Pacific Coast" was under discussion. The motion 
was seconded and carried. 

Secretary Olander then read the section oi his re- 
port under the heading. "A Dangerous Proposal," and 
Delegate Grange moved that both sections of the re- 
port — "Maritime Federation of the Pacific Coast" and 
"A Dangerous Proposal" be approved. The motion 
was seconded. 

Discussion of both sections occupied the entire ses- 
sion, and the following took part: Delegate Engstrom, 
Delegate Carlson, Delegate Connors, Delegate Deal, 
Delegate Brown, Editor Scharrenberg, and Secretary 
Olander. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 12:10 p. m. the Convention reconvened, Presi- 
dent Furuseth presiding, and Secretary Olander re- 
ported progress for the Committee of the Whole. 

At 12:10 p. m. the Convention adjourned to 2 
o'clock. 



SEVENTH DAY 
Monday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2:45 o'clock 
by President Furuseth. 

The roll call showed all delegates present with the 
exception of Delegate Morris, excused by previous 
action of the Convention. 

The Convention adopted a motion concurring in the 
suggestion of President Furuseth that Mr. Robert W. 
Bruere, United States Government representative at 
the Geneva Maritime Conference, be asked to address 
the Convention at 2 o'clock on Tuesday afternoon, 
January 21. 

At 2:55 o'clock p. m. the Convention resolved itself 
into the Committee of the Whole for further consider- 
ation of the Secretary's report. 



Committee of the If hole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

Maritime Federation of the Pacific Coast 
A Dangerous Proposal 

Discussion was resumed on the sections of the Sec- 
retary's reports under the above headings, and the 
following took part: Secretary Olander. Delegate 
Engstrom, President Furuseth, and Delegate-. Farrell, 
Grange and Deal. Secretary Olander read certain 
telegrams of July, 1935, regarding the British Colum- 
bia, and made a statement in relation thereto. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



125 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 5 o'clock p. m. the Convention reconvened, Presi- 
denth Furuseth presiding, and the Committee of the 
Whole arose and reported progress, through Secretary 
Olander. 

Delegate Coester moved that the Secretary be in- 



structed to convey the greetings of the Convention 
to the organized seamen of Australia and to make in- 
quiry as to the present strike conditions there. The 
motion was seconded and carried by unanimous vote. 
At 5:05 p. m. the Convention adjourned to 9:30 
o'clock Tuesday morning, January 21. 



EIGHTH DAY 
Tuesday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 21, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:30 o'clock 
by President Furuseth. 

The roll call showed all delegates present. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Secretary Olander read a telegram signed by A. J. 
Barnes, Chairman, and Charles Thorsen, Agent, ex- 
tending the best wishes of the New Orleans Branch 
of the Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association for a 
successful convention. 

A telegram of similar import, signed by Wilbur W. 
Dickey, Chairman, and Charles Thorsen, Agent, was 
received from the New Orleans Branch of the Marine 
Firemen, Oilers and Water Tenders. 

A telegram signed by Munier and Timmons, for the 
Marine Cooks and Stewards' Association of San 
Pedro, expressed the hope that the Convention would 
result in a better understanding and a closer co- 
operation between the membership on the Atlantic and 
Pacific Coasts. 

Secretary Olander informed the Convention that, 
in accordance with its instructions on the previous 
day, he had sent the following cablegram to the Fed- 
erated Seamen's Union of Australia, at Sydney: 
"Convention International Seamen's Union here sends 
fraternal greetings. Delegates would like cable in- 
formation regarding strike of Australian seamen." 

SPECIAL COMMITTEE 

Secretary Olander moved that the President be 
authorized to appoint a committee for the purpose of 
conveying to the Convention of the National Marine 
Engineers' Beneficial Association, now in session in 
Washington, the fraternal greetings of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America. 

The motion was seconded and adopted, and Dele- 
gates Ivan Hunter, Percy Pryor and David E. Grange 
were named as a committee to convey the greetings 
of the convention. 

Delegate Chester Carlson, Fishermen, stated that it 
would be necessary for the delegates representing the 
Fishermen's group to return to their homes soon and 
requested that the Convention give early considera- 
tion to Resolution No. 8, in which they were in- 
terested. 

Secretary Olander read Resolution No. 8 and moved 
that the Convention give the resolution immediate 
consideration. The motion was seconded and carried. 



Resolution No. 8 
By Delegates Al V. Quittenton and Ed. Coester, 
Sailors' Union of Pacific. 

WHEREAS, The Cannery Workers of Prince Wil- 
liam Sound and Copper River Delta have withdrawn 
from the former Prince William Fishermen and Can- 
nery Workers' Union and are now applying to the 
American Federation of Labor for a charter; and 

WHEREAS, The granting of this charter will aid 
the Cannery Workers in this locality and the Copper 
River and Prince William Sound Fishermen's Union 
is offsetting the attempts of the company union to 
operate in that territory; therefore be it 

RESOLVED, That the 33rd Convention of the In- 
ternational Seamen's Union of America recommend 
and aid the granting of the charter to these cannery 
workers from the American Federation of Labor. 

By action of the Convention, the following words 
were added to the last paragraph of the resolution: 
"after due investigation by the American Federation 
of Labor." The resolve as amended, is as follows: 

"RESOLVED, That the thirty-Third Convention 
of the International Seamen's Union of America rec- 
ommend and aid the granting of the charter to these 
cannery workers from the American Federation of 
Labor, after due investigation by the American Fed- 
eration of Labor." 

Delegate Chester Carlson moved the adoption of 
the resolution as amended. The motion was seconded 
by Delegate Vigen and carried by unanimous vote. 

At 10 o'clock the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for further consideration 
of the Secretary's report. 

Committee of the Whole 
Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

Discussion continued on the sections of the report 
of the Secretary under the headings, Maritime Fed- 
eration of the Pacific and A Dangerous Proposal, and 
the following took part: Delegate Deal, Delegate 
O'Connor, Delegate Murphy, Delegate Quittenton, 
Delegate Allen, Delegate Coester, Delegate Kaiser, 
Delegate Van der Staay, Delegate Engstrom, Presi- 
dent Furuseth and Secretary Olander. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 12 o'clock noon the Convention reconvened. 
President Furuseth in the chair, and the Committee 
of the Whole arose and reported progress, through 
Secretary Olander. 

At 12:05 p. m. the Convention adjourned to 2:30 
o'clock p. m. 



126 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1. 1936 



EIGHTH DAY 
Tuesday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2 o'clock by 
President Furuseth. 

The roll call showed all delegates present. 

Secretary Olander reported that Delegates Coester 
and Quittenton would be temporarily absent from the 
afternoon session by reason of attending a conference 
with the head of the Bureau of Navigation in the 
matter of the Iowa disaster. 

The Secretary also reported that three delegates 
representing the Fishermen — Delegates Chester Carl- 
son, Harry Stuhr and John Reines — had asked to be 
excused from the Convention as soon as possible so 
that they might return to their homes. 

A motion to grant the request of the delegates was 
adopted by unanimous vote. 

Delegate Deal asked to be excused from attendance 
at the afternoon session on account of illness. The 
request was granted. 

INTERNATIONAL LABOR OFFICE 

President Furuseth presented to the Convention 
Mr. Robert W. Bruere, United States Government 
representative at the recent Maritime Conference, 
held under the auspices of the International Labor 
Office, Geneva, Switzerland. Mr. Bruere gave the 
delegates a brief and interesting account of the pro- 
ceedings of that conference and the part which the 



American delegates had taken in it. He said that when 
the next conference was held, many questions of vital 
importance to the welfare of seamen would be taken 
up and fully discussed. 

At 2:35 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole to continue the discus- 
sion of the Secretary's report under the headings, 
"Maritime Federation of the Pacific Coast" and "A 
Dangerous Proposal." 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

The following delegates took part in the discussion, 
which occupied the entire afternoon session: Secre- 
tary Olander, Delegate Connors, Delegate King, Dele- 
gate Murphy, Delegate Keane, Delegate Engstrom, 
Editor Scharrenberg, Delegate Grange, Delegate 
Quittenton and Delegate Ferguson. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 4:58 p. m. the Convention reconvened and the 
Committee of the Whole arose and reported progress, 
through Secretary Olander. 

At 5 o'clock p. m. the Convention was adjourned, 
under the rules, to reconvene at 9:30 o'clock Wednes- 
day morning, January 22. 



NINTH DAY 
Wednesday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 22, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order by President 
Furuseth at 9:30 o'clock. 

The roll call showed all delegates present with the 
exception of Delegate Espe, who was absent on busi- 
ness of his Union. 

SECRETARY'S STATEMENT 

Secretary Olander made a brief statement in which 
he reminded the Convention that although it had pro- 
ceeded about half way through the report of the 
Secretary-Treasurer it had not, up to this time, taken 
definite action with regard to any sections of the re- 
port beyond mere approval, and with no definite action 
by the Convention to carry out the suggestions con- 
tained in the report nor to draft and adopt declara- 
tions of policy in relation thereto for the information 
and guidance of District and Local Unions, officers 
and members. 

Secretary Olander moved that the Convention re- 
cess from 10 o'clock to 10:45 o'clock a. m., so that 
the committee appointed by action of the Convention 
on the previous day might visit the convention of the 
Marine Engineers' Beneficial Association. 



The motion was seconded and carried. 

Miss Eleanor Powell, representing the Women's 
International League for Peace, was given the privi- 
lege of the floor to address the Convention with re- 
gard to the objects of that organization. 

At 10 o'clock, in accordance with the motion, the 
Convention recessed to 10:45 o'clock a. m., reconven- 
ing at that hour with President Furuseth presiding. 

REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMITTEE 

Vice-President Hunter, on behalf of the committee 
appointed to visit the convention of the Marine Engi- 
neers' Beneficial Association, reported as follows: 

".Mr. President, your committee waited upon the 
Marine Engineers' Beneficial Association and received 
a very warm welcome. They greeted us and said they 
hoped to be able to work in harmony with whatever 
came out of this Convention." 

Delegate Quittenton moved that the report be re- 
ceived. The motion was seconded and carried by 
unanimous vote. 

At 10:50 o'clock a. m. the Convention resolved itself 
into the Committee of the Whole for further consid- 
eration of the Secretary's report. 






April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



127 



Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

Discussion was resumed on the sections of the Sec- 
retary's report headed, "Maritime Federation of the 
Pacific Coast," and "A Dangerous Proposal," and 
the following delegates took part: Delegate Brown, 
Delegate Coester and Delegate Farrell. At the con- 
clusion of Delegate Brown's statement he offered the 
following as a recommendation to be made by the 
Committee of the Whole: 

Your Committee of the Whole has carefully re- 
viewed those parts in the Secretary-Treasurer's re- 
port under the caption "Maritime Federation of the 
Pacific Coast." 

There can be no question that the newly organized 
Maritime Federation of the Pacific Coast was organ- 
ized and has been functioning contrary to the laws 
of the International Seamen's Union of America and 
the American Federation of Labor. 

Article IX of the Constitution of the Maritime Fed- 
eration of the Pacific Coast sets forth the manner by 
which strikes may be initiated and ended. This pro- 
vision is in direct conflict with Article XVIII of the 
Constitution of the International Seamen's Union 
of America. 

Article XI of the Constitution of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor contains the following pertinent 
sections: 

Sec. 5. No Central Labor Union, or other cen- 
tral body of delegates, shall have the authority or 
power to order any organization, affiliated with 
such Central Labor Union, or other central labor 
body, on strike, or to take a strike vote, where 
such organization has a national organization, 
until the proper authorities of such National or 
International organizations have been consulted 
and agreed to such action. A violation of this law 
shall be sufficient cause for the Executive Council 
to revoke the charter. 

Sec. 9. No Central Body shall take part in the 
adjustment of wage contracts, wage disputes or 



working rules of local unions, affiliated with a 
National or International Union, unless the laws 
of the National or International Union permit, 
except upon the request or consent of the execu- 
tive officer of the National or International Union 
affected. 

These sections of the American Federation of Labor 
Constitution should leave no doubt whatever that the 
Maritime Federation of the Pacific Coast is attempt- 
ing to function contrary to law. 

We, therefore, recommend that our Pacific District 
Unions be directed to immediately sever their con- 
nection with the Maritime Federation of the Pacific 
Coast. 

There is need for greater cooperation and unity 
among the organizations representing the sea-going 
personnel of the merchant marine, for the protection 
of all men who go to sea, not only in the districts but 
also on a national basis. Immediate steps should be 
taken to that end. The Committee of the Whole, 
therefore, recommends that a committee be appointed 
by the President with instructions to consult with 
the representatives of other organizations of sea- 
going crafts (it being understood that a number of 
such representatives are now in the city) and to report 
to this Convention, it being further understood that 
upon receipt of the report of such committee the Con- 
vention will take further action on the subject of 
national and district cooperation between organiza- 
tions representing the sea-going personnel. 

Delegate Pryor moved the adoption of the recom- 
mendation. The motion was seconded. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 12 o'clock noon the Convention reconvened, 
President Furuseth in the chair, and on behalf of the 
Committee of the Whole Secretary Olander reported 
progress. 

At 12:10 p. m. the Convention was adjourned to 
2 o'clock p. m. 



NINTH DAY 
Wednesday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2 o'clock p.m. 
by President Furuseth. 

The roll call showed all delegates present. 

Committee of the Whole 

At 2:10 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole, and discussion of the 
matter pending at the morning session was continued. 
Delegate Grange made a statement, following which 
the matter was discussed by Delegate Deal, who then 
offered the following amendment to the proposal sub- 
mitted by Delegate Brown at the morning session: 

That notice be served forthwith by this Convention, 
by virtue of the action of this International Conven- 
tion, that the District Unions of the Pacific Coast 
immediately conform to the International Constitution 
in all respects and that they, within a period of ninety 
days, must sever their connection with the Maritime 



Federation of the Pacific Coast unless the Federation 
conforms to the American Federation of Labor Con- 
stitution and to the Constitution of the International 
Seamen's Union of America. 

Delegate Farrell seconded the amendment: 
The question was discussed by President Furuseth, 
Delegate Engstrom, Delegate Quittenton, Delegate 
Deal, Delegate Brown, Delegate Grange, Delegate 
Van der Staay, Delegate Coester, Delegate Oldenberg, 
Delegate Burke, and Secretary Olander. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 4:58 p. m. the Convention reconvened, President 
Furuseth presiding, and Secretary Olander reported 
progress for the Committee of the Whole. 

At 5:02 p. m. the Convention was adjourned to 9:30 
o'clock Thursday morning, January 23. 



28 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1. 1936 



TENTH DAY 
Thursday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 23, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:45 o'clock 
by President Furuseth. 

The roll call showed all delegates present except 
Delegate Ferguson. It was announced that he had 
returned to the Pacific Coast on account of serious 
illness which made it obviously necessary for him to 
return home. 

Committee of the Whole 

At 9:50 o'clock a. m. the Convention resolved itself 
into the Committee of the Whole for further consid- 
eration of that portion of the Secretary's report under 
the headings "Maritime Federation of the Pacific 
Coast" and "A Dangerous Proposal." 

Delegate King discussed the subject, previous to 
the arrival of the delegation from the Marine Engi- 
neers' Beneficial Association, at 9:55 a. m., at which 
time the Convention was reconvened for the purpose 
of receiving the delegation. 

Messrs. John R. Snee, Portland, Oregon; Warren 
C. Evans, Philadelphia, Pa., and William J. Cowan, 
Cleveland, Ohio, came from the Marine Engineers' 
Beneficial Association, conveying the fraternal greet- 
ings of that body. Each of the three representatives 
spoke briefly. 

At 10:05 a. m. the Convention again resolved itself 
into the Committee of the Whole. 

Committee of the Whole 
Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 
Discussion of the pending matter, "Maritime Fed- 
eration of the Pacific Coast," was resumed, and the 



following took part: Delegate King, Delegate Oscar 
Carlson, President Furuseth, and Delegate Murphy. 

Delegate Quittenton offered the following as an 
amendment to the pending amendment: That the In- 
ternational Seamen's Union of America, in convention, 
request that the matter be placed before the Pacific 
Coast Maritime Federation at its next convention in 
May of this year, urging that the Constitution be 
changed to conform to the Constitution of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union. 

The amendment was seconded by Delegate Coester. 

Delegate Brown raised the point of order that the 
amendment to the amendment was in direct contra- 
vention of the motion to adopt the recommendation. 

Chairman O'Brien ruled that the amendment to the 
amendment was in order. 

The question was further discussed by Delegates 
Quittenton, Conners. Secretary Olander, Grange, 
Delegate Hunter and Delegate Deal. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 12 o'clock noon the Convention reconvened, 
President Furuseth in the chair, and Secretary Olan- 
der reported progress for the Committee of the Whole. 

Secretary Olander moved that the Convention Bend 
a cablegram of greetings to the National Union of 
Seamen of Great Britain. The motion was seconded 
and carried by unanimous vote. 

At 12:05 p. m. the Convention adjourned to 2 
o'clock p. m. 



TENTH DAY 
Thursday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2 o'clock by 
President Furuseth. 

The roll call showed the following absentees: Fer- 
guson (excused on account of illness), Reines. 

Delegate Hunter moved that discussion on the 
pending motions before the Committee of the Whole 
cease at 4 o'clock, and that the Committee of the 
Whole report to the Convention at that hour and a 
vote be taken, with the further provision that should 
the discussion end before 4 o'clock the Committee of 
the Whole rise at that time and report to the Con- 
vention and the vote be taken. 

The motion was seconded by Delegate Brown and 
and carried. 

Delegate Brown moved that night sessions, from 
7 o'clock to 9 o'clock p. m., be held beginning Thurs- 
day night and continuing each night until the business 
of the Convention is completed. The motion was sec- 
onded and carried. 



Secretary Olander moved that the rules of the Con- 
vention with reference to debate also apply to discus- 
sion within the Committee of the Whole. The motion 
was seconded and carried. 

At 2:15 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for further consideration of 
pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the Chair. 

The amendment to the amendment, offered by Dele- 
gate Quittenton at the morning session, was defeated. 

Delegates Quittenton and Coester asked to be re- 
corded as voting in favor of the amendment to the 
amendment. 

The amendment to the original motion (Deal 
amendment) was discussed By Delegates Van der 
Staay and O'Conner, after which the vote on the 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



129 



amendment was taken, with the following result: 
11 in favor of the amendment, 15 opposed. 

The amendment was declared lost. 

The motion to adopt the proposal submitted by 
Delegate Brown was carried by a vote of 15 to 11. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 2:35 p. m. the Convention reconvened, President 
Furuseth in the chair. 

Secretary Olander read the following report of the 
Committee of the Whole: 

The Committee of the Whole presents the follow- 
ing recommendation for adoption by the Convention: 

Your Committee of the Whole has carefully re- 
viewed those parts in the Secretary-Treasurer's re- 
port under the caption: 

"Maritime Federation of the Pacific Coast" 
(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 98) 

There can be no question that the newly organized 
Maritime Federation of the Pacific Coast was organ- 
ized and has been functioning contrary to the laws of 
the International Seamen's Union of America and the 
American Federation of Labor. 

Article IX of the Constitution of the Maritime Fed- 
eration of the Pacific Coast sets forth the manner and 
method by which strikes may be initiated and ended. 
This provision is in direct conflict with Article XVIII 
of the Constitution of the International Seamen's 
Union of America. 

Article XI of the Constitution of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor contains the following pertinent 
sections: 

Sec. 5. No Central Labor Union, or other cen- 
tral body of delegates, shall have the authority or 
power to order any organization, affiliated with 
such Central Labor Union, or other central labor 
body, on strike, or to take a strike vote, where 
such organization has a national organization, 
until the proper authorities of such National or 
International organizations have been consulted 
and agreed to such action. A violation of this law 
shall be sufficient cause for the Executive Council 
to revoke the charter. 

Sec. 9. No Central Body shall take part in the 
adjustment of wage contracts, wage disputes or 
working rules of local unions, affiliated with a 
National or International Union, unless the laws 
of the National or International Union permit, 
except upon the request or consent of the execu- 
tive officer of the National or International Union 
affected. 

These sections from the American Federation of 
Labor Constitution should leave no doubt whatever 
that the Maritime Federation of the Pacific Coast is 
attempting to function contrary to laws of the labor 
movement. 

We, therefore, recommend that our Pacific District 
Unions be directed to immediately sever their con- 
nection with the Maritime Federation of the Pacific 
Coast. 

There is need for greater cooperation and unity 
among the organizations representing the sea-going 



personnel of the merchant marine, for the protection 
of all men who go to sea, not only in the districts but 
also on a national basis. Immediate steps should be 
taken to that end. The Committee of the Whole, 
therefore, recommends that a committee be appointed 
by the President with instructions to consult with the 
representatives of other organizations of sea-going 
crafts (it being understood that a number of such 
representatives are now in the city) and to report to 
this Convention, it being further understood that upon 
receipt of the report of such committee the Conven- 
tion will take further action on the subject of national 
and district cooperation between organizations repre- 
senting the sea-going personnel. 

Delegate Grange moved the adoption of the report 
of the Committee of the Whole. The motion was 
seconded. 

Secretary Olander announced that because of Dele- 
gate Ferguson having left the Convention on account 
of illness, the vote of the Pacific Coast Firemen's 
Union would be redistributed accordingly. 

The motion to adopt the committee's report was 
discussed by Delegate Farrell, after which he offered 
a motion to amend the report of the Committee of the 
Whole by adding at the end of next to last paragraph 
thereof the following: 

"until such time as the Constitution of the Mari- 
time Federation of the Pacific Coast shall con- 
form to the Constitution of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America and the Constitution of 
the American Federation of Labor." 

The amendment was seconded by Delegate Eng- 
strom. At this point Delegate King requested to have 
read into the record a statement referring to certain 
portions of the Secretary-Treasurer's report, signed 
by the following delegates: King, Farrell, Oldenberg, 
Engstrom, Quittenton, Vigen, Murphy, Ferguson, 
Coester, Connors, Burke, and O'Connor. The request 
was complied with. 

Delegate Farrell, Secretary Olander, and Delegate 
Grange discussed the amendment, which was adopted 
by the Convention with but one dissenting vote. 

The report of the Committee of the Whole as 
amended was then adopted. 

At 3:25 p. m. the Convention again resolved itself 
in the Committee of the Whole for further considera- 
tion of the Secretary's report. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

Discussion was had on that portion of the Secretary- 
Treasurer's report under the caption, "A Dangerous 
Proposal," and Delegate Grange offered as a proposal 
for the consideration of the Committee of the Whole 
a statement covering this section. 

He then moved the adoption of the proposal by 
the committee, and the motion was seconded by Dele- 
gate Angle. 

The question was discussed by Delegates King, 



130 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1. 1936 



Olander, Van der Staay, (.range. Engstrom, Quitten- 

ton, Farrell, Coester, O'Connor and Burke. Secre- 
tary Olander suggested that since certain clarifying 
and explanatory statements had been made during the 
debate by delegates from the Pacific Coast, that the 
proposal submitted by Delegate Grange be withdrawn 
for the time being. Delegate Grange agreed to that 
procedure, against which there was no objection. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 4:40 p. m. the Convention reconvened, President 
Furuseth in the chair, and progress was reported for 
the Committee of the Whole by Secretary Olander. 



SPECIAL COMMITTEE 

President Furuseth announced the appointment of 
the following committee, pursuant to the action of the 
Convention on that section of the Secretary-Treas- 
urer- report entitled "Pacific Coast Maritime Fed- 
eration": Paul Scharrenberg. Ivan Hunter, Gustav H. 
Brown, David E. Grange, C. W. Deal, Ray Farrell, 
and Percy Pryor. 

Delegate Deal moved that the rules be suspended 
and the Convention adjourn to 7 o'clock p. m. The 
motion was seconded and carried, and the Convention 
adjourned at 4:45 o'clock p. m., to reconvene at 
7 i. 'cluck p. m. 



TENTH DAY 
Thursday Night Session 



The Convention \\a> called to order at 7 o'clock by 
President Furuseth. 

The roll call showed all delegates present. 

At 7:05 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for further consideration of 
pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 
Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 
Charters. On motion of Delegate Deal this section 
of the Secretary-Treasurer's report was approved. 
National Maritime Board Plan. Motion was made 



and seconded to approve this section of the Secretary- 
Treasurer's report. 

The question was discussed by Delegates Coester, 
Quittenton, Murphy. Farrell, Grange, Engstrom, 
King, President Furuseth and Secretary Olander. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 9 o'clock the Convention reconvened, President 
Furuseth in the chair, and Secretary Olander reported 
progress tor the Committee of the Whole. 

At 9:05 p. m. the Convention adjourned to 9:30 a. m. 
January 24. 



ELEVENTH DAY 
Friday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 24, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:30 o'clock 
by Vice-President Hunter. 

The roll call showed Delegate Reines absent. 

At 9:35 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for further consideration of 
the pending matter. 

Committee of the Whole 

Discussion was continued on this portion of the 
Secretary-Treasurer's report, headed "National Mari- 
time Board Plan," and the following took part: Sec- 
retary Olander, Delegate Murphy, Delegate Kile, 
Delegate Coester, Editor Scharrenberg, and Delegate 
Deal, the latter delegate offering the following mo- 
tion : 

That the committee approve the action of the Ex- 
ecutive Board, taken as reported by the Secretary- 
Treasurer in 1930 and 1931 and the action of the Sec- 
retary and Executive Officer of the Union in connec- 
tion with representing the Seamen before the Code 
Authority in Washington, D. C, in 1933. 

The motion was seconded by Delegate Kile. 

Delegate Grange offered the following as an amend- 
ment to the motion: 



That this committee endorse the report of the Secre- 
tary-Treasurer as submitted, dealing with the Maritime 
Board, and that the committee also endorses the Mari- 
time Board Plan and instructs the Executive Board to 
employ all the instrumentalities at its command in 
furthering the Maritime Board Plan on behalf of the 
International Seamen's Union of America. 

The amendment was seconded. 

The subject matter was further discussed by Dele- 
gate Murphy, who raised a point of order. 

Chairman O'Brien ruled the point of order was not 
well taken. 

The discussion continued, and Delegates Deal, 
Murphy, Grange, O'Brien. King, Coester, Farrell, 
Angle, Oscar Carlson, Engstrom, Quittenton, Burke, 
Kile, and Secretary Olander took part. 

Vice President Hunter presided while Delegate 
O'Brien discussed the matter. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 11:55 a. m. the convention reconvened, Vice 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander submitted the foil.. wing report 
on behalf of the Committee of the Whole: 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



131 



CHARTERS 

(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 100) 

Upon the section of the Secretary-Treasurer's report 
under the above caption the Committee of the Whole 
recommends approval. 



On motion of Editor Scharrenberg the report of the 
committee was unanimously adopted. 

On other matters, Secretary Olander reported prog- 
ress for the Committee of the Whole. 

At 12 o'clock noon the Convention adjourned to 
reconvene at 2 o'clock p. m. 



ELEVENTH DAY 
Friday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2 o'clock by 
Vice-President Hunter. 

The roll call showed the following absentees: Presi- 
dent Furuseth (ill) ; Delegate Espe, (absent on business 
of his organization). 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Secretary Olander read the following telegram: 
Houston, Texas, January 23, 1936. 
Victor Olander, Secretary-Treasurer, 
International Seamen's Union Convention, 
Lee House, Washington, D. C. 

Crew on our Steamer Jacob Luckenbach here at 
Houston refusing turn on steam for further discharge, 
claiming part of checkers we are using other than 
union and crew demands release from checkers union 
before will give further steam Stop This in violation 
Federal Mediation Board award regarding checkers 
Stop We cannot too emphatically request you immedi- 
ately issuing orders to crew this vessel resume opera- 
tions Stop Please advise fast. 

(Signed) F. T. Hobley, Gulf Manager, 
Luckenbach Gulf Steamship Company. 

A telegram, received at the Washington office of the 
American Steamship Owners Association and a copy 
forwarded from that office to Secretary Olander, was 
also read. 

Delegate Van der Staay moved that the convention 
reconsider its action of the previous day with reference 
to night sessions. The motion was seconded and 
carried, by a vote of 23 to 3. 

Chairman Hunter stated that the original motion 
was now before the convention, that of holding night 
sessions each night during the remainder of the Con- 
vention from 7 to 9 o'clock. 

The motion was defeated. 

Secretary Olander reminded the Convention of the 
various messages which had been received and called 
to the attention of the delegates, both in Convention 
and in Committee of the Whole. 

Delegate Engstrom moved that the Convention con- 
tinue in session and proceed to take up the Pacific 
steam schooner situation. The motion was seconded 
and carried. 

HOUSTON SITUATION 

Delegate Brown offered the following motion: 
That the Convention of the International Seamen's 
Union of America instruct its secretary to notify the 
crew of the steamer Jacob Luckenbach and the officials 



of the Union in Houston, Texas to release that ship 
immediately and live up to their agreement. 

The motion was seconded. 

The question was discussed by Delegates Oscar 
Carlson, Van der Staay, Farrell, King, Kaizer, Quit- 
tenton, Grange, Secretary Olander, Engstrom and 
Keane. 

The previous question was called for, and the motion 
offered by Delegate Brown was adopted. 

Delegates Quittenton and Coester asked to be 
recorded as not voting. 

Delegate King asked to be recorded as voting against 
the motion. 

Secretary Olander read the following draft of tele- 
gram, to be sent to the agents of each of the three 
District Unions in Houston, pursuant to the action of 
the convention: 

"Conventions of International Seamen's Union of 
America, in session here, has decided that steamer 
Jacob Luckenbach must be released at once and that 
the members of the Union employed on that ship must 
carry out all Union agreements to which the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union is a party. Instruct crew accord- 
ingly. Give them copy of this telegram to take with 
them when the ship departs." 

Delegate Engstrom moved that the telegram be 
approved. The motion was seconded and carried. 

STEAM SCHOONER SITUATION 

The steam schooner situation was discussed by 
Delegates Engstrom, Oscar Carlson, Van der Staay, 
Coester, Farrell, Kile, Quittenton, Conners, Keller, 
and Secretary Olander. 

While the discussion was in progress the members 
of the special committee appointed by previous action 
of the Convention were called to confer with the repre- 
sentatives of the Marine Engineers' Beneficial Asso- 
ciation. 

Vice-President O'Brien presided in the absence of 
Vice-President Hunter. 

HOUSTON SITUATION 

Secretary Olander read the following telegram: 

Houston Texas, January 24, 1936. 
Victor Olander, 
Secretary-Treasurer, Lee House, Washington, D. C. 

Crew of Jacob Luckenbach still out on strike stop 
strike due to three nonunion checkers working on docks 



132 



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April 1, 1936 



stop the three nonunion checkers must be replaced 
by union checkers before crew returns to work long- 
shoremen working cargo stop west coast men on ship 
under west coast articles and paying west coast wages 
the independent longshoremen that are working ship 
will receive their charter in a day or two stop but in the 



meantime are cleared by the I LA local here and by 
Mr. Dwyer himself will keep you informed of any 
further activities. r j Novak and J. Lackovic. 

At 5 o'clock p. m. the Convention adjourned to 9:30 
o'clock Saturday morning, January 25. 



TWELFTH DAY 
Saturday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 25, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:30 o'clock 
by Vice-President O'Brien. 

The roll call showed the following absentees: Presi- 
dent Furuseth and Delegate Hunter, absent on account 
of illness. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Secretary Olander read a telegram of greeting from 
Joseph Consiglio, on behalf of the Philadelphia Branch 
of the Marine Firemen's Union. 

Secretary Olander reported that he had received 
telegraphic information from San Francisco to the 
effect that the office of the International Seamen's 
Union of America in that city was being picketed. 

Delegate Keller moved that the District Secretaries 
on the Pacific Coast be notified at once of the action 
of the Convention with reference to the Pacific Coast 
Maritime Federation. The motion was seconded and 
carried. 

At 10:25 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for further consideration 
of the Secretary's report. Delegate Percy Pryor in the 
chair. 

Committee of the Whole 

Secretary Olander stated that after some discussion 
on that portion of his report entitled, "National Mari- 
time Board Plan," the delegates had agreed to with- 
hold action, the committee having received a motion 
and amendment on the subject, until some statement 
could be prepared for submission to the Committee 
of the Whole in line with the suggestions advanced 
during the discussion of the matter. He moved that 
further action be deferred accordingly, and the mo- 
tion was seconded and carried. 

Secretary Olander moved that the Committee of the 
Whole take up that portion of the Secretary's report 
under the caption "Appeals". The motion was seconded 
and carried. 



Secretary Olander read that portion of his report 
under the caption, "Appeals." 

The subject was discussed by Editor Scharrenberg, 
Delegates Engstrom. Coester, Pryor, Van der Staay, 
Keane, and Secretary Olander. 

INTERNATIONAL LABOR OFFICE 

At 11:35 a. m. the Committee of the Whole arose 
and the Convention reconvened for the purpose of 
receiving Mr. Harold Butler, Director of the Interna- 
tional Labor Office at Geneva, Switzerland, and Mr. 
Leifur Magnussen, Director of the Washington office 
of the International Labor Office. 

Editor Paul Scharrenberg in the chair. 

Chairman Scharrenberg introduced the two gentle- 
men above referred to. and they spoke briefly of the 
work of the International Labor Office, particularly 
with reference to the conference recently in Geneva as 
it affected the lives and interests of the seamen of the 
world. 

Secretary Olander spoke briefly following the 
addresses, expressing his appreciation of the splendid 
work of both Mr. Butler and Mr. Magnussen in the 
International Labor Office. 

Secretary Olander reported progress for the Com- 
mittee of the Whole, Vice-President O'Brien presid- 
ing. 

HOUSTON SITUATION 

Delegate Oscar Carlson informed the Convention 
that he had received a telephone message from the 
Houston Agent, stating that in accordance with the 
telegram sent the Houston branch by direction of the 
convention on Friday, the telegram had been read to 
the members of the crew of the Jacob Luckenbach, 
with the result that the crew had returned to work and 
the vessel was expected to sail today. 

At 12 o'clock noon the Convention adjourned to 
reconvene at 2 o'clock p. m. 



TWELFTH DAY 
Saturday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2 o'clock 
p. m., Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

The roll call showed the following absentees: Presi- 
dent Furuseth and Vice-President Hunter, absent on 
account of illness. 



Delegates Carlson and Stuhr, representing the Fish- 
ermen's Unions, spoke briefly in appreciation of the 
courtesy that had been extended them while attending 
the Convention and of the action taken by the Con- 
vention on matters in which they were interested. They 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



133 



stated that it would be necessary for them to return 
to their homes at the close of this day's session. 

PACIFIC DISTRICT 

Secretary Olander submitted to the Convention an 
Associated Press dispatch dated at San Francisco, 
January 24, 1936, and appearing in a local paper 
relating to a statement concerning seamen by officials 
of the Maritime Federation of the Pacific. In the same 
connection Secretary Olander submitted information 
he had received from other sources. 

Delegate Angle offered the following motion: 

That the secretary of the Convention be instructed 
to draft a resolution for the consideration of the con- 
vention, urging the President of the United States to 
use all the powers of investigation of the Federal Gov- 
ernment, including Congress, to ascertain and expose 
the parties to the maneuvers and manipulations among 
shipowners and seamen which have been in progress 
for some months for the purpose of bringing about a 
strike or lockout of seamen on the Pacific Coast, the 
Atlantic Coast, the Gulf and the Great Lakes, without 
the consent or knowledge of the membership of the 
International Seamen's Union of America and of other 
legitimate unions of seafarers, and further, that the 
resolution be so drafted for the consideration of the 
Convention as to carry in it instructions to the officers 
of the International Union and of all District Unions 
to make available to the Federal Government all the 
information they may have on the subject. 

The motion was seconded, and the matter was dis- 
cussed briefly by Delegates Engstrom, Coester, King, 
and Secretary Olander, and was then adopted by 
unanimous vote. 

At 3:05 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole, Delegate Percy Pryor in 
the chair. 

Committee of the Whole 

The Committee continued consideration of the sec- 
tion of the Secretary's report under the heading, 
"Appeals," and Secretary Olander read the Commit- 
tee copies of all documents submitted to his office in 
the Scharrenberg case. 



The question was discussed by Delegates Coester, 
Oldenberg, Grange, Quittenton, Deal, Editor Schar- 
renberg, and Secretary Olander. 

The entire delegation of the Atlantic and Gulf sub- 
mitted the following as a proposed report of the Com- 
mittee of the Whole on that portion of the Secretary's 
report dealing with 'Appeals": 

Your committee has considered that part of the 
Secretary-Treasurer's Report under the caption 'Ap- 
peals". 

With regard to Paul Scharrenberg, we recommend 
concurrence in the action of the Executive Board 
declaring his alleged expulsion from the Sailors' Union 
of the Pacific illegal and, therefore, null and void, and 
ruling that he is a full member in good standing in the 
Sailors' Union of the Pacific and the International Sea- 
men's Union of America. 

We also recommend that the convention express its 
utmost confidence in Paul Scharrenberg and in his 
loyalty and devotion to the International Seamen's 
Union of America. 

With respect to the pending appeal of Harry Miller, 
we recommend reference to the Executive Board for 
final decision. 

The appeal of the Alaska Fishermen's Union, re- 
ferred to in the Secretary-Treasurer's report, requires 
no action by this Convention. 

Delegate Grange moved the adoption of the report. 
The motion was seconded. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 5 o'clock p. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President O'Brien in the chair, and Secretary Olander 
reported progress for the Committee of the Whole. 

The Convention agreed to a suspension of the rules 
to permit three members of the Eastern and Gulf 
Sailors' Association to make a statement. The three 
members were Patrick Codyre, R. Kennedy and 
George Cullinen. 

At 5:15 p. m. the Convention adjourned to 9:30 
o'clock Monday morning, January 27th. 



THIRTEENTH DAY 
Monday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 27, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:30 o'clock 
by Vice-President Hunter. 

Roll call absentee: President Furuseth, ill. 

In accordance with the instructions of the Conven- 
tion, by motion adopted on Saturday, January 25, 
Secretary Olander submitted the following resolution: 

Resolution No. 50, Requesting Investigation 

WHEREAS, During the past several months the 
American Merchant Marine has been the scene of 
unscrupulous propaganda and manipulations on the 
part of certain persons and groups, known and un- 



known, for the purpose of forcing a general strike of 
seamen or a general lockout by shipowners, on the 
Pacific, Atlantic and Gulf coasts and on the Great 
Lake, without the knowledge or consent of the legiti- 
mate organizations or seafarers or shipowners, and 

WHEREAS, The United States is the only maritime 
nation which recognizes seamen as free men in relation 
to their labor contracts, it being provided in the laws 
and treaties of all the maritime nations that seamen 
leaving their employment during the term of their 
engagement are subject to imprisonment for violation 
of their labor contract, and 

WHEREAS, The aforesaid propaganda and manip- 
ulations are plainly intended to mislead American sea- 
men of all grades into activities tending to create the 



134 



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April 1, 1936 



utterly false impression that as a class they are irre- 
sponsible and unreliable, that their trade unions are 
incapable of carrying out agreements and voluntary 
arbitration awards and they cannot be trusted to 
properly exercise the freedom obtained through the 
passage of the Seamen's Act only twenty years ago, 
thus strengthening the hands of the enemies of human 
liberty who desire a restoration of the former imprison- 
ment laws against seamen, and 

WHEREAS, There are indications that the afore- 
said propaganda and manipulation is the result of a de- 
liberate conspiracy, unlawful in its purpose and effect, 
and 

WHEREAS, The public interest, as well as the 
liberty of seamen, is being jeopardized by the unfor- 
tunate conditions of affairs now prevalent in the Amer- 
ican Merchant Marine as a result of the aforesaid con- 
spiracy, therefore be it 

RESOLVED, By the International Seamen's Union 
of America, assembled in its Thirty-third Convention, 
that the President and the Congress of the United 
States be and hereby are respectfully and earnestly 
urged to bring into immediate operation all the powers 
of investigation of the federal government, including 
the governmental departments, to ascertain who are 
parties to the aforesaid conspiracy, to expose them to 
public view and to take such other action in relation 
thereto as may be necessary in the interests of Amer- 
ican Merchant Marine, and be it further 

RESOLVED, That all officers and members of the 
International Seamen's Union of America and its dis- 
trict and local unions and branches be and hereby are 
instructed to make available to the federal government 
all information they have in relation to the subject 
matter of this resolution, and be it further 

RESOLVED, That the Secretary of this Convention 
is hereby instructed to bring this resolution to the 
attention of the President and to the Congress of the 
United States without delay. 

On motion of Editor Scharrenberg, the resolution 
was adopted by unanimous vote of the Convention. 

At 9:55 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for further consideration 
of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President Percy Pryor in the chair. 
Appeals 

A brief discussion on section of the Secretary's re- 
port, headed "Appeals," was had, Editor Scharren- 
berg and Delegate Quittenton speaking on the subject. 

The motion to adopt the proposition on this subject 
as submitted at the Saturday session was carried. 

Delegate Coester asked that the Committee of the 
Whole report to the Convention and action be taken 
by the Convention immediately. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 10:10 a. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter presiding. 

Secretary Olander, on behalf of the Committee of 
the Whole, read the following report: 

Appeals 
(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 102) 

Your committee has considered that part of the 
Secretary-Treasurer's Report under the caption, "Ap- 
peals". 



With regard to Paul Scharrenberg, we recommend 
concurrence in the action of the Executive Board 
declaring his alleged expulsion from the Sailors' Union 
of the Pacific illegal, and, therefore, null and void, 
and ruling that he is a full member in good standing 
in the Sailors' Union of the Pacific and the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America. 

We also recommend that the convention express its 
utmost confidence in Paul Scharrenberg and in his 
loyalty and devotion to the International Seamen's 
Union of America. 

With respect to the pending appeal of Harry Miller, 
we recommend reference to the Executive Board for 
final decision. 

The appeal of the Alaska Fishermen's Union, 
referred to in the Secretary-Treasurer's report, re- 
quires no action by this Convention. 

A motion was made and seconded to adopt the 
report of the committee. 

Delegate Quittenton requested a roll call vote. The 
request was concurred in by several other delegates. 

Roll Call Vote 

Secretary Olander proceeded with the roll call, with 
the following result: 

Yes: Pryor, Cummings, Brown, Keller, Kile, Van 
der Staay, Oscar Carlson, Bley, Keane, Grange, Allen. 
Angle, Kaiser, Warn, Olander, O'Brien, Hunter, Burke, 
Deal.— Total, 323 votes. 

No: Coester, Quittenton, King, Engstrom, Farrell, 
Murphy, Oldenberg, Conners, O'Connor, Vigen. — 
Total 155 votes. 

Vice-President Hunter: The report of the Commit- 
tee of the Whole on that portion of the Secretary- 
Treasurer's report under the caption, "Appeals," has 
been adopted. 

At 10:15 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole, Vice-President Percy 
Pryor presiding. 

Committee of the Whole 

Secretary Olander read that portion of his report 
under the caption, "Violations of the Constitution." 

Delegate Grange submitted, as a proposed report of 
the Committee of the Whole on this subject the follow- 
ing: 

The Committee of the Whole has considered that 
part of the Secretary-Treasurer's report under the 
caption, "Violations of the Constitution." Upon due 
deliberations and exhaustive analysis of the issues 
involved, we recommend revocation of the Charter of 
the Sailors' Union of the Pacific for the following 
specific violations of the Constitution and the law- 
of the International Seamen's Union of America. 

1. For violation of Article 1, Section 2, which pro- 
hibits membership to men who are members of or 
advocating principles and policies of any dual organiza- 
tion or any organization hostile to the International 
Seamen's Union of America, its aims and purposes. 

2. For refusing to live up to awards and agreements 
underwritten by the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



135 



3. For refusing to reinstate Paul Scharrenberg, a 
member of said Sailors' Union of the Pacific, whose 
expulsion was appealed to the Executive Board, as 
provided in Article XVII, and was held to be illegal 
and, therefore, null and void. 

Your committee is fully cognizant of the fact, that 
there have been various other violations of the Consti- 
tution and the law, but in each of the before-mentioned 
violations the members of the Executive Board of the 
International Seamen's Union of America, under their 
respective signatures, have directed Secretary-Treas- 
urer Olander to make an effort to induce the Head- 
quarters of the said Sailors' Union of the Pacific to 
obey the Constitution and the law. Secretary-Treasurer 
Olander carried out these directions. All his efforts 
were without success. 

We further recommend that the Executive Board 
be authorized and directed to take whatever steps may 
be deemed necessary to safeguard and protect our loyal 
members on the Pacific Coast. To this end we specific- 
ally direct the Executive Board: 

1. To fully inform our members on the Pacific Coast 
upon the developments which have finally compelled 
drastic action by this Convention. 

2. To organize the loyal members into a District 
Union that will conform to the Constitution and the 
law of the International Seamen's Union of America. 

Delegate Grange moved the adoption of the proposed 
report. The motion was seconded. 



The question was discussed by Delegates Conners, 
King, Grange, Coester and Secretary Olander. 

At this point Delegate Engstrom suggested that 
since the question under discussion was one of serious 
import, the West Coast delegates would like to with- 
draw for a caucus, and offered a motion to recess for 
thirty minutes. The motion was seconded and carried 
by unanimous vote. 

At 10:40 a. m. the Committee of the Whole recessed, 
reconvening at 11:10 a. m. with Vice-President Percy 
Pryor presiding. 

The question was further discussed by Delegates 
Farrell, Engstrom, King, Murphy and Deal. Delegate 
Deal offered the following motion: 

That action in this matter be deferred until after 
the Constitution of the International Seamen's Union 
of America had been amended. 

(The motion was later ruled out.) 

The question was further discussed by Delegates 
Grange, Deal, Burke, Connors and Secretary Olander. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 12:10 p. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. Secretary Olander re- 
ported progress for the Committee of the Whole. 

At 12:15 p. m. the Convention adjourned to re- 
convene at 2 o'clock. 



THIRTEENTH DAY 
Monday Afternoon Session 



The convention was called to order at 2 o'clock by 
Vice-President Hunter. 

Roll call. President Furuseth absent on account of 
illness. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Secretary Olander read a cablegram from Secretary 
Spence, of the National Union of Seamen of Great 
Britain, as follows: 

"Executive Council National Union of Seamen in 
session thanks your Convention for greetings which 
are heartily reciprocated." 

Secretary Olander reported that the resolution 
adopted at the morning session, relating to the subject 
of investigation by the federal government, had been 
sent to President Roosevelt by special messenger. 

Committee of the Whole 

At 2:15 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole, Vice-President Percy Pryor 
in the chair. 

The discussion was continued on the section of the 
Secretary's report under the caption, "Violations of 
the Constitution," and the following took part: Dele- 
gates Deal, King and Editor Scharrenberg, the latter 
offering the following amendment to the original prop- 
osition submitted by Delegate Grange: 

"Your committee also directs attention to the fact 
that notwithstanding a referendum vote of the mem- 



bership of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific to continue 
the award and agreement with the Shipowners' Asso- 
ciation of the Pacific Coast and to arbitrate any differ- 
ences this referendum vote by the rank and file was 
recently nullified by the comparatively few members 
attending the Headquarters meeting. This unlawful 
act has resulted in tying up the steam schooners under 
the guise of 'job action'." 

Delegate Grange, with the consent of the seconder, 
accepted the above as an addition to the original pro- 
posal, to be inserted after the paragraph ending with 
the word "success." 

The question was further discussed by Delegates 
Grange, Farrell, Coester, Engstrom, O'Brien, King, 
Brown, Olander, Scharrenberg, Quittenton, Oscar 
Carlson, Oldenberg, O'Connor, Keane, Vigen, Coester 
and Murphy. 

A statement setting forth the position of President 
Furuseth in favor of the pending proposal, which he 
requested be submitted to the delegates, was read 
by Secretary Olander as follows: 

Statement of President Furuseth 

Washington, D. C, January 27, 1936. 
To the Convention of the International Seamen's 
Union of America, at present assembled at Lee 
House, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Brothers: 

I am officially informed that this afternoon you are 
to take a vote upon cancelling the charter of the 



136 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1. 1936 



Sailors' Union of the Pacific, for sundry most grave 
violations of the Constitution of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America, of which the Sailors' Union 
of the Pacific is and has been a part since the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union was organized. I am exceed- 
ingly sorry that I cannot be present. 

As far as my health is concerned there is nothing 
the matter with me at present except temporary weak- 
ness. I am mentally as capable as I ever was, and if 
the elevators in this hotel were running I should come 
in person, but the doctor has told me to keep to my 
room and the walking down stairs might be injurious. 
Being present, I should vote for the cancellation of the 
charter. First of all, in the interests of the seamen's 
movement as a whole; second in the interest of the 
loyal membership, who, from my own experience, I 
know have no opportunity to participate in any of the 
meetings as they are now run by a combination of 
I. W. W. members and Communists. 

The conduct of the Sailors' Union for the last year 
and one-half has to my own personal knowledge been 
that of absolute disregard of the laws of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America, and of the Con- 
stitution of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific as it ex- 
isted two years ago. I hope that the vote will be unani- 
mous and that the loyal members on the Pacific will 
understand the necessity of this action and offer them- 
selves as members of the Union that is to be formed 
to take the place of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific. 

It is with deep sorrow but under absolute conviction 
of necessity that I urge you all to vote unanimously 
for the expulsion, and that I urge upon all the loyal 
members with whom I have lived and toiled for some 
fifty years for the improvement of the seamen's con- 
ditions on shore, on the ships, and in legal status under 
the law, to immediately affiliate with the Union to be 
chartered. 

The membership of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific 
was, before the entrance into the Union of these rebels, 
especially noted for its Americanism in sentiment and 
in conduct whether it was peace or war. Loyal to the 
seamen's cause, and willing obedience to the laws of 
the United States has been the very breath of life to 
that organization. Germs of the cancer got in among 
us. It grew until it is destroying the Sailors' Union 
itself, destroying the whole Seamen's movement, and 
bringing the seamen back to the condition from which 
we laboriously worked ourselves free. A new Sailors' 
Union will walk in the path of the Sailors' Union 
that was, in respect for our country, in obedience to 
our country's laws, and with a renewed hope that our 
goal, the restoration of the seaman to his true place 
among men may be accomplished and accomplished 
soon. 

I again urge you who are in the Convention to pass 
a unanimous vote and I urge the loyal members at 
sea, and elsewhere, to come to the front as they did 
in times gone by, where there was danger in order 
that this difficulty and disaster may speedily be reme- 
died. You will remember the obligation that you took, 
you will remember the past efforts and the past suc- 
cesses and you will not, I am sure, permit the rebels 
to use you when you now have an opportunity to act 
for yourselves, to destroy the Seamen's movement, 
the Seamen's hopes and aspirations, and stamp your- 
selves as traitors to the Seamen's movement and to the 
United States. 

Most respectfully and hopefully Your Brother, in 
the past struggles and in the struggle now, and to 
come, and affectionately yours, 

(Signed) ANDREW FURUSETH, 

President, I. S. U. of A. 
The motion to adopt the proposal offered by Dele- 
gate Grange was carried. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 3:55 p. m. the Committee of the Whole arose 
and reported to the Convention, the Convention re- 
convening with Vice-President Hunter presiding. 

Secretary Olander read the following recommenda- 
tion as submitted by the Committee of the Whole: 

Violations of the Constitution 
(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 101) 
The Committee of the Whole has considered that 
part of the Secretary-Treasurer's report under the 
caption, "Violations of the Constitution." Upon due 
deliberations and exhaustive analysis of the issues 
involved, we recommend revocation of the Charter of 
the Sailors' Union of the Pacific for the following 
specific violations of the Constitution and the laws of 
the International Seamen's Union of America. 

1. For violation of Article 1, Section 2, which pro- 
hibits membership to men who are members of or 
advocating principles and policies of any dual organiza- 
tion or any organization hostile to the International 
Seamen's Union of America, it> aims and purposes. 

2. For refusing to live up to awards and agreements 
underwritten by the International Seamen's Union 
of America. 

3. For refusing to reinstate Paul Scharrenberg. a 
member of said Sailors' Union of the Pacific, whose 
expulsion was appealed to the Executive Board, as pro- 
vided in Article XVII, and was held to be illegal and, 
therefore, null and void. 

Your committee is fully cognizant of the fact, that 
there have been various other violations of the Consti- 
tution and the law, but in each of the before-mentioned 
violations the members of the Executive Board of the 
International Seamen's L T nion of America, under their 
respective signatures, have directed Secretary-Treas- 
urer Olander to make an effort to induce the Head- 
quarters of the said Sailors' Union of the Pacific to 
obey the Constitution and the law. Secretary-Treasurer 
Olander carried out these directions. All his efforts 
were without success. 

Your committee also directs attention to the fact that 
notwithstanding a referendum vote of the membership 
of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific to continue the 
award and agreement with the Shipowners' Associa- 
tion of the Pacific Coast and to arbitrate any difference 
this referendum vote by the rank and file was recently 
nullified by the compratively few members attending 
the Headquarters meeting. This unlawful act has 
resulted in tying up the steam-schooners' under the 
guise of job action. 

We further recommend that the Executive Board 
be authorized and directed to take whatever steps may 
be deemed necessary to safeguard and protect our loyal 
members on the Pacific Coast. To this end we specific- 
ally direct the Executive Board: 

1. To fully inform our members on the Pacific Coast 
upon the developments which have finally compelled 
drastic action by this Convention. 

2. To organize the loyal members into a District 
Union that will conform to the Constitution and the 
law of the International Seamen's Union of America. 

Delegate Van der Staay moved the adoption of the 
report of the Committee of the Whole. The motion 
was seconded by Delegate Allen. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



137 



The matter was discussed by Delegate Farrell and 
O'Brien, after which a request for a roll call vote was 
made. 

Roll Call Vote 

Secretary Olander proceeded with the roll call, with 
the following result: 

Yes: Pryor, Cummings, Brown, Keller, Kile, Van 
der Staay, Carlson, Bley, Keane, Grange, Allen, Angle, 
Kaiser, Warn, Olander, O'Brien, Hunter— Total, 292 
votes. 

No: Coester, Quittenton, King, Engstrom, Farrell, 
Murphy, Oldenberg, Burke, Conners, O'Connor, 
Vieren, Deal— Total, 186 votes. 

Secretary Olander announced the result of the vote. 

Vice-President Hunter: In accordance with the 
vote, the report of the Committee of the Whole on 
that portion of the Secretary-Treasurer's Report un- 
der the caption, "Violations of the Constitution," is 
adopted. The charter of the Sailors' Union of the Pa- 
cific is thereby revoked and the delegates representing 
that union are unseated. 

At 4:10 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President Pryor in the chair. 

A motion was adopted instructing the Secretary to 
notify the President and Executive Council of the 
American Federation of Labor of the action taken, that 
the Sailors' Union of the Pacific is no longer a part of 



the American Federation of Labor and is therefore not 
entitled to representation in any of the divisions of the 
American Federation of Labor, and that the matter 
be brought to the attention of all State Federations of 
Labor and all city central bodies on the Pacific Coast 
in which that district union has representation. 

Secretary Olander also reported that counsel had 
been engaged on the Pacific Coast by the Executive 
Board. The action of the Board, by motion, was ap- 
proved. 

Delegate Grange moved that the courtesy of the 
Convention be extended to the two delegates from the 
Sailors' Union of the Pacific to remain in the Conven- 
tion as guests, without voice or vote, until the Con- 
vention closes. Adopted by unanimous vote. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 4:20 o'clock the committee arose and the Con- 
vention reconvened, Vice-President Hunter presiding. 
Secretary Olander reported the action of the Com- 
mittee of the Whole as stated above. The report of 
the committee was adopted by unanimous vote. 

A motion was passed that Delegate Joseph O'Con- 
nor be appointed a committee of one to convey the 
message from the Convention to the two aforesaid 
delegates. 

At 4:25, on motion, the rules were suspended and 
the Convention adjourned to 9:30 o'clock, January 28, 
1936. 



FOURTEENTH DAY 
Tuesday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 28, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:30 o'clock 
by Vice-President Hunter. 

Roll call absentee: Vigen, absent on business of 
his organization. 

Secretary Olander read telegrams from P. B. Gill 
relative to Seattle Branch of Sailors' Union remaining 
in International Seamen's Union and retaining pres- 
ent charter and present leadership. 

SPECIAL COMMITTEE 

At 10 a. m. the Convention, on motion, recessed for 
the special committee to attend the Convention of the 
Masters, Mates and Pilots. Delegate Farrell resigned 
as a member of the committee. 

At 10:45 the Convention reconvened, Vice-President 
Hunter in the chair. 

Editor Scharrenberg reported for the special com- 
mittee that it had been cordially received and it was 
intimated by the Masters, Mates and Pilots' organi- 
zation that they would appoint a committee to confer 
with the committees of the Maritime Engineers and 
the International Seamen's Union of America without 
delay. 



At 10:50 a. m. the Convention resolved itself in the 
Committee of the Whole for the further consideration 
of pending matters. 

Committee of the W hole 

Vice-President Pryor in the chair. 

Consideration of the report of the Secretary-Treas- 
urer was resumed. 

On that portion of the Secretary's report under the 
caption, "National Maritime Board Plan," Delegate 
Deal offered a proposal as a substitute for the motions 
from the previous session in which the subject had 
been discussed. 

The proposal was adopted by the Committee of the 
Whole. The proposal in full as adopted by the Com- 
mittee appears on page 138 as reported to the Con- 
vention. 

The Committee of the Whole discussed and decided 
to recommend approval of the sections of the report 
of the Secretary-Treasurer under the following cap- 
tions: 

Actions of the Executive Board. 

District Offices. 

District Committees. 



138 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



A motion was made and seconded to adopt the 
section of the Secretary-Treasurer's report under the 
caption, "Seamen's Journal." 

The question was discussed by Delegates Farrell, 
Brown, Grange, Deal and O'Connor and Secretary 
Olander and Editor Scharrenberg. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 11:55 o'clock a. m. the Convention reconvened, 
Vice-President Hunter in the chair, and Secretary 
Olander reported for the Committee of the Whole: 

Actions of the Executive Board 
(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 98) 
Upon this section of the Secretary-Treasurer's re- 
port under the above caption the Committee of the 
Whole recommends approval. 

On motion of Delegate O'Brien, the report of the 
committee was unanimously adopted. 



District Offices 
(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 103) 
Upon this section of the Secretary-Treasurer's re- 
port under the above caption the Committee of the 
Whole recommends approval. 

On motion of Delegate O'Brien, the report of the 
committee was adopted. 

District Committees 
(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 103) 

Upon this section of the Secretary-Treasurer's re- 
port under the above caption the Committee of the 
Whole recommends approval. 

On motion of Delegate O'Brien, the report of the 
committee was adopted. 

On other matters, Secretary Olander reported prog- 
ress for the Committee of the Whole. 

At 12 o'clock noon the Convention adjourned 1o 
reconvene at 2 o'clock p. m. 



FOURTEENTH DAY 
Tuesday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2:30 o'clock 
by Vice-President Hunter. 

Roll call showed absentee: President Furuseth. 

(sickness). 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

Secretary Olander, for the Committee of the Whole, 
in relation to the section of the Secretary-Treasurer's 
report under the caption, "National Maritime Board 
Plan," reported that the committee recommend adop- 
tion of the following: 

National Maritime Board Plan 
(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 101) 

In regard principles and policies to govern a plan to 
cooperate on a national basis with all nationally or- 
ganized marine organizations. 

In view of the Secretary's report on the "Maritime 
Federation of the Pacific" and certain facts brought 
out in the report and by the delegates during the ses- 
sions of the Committee, the Committee voted unani- 
mously and the Convention with only one dissenting 
vote that the Pacific District Union of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America withdraw from the 
Federation until the Federation's Constitution con- 
forms to the Constitution of both the International 
Seamen's Union of America and the American Fed- 
eration of Labor. 

The Committee felt, however, and the Convention 
agreed unanimously that some plan should be worked 
out with the other national maritime unions for the 
purpose of coordinating our efforts on a national basis 
and a committee of seven has been appointed by au- 
thority of the Convention for this purpose. 

The Committee of the Whole feels that the Con- 
vention may adjourn before the work of the special 
committee has been completed. The Committee of the 



Whole believes also that it is proper and necessary 
that the Convention adopt certain definite principles 
and a general policy as a guide and authority for the 
special committee as well as for the Executive Coun- 
cil in the event the Convention adjourns prior to the 
final completion of the plan so that the Executive 
Council may be in a position to carry on the work 
with the other organizations concerned until it is 
successfully concluded. 

Therefore, the Committee of the Whole recom- 
mends to the Convention the adoption of the following 
as a guide and authority to govern the action of the 
special committee now conferring with the national 
maritime organizations in regard to this matter and 
to govern also the Executive Council of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America in the same 
matter: 

1. That an organization should he created on a 
national basis for the purpose of dealing cooperatively 
with our mutual problems that lend themselves to a 
unified national plan. 

2. That the organization should include maritime 
organizations representing ship personnel •'organized 
on a national basis. 

3. That the organization >hould function on a vol- 
untary basis recognizing all the inherent r i s^ h t - and 
prerogatives of the member organization and should 
and must not be used to abridge or nullify or assume 
any of the said rights, duties and responsibilil 

said member organizations except as they may sev- 
erally and individually voluntarily elect. 

4. That the National Railway Labor Executives 
Association, the National Maritime Board Plan and 
other successful cooperative labor associations dealing 
witli similar situations should be studied by tin- rep- 
resentative groups of the organizations concerned and 
any plan finally agreed upon should be the result of 
most careful study and consideration in order that the 
maritime organizations may finally realize for all sea- 
men the full benefits of organization. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



139 



With these observations and instructions the Com- 
mittee recommends approval of the section of the 
report of the Secretary-Treasurer under the caption 
"National Maritime Board Plan." 

On motion the report of the Committee was 
adopted. 

Delegate Deal, for the special Committee to meet 
with the Masters, Mates and Pilots and the Marine 
Engineers organizations, reported progress. 

At 2:45 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for further consideration of 
the pending matter. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President Carlson in the chair. 

Discussion was resumed on the subject of "Seamen's 
Journal," and further remarks were made by Secretary 
Olander, Delegates Keller, Grange, Deal, Van der 
Staay, Editor Scharrenberg, Vice-President Hunter 
and Vice-President O'Brien. 

Delegate Deal moved that the Executive Board be 
authorized in its discretion to move the place of pub- 
lication of the Seamen's Journal to a more centrally 
located city, and to employ a full time editor and such 
other assistants as the Board may deem necessary in 
the interest of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. The Motion was seconded. 

Delegate Grange offered an amendment that the 
Executive Board be and is hereby instructed to use all 
of the instrumentalities at its command with a view 
of improving the Seamen's Journal. Seconded and 
carried. 

The motion as amended was carried. 



On motion of Delegate Deal, the report of the 
Secretary-Treasurer under the above caption was ap- 
proved. 

That portion of the Secretary-Treasurer's report 
under the caption, "Legislation," was read. 

A motion was made and seconded to adopt this 
section of the Secretary-Treasurer's report. 

The matter was discussed by Delegates Engstrom, 
Grange, Conner, Brown, Murphy, Kyle, Vice-Presi- 
dent O'Brien and Secretary Olander. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 4:55 o'clock the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander submitted the following for the 
Committee of the Whole: 

Seamen's Journal 
(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 103) 

The Committee recommends the adoption of that 
part of the Secretary-Treasurer's report under this 
heading, and that the Executive Board be authorized 
in its discretion to move the place of publication of 
the Seamen's Journal to a more centrally located city, 
and to employ a full time editor and such other assist- 
ants as the Board may deem necessary in the interest 
of the International Seamen's Union of America; that 
the Executive Board be and is hereby instructed to 
use all of the instrumentalities at its command with 
a view of improving the Seamen's Journal. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

At 5 o'clock the Convention adjourned to 9:30 
o'clock Wednesday, January 29th. 



FIFTEENTH DAY 
Wednesday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 29, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:30 o'clock 
by Vice-President Hunter. 

Roll call: All present. 

Delegate Deal, for the special Committee to meet 
with the Masters, Mates and Pilots and the Marine 
Engineers organizations, reported progress. 

Upon suggestion of Secretary Olander, a motion 
was passed to invite Assistant Secretary of Labor 
McGrady to address the Convention. 

At 9:45 o'clock the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for the further consid- 
eration of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 
Vice-President Pryor in the chair. 



Consideration of the report of the Secretary-Treas- 
urer was resumed. 

Discussion was resumed on the subject of "Legis- 
lation." 

Secretary Olander read the report of President 
Furuseth, Chairman of the Legislative Committee of 
the International Union, dated August 24, 1935, as 
made to the Union at large, at that time, which has 
also been printed in the Seamen's Journal. 

Delegates Kyle, O'Brien, Van der Staay, Engstrom 
and Secretary Olander discussed the subject. 

At 11:55 o'clock the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair, and Secretary Olander, 
for the Committee, reported progress. 

At 12 noon the Convention adjourned to 2 p. m. 



FIFTEENTH DAY 
Wednesday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2:30 o'clock 
by Vice-President Hunter. 
Roll call: All present. 



Secretary Olander stated he had made arrange- 
ments to have Delegate Conrad H. Espe, of the 
Salmon Purse Seiners' Union of the Pacific, to act as 



140 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1. 1936 



a representative of the International Secretary-Treas- 
urer's office for the purpose of securing some neces- 
sary information and data on the Pacific Coast, relat- 
ing to fishermen. 

The action of Secretary Olander was approved. 

Delegate Deal requested to be excused from the 
Convention until Friday for the purpose of going to 
Chicago to attend to matters relating to the Railway 
Labor Act and Maritime Workers affected by that 
law. The request was granted. 

At 2:15 the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for further consideration of 
pending matters. 

Committee of the W hole 

Vice-President Pryor in the chair. 

Discussion was resumed on the subject "Legisla- 
tion." The LaFollette-Welch Bill, S. 1933 and H. R. 
7290, was read section by section, a copy of the bill 
having been placed in the hands of each delegate. The 
bill was discussed by Delegates Grange, Deal, O'Brien, 
Oldenberg, Carlson, Engle, Farrell, Murphy, King, 
Van der Staay, Burke and Secretary Olander. 

A motion was passed unanimously endorsing the 
LaFollette-Welch Bill, S. 1933 and H. R. 7290. 

Secretary Olander read a comprehensive statement 
on the subject of Legislation from President Furu- 
seth, who arrived at the Convention shortly after- 
wards. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 4:45 o'clock the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander submitted the following for the 
Committee of the Whole: 

Legislation 

(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 104) 
The Committee has been in session considering that 
part of the Secretary-Treasurer's report under the 
above caption and makes a partial report as follows: 
That the Committee has carefully examined the 
LaFollette-Welch Bill, S. 1933 and H. R. 7290, has 
gone over it in detail and recommends that the bill 
be reindorsed. 

. The report of the Committee was adopted unani- 
mously. 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Secretary Olander read a telegram from George 
Larson, acting Secretary, Sailors' Union of the Pacific, 
requesting that the action of the Convention revoking 
the charter of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific be 
rescinded before the Convention adjourns. 

FISHERMEN 

On recommendation of Secretary Olander, a motion 
was passed granting a charter to the Deep Sea and 
Purse Seine Fishermen's Union at San Pedro. 

At 5 o'clock the Convention adjourned to 9:30 
o'clock Thursday, January 30. 



SIXTEENTH DAY 
Thursday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 30, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order by Vice-Presi- 
dent Hunter at 9:30 a. m. 

At 9:35 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for the further considera- 
tion of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President Pryor in the chair. 

Secretary Olander read H. R. Bill No. 7286, which 
provides for the jurisdiction over seamen to be trans- 
ferred from the Department of Commerce to the 
Department of Labor, and for the creation of a Sea- 
men's Bureau in the Department of Labor. 

Delegate Grange moved that the Legislative Com- 
mittee be instructed to use all means at its command 
in an endeavor to secure the passage of the bill. 
Motion seconded. 

The bill was discussed briefly by Delegates Grange, 
O'Brien, Van der Staay, Brown, Farrell, Secretary 
Olander and Editor Scharrenberg. 

The motion offered by Delegate Grange was 
adopted by unanimous vote. 



Secretary Olander read to the Committee tele- 
grams from C. W. Doyle, Secretary, Central Labor 
Union, Seattle and the Labor Council of Seattle and 
vicinity, requesting that the action of the convention 
revoking charter of the Sailors Union of the Pacific 
be rescinded until such time as proper investigation 
has been made. 

Secretary-Treasurer Olander was excused to attend 
a conference with the Secretary of Labor, Frances 
Perkins. Delegate O'Brien acted as secretary in his 
absence. 

The committee proceeded with further discussion 
under the subject of Legislation, and the Schulte Bill, 
H. R. 3580, also known as the King Bill, was read 
by Acting Secretary O'Brien and discussed by Dele- 
gate Grange, Keane and O'Brien. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 11:25 a. m. the Convention reconvened and Act- 
ing Secretary O'Brien, for the Committee of the 
Whole, reported progress. 

At 11:30 a. m., the rules were suspended and the 
Convention adjourned to 2:00 o'clock. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

SIXTEENTH DAY 
Thursday Afternoon Session 



141 



The Convention was called to order at 2:00 p. m., 
Vice-President Hunter presiding. 

Roll call absentees: Deal, Bley and Warren, absent 
on business. 

At 2:05 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for further consideration 
of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President Pryor in the chair. 

Delegate O'Brien acted as secretary in the absence 
of Secretary-Treasurer Olander, excused on other 
business in relation to the Department of Labor. 

Discussion was resumed on the subject of H. R. 
3580. Delegates Van der Staay and Kyle spoke on 
the subject. 

A motion to approve the King-Schulte Bill, H. R. 
3580, was adopted by the Committee of the Whole 
unanimously. 

S. 3501 was read and discussed by Delegates 
O'Brien, Grange, Murphy, Carlson and Bley. 

Delegate Grange moved that the Legislative com- 
mittee be instructed to give attention to S. 3501. 
Motion seconded and carried. 

Acting Secretary O'Brien read to the Committee of 
the Whole the Bland Bill, H. R. 6035. Delegates 
O'Brien, Brown, Grange, Kyle, Van der Staay, Keane, 
O'Connor, Farrell, Murphy, Carlson and Editor 
Scharrenberg discussed the bill. 

Delegate Murphy offered the following recommen- 
dation to the Legislative Committee: That provided 



Congress allows subsidies that we, acting in the Con- 
vention of the International Seamen's Union, instruct 
the Legislative Committee to amend, if possible, acts 
already existing, to propose bills or to support bills 
already pending, all to the end that the Seamen get 
their share in the form of wages or better working 
conditions from such subsidy. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 4:55 p. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Vice-President O'Brien, acting for the Secretary- 
Treasurer, submitted the following partial report for 
the Committee of the Whole. 

Legislation 

(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 104) 

The Committee of the Whole recommends approval 
of the Connery Bill, H. R. 7286, providing for the 
transfer of jurisdiction of seamen from the Depart- 
ment of Commerce to the Department of Labor, the 
King-Schulte Bill, H. R. 3580, relating to deportment 
of alien seamen; and that the Legislative Committee 
be instructed to give attention to Bill S. 3501. 

The report of the committee was adopted unani- 
mously. 

President Furuseth paid a short visit to the Con- 
vention. 

At 5:00 p. m. the Convention adjourned to recon- 
vene at 9:30 a. m. January 31st. 



SEVENTEENTH DAY 
Friday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, January 31, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order by Vice-Presi- 
dent Hunter at 9:30 a. m. 

Roll call absentees: Bley, Warren and Deal, absent 
on business of the organization. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Secretary Olander read telegrams from Elmer 
Bruce, President, I. L. A. 3882, San Pedro, Calif., 
Harry D. Norman, Secretary M. E. B. A. No. 79, San 
Pedro, Calif., C. H. Jordan, Secretary, A. R. T. A., 
Wilmington, Calif., Timmons, Acting Agent, M. C. & 
S. Association, San Pedro, Calif., and P. B. Gill, 
Seattle, Wash., dealing with the revocation of the 
charter of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific. 

Secretary Olander made a statement relative to his 
conference with the Secretary of Labor and the condi- 
tions facing the organization. 

At 10:30 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into 



the Committee of the Whole for the further considera- 
tion of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President Pryor in the chair. 

Discussion was resumed on the question of subsi- 
dies, which was under discussion at the time of ad- 
journment. The subject was further discussed by 
Delegates Van der Staay, Grange, O'Brien, Murphy, 
Kile, O'Connor, Engstrom, Keller. 

Secretary Olander read to the Convention parts of 
various bills affecting legislation, namely, H. R. 8555, 
S. 3376, S. 3500, and S. 3501. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 11:55 a. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander, for the Committee of the Whole, 
reported progress. 

At 12 noon the Convention adjourned to 2 p. m. 



142 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

SEVENTEENTH DAY 
Friday Afternoon Session 



April 1, 1936 



The Convention was called to order at 2:30 p. m. by 
Vice-President Hunter. 

Absentees: None. 

Secretary Olander reported that utterly false stories 
were being circulated among seamen in many ports 
to the effect that the Convention was daily receiving 
a flood of telegrams and postcards favoring strike 
action, etc. The facts are that during the nineteen 
days since the Convention opened on January 13 there 
had been received from members or persons signing 
as members exactly 18 telegrams relating to national 
federation or agreement, one of which related to 
strike, 6 concerning revocation of charter, and one 
calling for the formation of an International Union 
without districts; also that the total number of post- 
cards from members or persons signing as members, 
proposing among other things a national strike, was 
162, of which 139 carried the New York postmark, 9 
had the Philadelphia postmark, 12 without postmark, 
and two had been given to delegates without noting 
the postmark. 

At 2:40 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for the further consideration 
of pending matters. Vice-President O'Brien in the 
chair. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

Secretary Olander made reference to a number of 
pending bills having to do with legislation affecting 
seamen. 

Pamphlets containing excerpts from "Investigation 
on Air Mail and Ocean Mail Contracts," and another 
containing Chapters I, X, and XII of a report on 
Marine and Dock Labor by Robert P. Bass, United 
States Shipping Board (1918), were distributed to the 
delegates. 

Secretary Olander was excused on business of the 
organization and Editor Scharrenberg acted as secre- 
tary in his absence. 

VISIT OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF 
LABOR 

Assistant Secretary of Labor Edward F. McGrady 
was introduced and addressed the Convention on cur- 
rent labor problems. He was cordially received by 
the delegates. 

Vice-President Pryor in the chair. 

On motion discussion was taken up under the sub- 
ject of the Social Security Act, and Editor Scharren- 
berg, acting for Secretary Olander, read that section 
of the report under the above heading. Delegates 
King, Engstrom, Kile, Murphy, Grange, and Editor 
Scharrenberg spoke on the subject. 

Editor Scharrenberg offered a motion that the Com- 
mittee of the Whole recommend to the Convention 
that the part of the Secretary-Treasurer's report 
under the caption "The Social Security Act" be re- 



ferred to the Executive Board with directions to draft 
and cause to be introduced an adequate federal social 
security bill for seamen. Seconded and carried by 
unanimous vote. 

The Committee of the Whole reverted to the sec- 
tion of the Secretary-Treasurer's report under the 
caption, "Legislation," upon the return of Secretary 
Olander. 

Delegate Burke offered a motion that the Secretarv- 
Treasurer's report under the caption "Legislation" be 
approved with such recommendations as have been 
made up to this point by the Committee of the Whole 
and approved by the convention. Motion seconded. 

Further discussion on the subject of legislation \va^ 
held, Delegates Murphy, O'Brien, Brown, Engstrom. 
Angle, Kile, Carlson, Grange, and Keane partaking 
The motion was carried. 

Secretary Olander made a statement in which he 
referred to the subject of the American Merchant 
Marine and the declaration adopted by the 1930 con- 
vention as amended from a previous convention and 
suggested that if the Committee of the Whole desired 
him to submit the general declaration again, with some 
changes made necessary by the action of the present 
convention, he would be willing to make the necessary 
compilation. 

Editor Scharrenberg moved that the Secretary be 
requested to do so. The motion was seconded and 
carried. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 5:55 p. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander read the following report of the 
Committee of the Whole: 

The Social Security Act 
(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 105) 

That the part of the Secretary-Treasurer's report 
under the caption "Social Security Act" be referred to 
the Executive Board with directions to draft and cause 
to be introduced an adequate federal social security 
bill for seamen. 

The report of the Committee of the Whole was 
adopted by unanimous vote. 

Legislation 
(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 104) 

The Committee of the Whole recommends approval 
of that part of the Secretary-Treasurer's report under 
the caption "Legislation" with such recommendations 
as have been made up to this point by the Committee 
of the Whole and approved by the Convention. 

The report of the Committee of the Whole \vr^ 
adopted by unanimous vote. 

At 6 p. m. the Convention adjourned to reconvene 
at 9:30 a. m., Februarv 1. 



April 1. 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



143 



EIGHTEENTH DAY 
Saturday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, February 1, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order by Vice-Presi- 
dent O'Brien at 9:30 a. m. 

Roll call: All present. Delegate Deal reported that 
he had returned from Chicago. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Telegrams protesting the revocation of the charter 
of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific were received and 
read, coming from Masters, Mates and Pilots Local 90, 
Seattle, Portland Branch P. C. M. F. O. and W. T. 
Association, Portland Branch Marine Cooks and Stew- 
ards, and Portland Branch, Sailors' Union of the Pa- 
cific, from Sailors' Union, dated San Francisco, Jan- 
uary 30, advising that communication concerning ac- 
tion of the Convention regarding the Maritime Fed- 
eration of the Pacific had been called to the attention 
of Harry Lundeberg, Secretary-Treasurer elect, who 
takes office on February 2. 

NATIONAL MARITIME LABOR COUNCIL 

Editor Scharrenberg reported to the Convention for 
the Special Committee to meet with representatives 
of other organizations of seafarers, stating arrange- 
ments had been made for the formation of the "Na- 
tional Maritime Labor Council," and submitted the 
following: 

TENTATIVE CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 

of 

National Maritime Labor Council 

Organized at 

Washington, D. C, January 31, 1936 

Preamble 

For the purpose of promoting skill and developing 
the highest degree of efficiency in the American Mer- 
chant Marine and through cooperative action obtain 
the fullest and most complete returns for our organi- 
zations, and for other purposes affecting the labor 
activities of the associated organizations, within the 
limitations of their respective organization laws and 
policies, we have banded ourselves into a council 
known as the National Maritime Labor Council. 

By-Laws 

Section 1. The officers of this Council shall con- 
sist of a chairman, vice-chairman, and secretary-treas- 
urer, to be elected annually by the Council. 

Sec. 2. The duties of the chairman, vice-chairman, 
and secretary-treasurer shall be those usually per- 
formed by such officers. 

Sec. 3. The members of this Council shall be the 
chief executives of the organizations listed in Schedule 
'"A" hereto attached. 

Sec. 4. The chief executive of any labor organiza- 
tion desiring admission to the Council shall make 



application to the Secretary-Treasurer, and shall be 
admitted to the Council upon two-thirds vote of the 
majority of the members present. 

Sec. 5. Any duly affiliated organization desiring to 
withdraw from membership in the Council shall file 
written notice to that effect with the Secretary-Treas- 
urer, and upon receipt of such notice such membership 
will be automatically terminated. 

Sec. 6. A member may be represented by an officer 
of his organization duly and fully authorized to act 
for him, but not otherwise. 

Sec. 7. All actions of the Council shall be deter- 
mined by a majority vote of the members present. 

Sec. 8. Each organization as represented in this 
Council shall be entitled to one vote. 

Sec. 9. A quorum for the transaction of business 
shall consist of not less than the majority of all mem- 
bers of the Council. 

Sec. 10. No member shall be obligated or bound 
by any action of the Council inconsistent with the laws 
or policies of the organization he represents, and no 
action shall be taken by any organization or group of 
organizations that may substantially affect the interest 
of the other organizations until such contemplated 
action has first been considered by the Council. 

Sec. 11. Meetings of the Council shall be called by 
the Chairman upon (a) his own motion; (b) request 
of a majority of the members of the Council. 

Sec. 12. The admission fee shall be One Hundred 
Dollars for each organization. There shall be no regu- 
lar dues or assessments, but at the end of each quarter 
an itemized statement of the disbursements shall be 
submitted to the affiliated organizations and the 
amount expended shall be defrayed by them in equal 
shares. No bills shall be paid except by check issued 
by the Secretary-Treasurer and then only when such 
bills have been duly authorized by the Council at a 
regular meeting. 

Sec. 13. Amendments to this Constitution shall be 
acted upon in the following manner: Every amend- 
ment must be proposed in writing at a regular meet- 
ing. It shall be recorded in full in the minutes and be 
laid over until the next regular meeting. It shall re- 
quire a two-thirds majority of delegates present to 
carry any amendment to the Constitution. 

Schedule A 

National Organization Masters, Mates, and Pilots 
of America. 

National Marine Engineers' Beneficial Association. 

International Seamen's Union of America. 

A motion was made and seconded to adopt the 
report of the Committee. 

The report was discussed by Delegate Deal and 
Editor Scharrenberg, and the motion to adopt was 
carried by unanimous vote. 



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April 1. 1936 



Secretary Olander moved that the Convention take 
up Resolution No. 7 for immediate consideration and 
action. Seconded and carried. 

Resolution No. 7 

By President Andrew Furuseth and Delegate Victor 
A. Olander, Sailors' Union of the Great Lakes: 

RESOLVED, That the Committee of the Whole 
be authorized to prepare and submit for approval of 
the Convention such amendments as may be desirable 
or necessary to provide for more effective adminis- 
tration of the affairs of the International Seamen's 
Union of America and the enforcement of its laws and 
regulations. 

The resolution was adopted by unanimous vote. 

COMMITTEE ON CONSTITUTION 

On motion a special Committee on Constitution was 
appointed, consisting of Delegates Hunter, Pryor and 
Burke, to consider constitutional revisions, their re- 
port to be submitted to the Committee of the Whole. 

The Committee on Constitution was directed to give 
attention to Resolutions Nos. 26, 27, 28, 29 and 47. 

At the request of Delegate Vigen, Resolution Xo. 11 
was taken up for immediate consideration. The reso- 
lution is as follows: 

Resolution No. 11 

By Delegate Andrew Vigen, Alaska Fishermen's 
Union: 

WHEREAS, The Regulations of the Public Health 
Service have been construed in such manner as to 
deny the benefits of the service except upon proof of 
"sixty days' continuous service" on board the vessel; 
and 

WHEREAS, The Alaska salmon fisherman works 
in an open boat during the period of the "run" and 
delivers his catch to a fish-scow, instead of directly to 
the vessel; and 

WHEREAS, The method of operation in no way 
affects the nature of the fisherman's work nor lessens 
the risk of accident or sickness incidental to his call- 
ing; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That the International Seamen's 
Union of America in Convention assembled in Wash- 
ington, D. C, January 13, 1936, at its thirty-third 
annual convention, goes on record that we respectfully 
request the passage by Congress of the pending bill, 
H. R. 2902, to include the fisherman in the definition 
of the term "seaman," as that term is used in the 
Public Health Service laws, with the object of recog- 
nizing the fisherman's status as a seaman and insuring 
that he shall receive credit for the full period of the 
voyage upon which he has been engaged; and, be it 
further 

RESOLVED, That the legislative representatives 
of the International Seamen's Union of America be 
instructed to use their good offices to advance and 
support the enactment of Bill H. R. 2902; also to 
notify the House Committee on Merchant Marine 
Radio and Fisheries of the action of this Convention, 
urging immediate and favorable action by that com- 
mittee. 

The resolution was adopted by unanimous vote of 
the Convention. 

At 10:10 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for the further consideration 
of pending matters. 



Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President Pryor in the chair. 

Secretary Olander submitted to the Convention a 
telegram from W. J. and H. W. Waguespack, attor- 
neys of New Orleans, relative to steamship and in- 
surance companies refusing to pay maintenance to 
injured and sick seamen entitled to same, and suggest- 
ing adoption of a resolution requesting Congre — to 
pass an act for the proper protection of seamen. 

On motion the matter was referred to the Com- 
mittee on Legislation with instruction- to take the 
necessary action to protect the interests oi seamen. 

A letter was read in relation to the loiva disaster 
and the investigation which is being made by the firm 
of Green, Tanner & Bosh of Portland. Oregon, tor tin- 
marine crafts and the various dependents. 

The Committee of the Whole proceeded with con- 
sideration of the report of the Secretary-Treasurer. 

Secretary Olander read that portion o\ his report 
under the caption, "Legal Status." 

Delegate O'Brien moved the adoption of that por- 
tion of the report. The motion was seconded. 

The matter was discussed by Secretary Olander and 
Delegates Farrell and Deal. 

The motion to approve that portion of the Secre- 
tary-Treasurer's report under the caption "Legal 
Status," was adopted by the Committee of the Whole. 

Secretary Olander read that portion of his report 
under the caption, "National Labor Relations Act." 

On motion of Delegate Anj^le that section of the 
Secretary-Treasurer's report was approved. 

Secretary Olander read that portion of his report 
under the caption. "International Relations." 

Delegate Angle moved approval of the Secretary's 
report. Motion seconded. 

Secretary Olander spoke on the subject and -in- 
gested that it might be well to instruct the incoming 
Executive Board to carefully examine all of the pro- 
posed conventions, treaties, and recommendations 
emanating from the International Labor Office since 
its formation in 1919, with a view of determining 
which of those conventions or treaties and recom- 
mendations might be beneficial to the American sea- 
men, if ratified by the LTnited States of America. 

Delegates Engstrom, Deal, O'Brien, Grange, and 
Editor Scharrenberg spoke on the subject. 

Delegate Deal offered as a substitute for pending 
motions the following: 

First, that the Secretary-Treasurer's report be en- 
dorsed under this caption; second, that we urge the 
Executive Board to investigate the conventions or 
treaties and recommendations emanating from the 
International Labor Office; and third, that a repre- 
sentative of the International Seamen's Union should 
be sent as official labor delegate to the International 
Labor conferences, and that he should be accompanied 
by competent technical advisers familiar with all de- 
partments on board ship, the advisers to be sent either 
by the Government or by the International Seamen's 
Union of America. The motion was seconded. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



145 



President Furuseth spoke on the subject with rela- 
tion to advisers. 

The motion was carried. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 12:05 p. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President O'Brien in the chair. 

Secretary Olander submitted the following report 
on behalf of the Committee of the Whole: 

Maintenance and Cure 

A communication was received from attorneys rela- 
tive to need for legislation in relation to the liability 
laws and the subject of maintenance and cure, and the 
Committee recommends that the subject-matter be 
referred to the Legislative Committee with instruc- 
tions to take such action as may seem best calculated 
to protect the interests of seamen. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by unani- 
mous vote. 



Legal Status 

(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 105) 
The Committee of the Whole further recommends 
that section of the Secretary-Treasurer's report under 
the caption "Legal Status" be approved. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by unani- 
mous vote. 

National Labor Relations Act 

(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 105) 

The Committee of the Whole recommends that sec- 
tion of the Secretary-Treasurer's report under the 
caption "National Labor Relations Act" be approved. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by unani- 
mous vote. 

Delegate Van der Staay moved that the Convention 
adjourn to 9:30, February 3. Motion seconded and 
carried. 

At 12:15 p. m. the Convention adjourned to 9:30 
a. m., February 3. 



NINETEENTH DAY 
Monday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, February 3, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order by Vice-Presi- 
dent Hunter at 9:30 a. m. 

Roll call — Absentee: Vigen, excused to return home. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

An invitation from Detroit Convention and Tourist 
Bureau, inviting the next convention to Detroit, was 
read. 

Telegrams requesting reconsideration of revocation 
of charter of Sailors' Union of Pacific were read from 
the M. E. B. A., No. 97, San Francisco; Ferry Boat- 
men's Union of the Pacific, Columbia River Division, 
Portland; and Portland Branch Alaska Fishermen's 
Union. 

Unanimous consent of the Convention was granted 
for the introduction of Resolution No. 51 by President 
Furuseth. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

Secretary Olander read the following report of the 
Committee of the Whole: 

International Relations 
(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 105) 
The Committee of the Whole presents the follow- 
ing recommendations: First, that the report of the 
Secretary-Treasurer under the title "International Re- 
lations" be approved; second, that we urge the Execu- 
tive Board to investigate the conventions or treaties 
and recommendations emanating from the Inter- 
national Labor Office; and third, that a representa- 
tive of the International Seamen's Union of America 
should be sent as official labor delegate to the Inter- 
national Labor Conferences relating to seamen, and 



that he should be accompanied by competent technical 
advisers familiar with all departments on board ship, 
the advisers to be sent either by the Government or 
by the International Seamen's Union of America. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by unani- 
mous vote. 

ADDITIONAL PENDING BILLS AFFECTING 
SEAMEN 

Secretary Olander directed attention to various 
legislative proposals relating to seamen and the Mer- 
chant Marine pending in Congress and in departments 
of the Federal Government, which are, in addition to 
the bills discussed or acted upon up to the present 
by the Committee of the Whole or the Convention, 
as follows: 

H. R. Ill, Requisitioning of Ships in Emergencies; 
H. R. 112, Foreign Ships; H. R. 113, Amendment 
Load Line Law; H. R. 117, Competition of Foreign 
Shipping; H. R. 119, Wage Payments; H. R. 156, 
Marine Hospital; H. R. 1990, Marine Hospital; S 2003, 
Section 13, Seamen's Act; H. R. 2863, Citizen Crews; 
H. R. 2893, Inspection; H. R. 2904, Loans; H. R. 2906, 
Loans; H. R. 2908, Inspection; H. R. 3040, American 
Flag; H. R. 4525, Restraint of Trade; H. R. 4526, 
Restraint of Trade; H. R. 4550, Liability; H. R. 4982, 
Ship Mortgage Act; H. R. 5160, Fire; H. R. 5379, 
Water Carriers; H. R. 5427, Intercoastal Shipping 
Act; H. R. 5437, Research Fisheries; H. R. 5494, 
Investigation of Casualties; H. R. 6035, Inspection; 
H. R. 6038, Inspection; H. R. 6039, Discharge Books; 
H. R. 6042, Inspections; H. R. 6043, Inspections; 
H. R. 6044, Crew Quarters; H. R. 6045, Radio 
Operators, chief and assistant stewards; H. R. 6189, 
Inspection; H. R. 6202, Inspection; H. R. 6203, 



146 



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April 1, 1936 



Inspection; H. R. 6263, Inspection; H. R. 6425, In- 
spection; H. R. 6598, Marine Hospital; H. R. 6591, 
Inspection; H. R. 6671, Working Hours on Tugs and 
Dredges; H. R. 6812, Marine Hospital; H. R. 6991, 
Inspection; H. R. 7040, Assignment of Coast Guard 
Officers to Merchant Ships; H. R. 7319, Inspection; 
H. R. 7521. Merchant Marine; H. R. 7524, Marine 
Hospital; H. R. 7811, Inspections; H. R. 7812, In- 
spections; H. R. 7854, Merchant Marine Corp.; H. R. 
7981, Marchant Marine Corp.; H. R. 8139, Inspec- 
tions; H. R. 8185, Merchant Marine Act; H. R. 8280, 
Burials; H. R. 8456, Inspections; H. R. 8457, Section 
13, Seamen's Act; H. R. 8525, Lighters; H. R. 8597, 
Section 13, Seamen's Act; H. R. 8599, Inspection and 
the hill or bills relating to the Merchant Marine and 
Seamen, now in course of drafting by the Federal Co- 
ordinator of Transportation. 

He also directed attention to the fact that President 
Furuseth had reported the enactment of certain bills, 
as follows: H. R. 67, amending the Immigration and 
Naturalization Act; H. R. 115, amending Section 27 
of the Merchant Marine Act, 1920; S. 2002, Load Line 
Act; S. 3446, relating to liability of shipowners; and 
H. R. 7502, amending the Ship Mortgage Act. 

At 10 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for further consideration of 
pending matters. 

Committee of the IFhole 

Vice-President Pryor in the chair. 
Secretary Olander read that portion of his report 
under the caption, "Canada." 

A motion was made and seconded to approve the 
report and to include the 1930 report of the Secretary- 
Treasurer on the subject of Canadian law. 

The question was discussed by Secretary Olander, 
Delegates King, Kile, Deal, and President Furuseth. 

The report of the Committee was approved. 

Secretary Olander read that portion of his report 
under the caption, "Skill." 

Delegates Grange, O'Brien. Farrell, Brown, Kile, 
Murphy, discussed the question. 

Delegate Farrell offered the following motion: That 
the report of the Secretary-Treasurer on the subject 
of "Skill" be approved, that the report of the Com- 
mittee on Policies and Education referring to seaman- 
ship, skill and efficiency, as adopted by the Philadel- 
phia Convention in 1921 and reaffirmed by succeeding 
conventions, be reindorsed and that the Executive 
Board be and hereby is instructed to take the matter 
up with the United States Board for Vocational Edu- 
cation with a view of developing a plan under the 
auspices of that Board under arrangements that will 
provide for the fullest degree of cooperation from the 
Departments of Labor, Commerce, Interior, and Navy, 
and from the public vocational educational agencies 
at the various ports on the Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf 
Coasts, and the Great Lakes. 

The motion was seconded and carried by unanimous 
vote. 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 11:55 a. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander submitted the following report 
on behalf of the Committee of the Whole: 

Canada 
(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 106) 

The Committee of the Whole recommends that the 
part of the report of the Secretary-Treasurer's report 
entitled "Canada" be approved and the following re- 
port of the Secretary-Treasurer to the thirty-second 
convention, 1930, as approved by the Convention, be 
made a part of the proceedings of the present con- 
vention and readopted, namely: 

The existing Canadian situation is a menace to sea- 
men. In the matter of law, as relating to seamen, 
Canada is one of the most backward of countries. 
The Canadian shipping law is of such a nature as to 
make it practically impossible for Canadian seamen to 
engage in a legal strike. For instance, the penalty for 
disobedience of orders, which under the United States 
law is applicable only at sea, is under the Canadian 
law also made applicable in port. Not only is the 
Canadian seaman subject to penalty of imprisonment 
for (putting the ship, for failure to obey orders in port 
and for joining with others in refusing to obey the 
commands of the officers even when the vessel is in 
a safe harbor, but after having signed articles he may 
be seized without the formality of a warrant and, hav- 
ing been sentenced to imprisonment, may then be 
forced from the prison to the ship. He must be sur- 
rendered upon demand by any person who may give 
him shelter. Houses may be entered without warrant 
in the search for escaping seamen. Enticing to deserl 
and harboring deserters is made the subject of heavy 
penalty. Persons going on board a ship without con- 
sent of the master are subject to be summarily taken 
into custody by the person in charge of the vessel. 
Any person found near any ship and not giving a 
satisfactory account of his presence there, is liable to 
summary conviction. And the climax of this ma- 
chinery of injustice is found in a provision that "There 
shall be no appeal from any conviction or order ad- 
judged or made under this Part, for any offense 
against this Part; and no conviction under this Part 
shall be quashed for want of form." 

The provisions which I have referred to are to be 
found in the Canadian Shipping Act, Part III, relat- 
ing to the ocean trade, and Part IV of the same Act 
relating to the "inland waters of Canada," except as 
to barges and scows on rivers and canals. 

It is not probable that Canadian seamen will he 
able to organize to any extent until some improve- 
ment is made in the law of that country. I recom 
mend that steps be taken to bring this matter to the 
attention of the Canadian Trades and Labor Congress. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by unani- 
mous vote. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



147 



Skill 

(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 106) 

The Committee of the Whole recommends that that 
part of the Secretary-Treasurer's report under the 
caption "Skill" be approved, that the report of the 
Committee on Policies and Education referring to 
seamanship, skill and efficiency, as adopted by the 
Philadelphia Convention in 1921 and reaffirmed by 
succeeding conventions, be reindorsed and that the 
Executive Board be and hereby is instructed to take 



the matter up with the United States Board for Voca- 
tional Education with a view of developing a plan 
under the auspices of that board under arrangements 
that will provide for the fullest degree of cooperation 
from the Departments of Labor, Commerce, Interior, 
and Navy, and from the public vocational educational 
agencies at the various ports on the Pacific, Atlantic 
and Gulf Coasts, and the Great Lakes. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by unani- 
mous vote. 

At 12 noon the Convention adjourned to 2 p. m. 



NINETEENTH DAY 
Monday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2 p. m. by 
Vice-President Hunter. 

Roll call — Absentee: Carlson, on business of the 
organization. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON AUDIT 

Delegate Angle, for the Committee on Audit, sub- 
mitted the following report: 

Washington, D. C, 
February 1, 1936. 

The undersigned members of the Committee on 
Audit of the thirty-third convention of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America respectfully submit 
the following report. 

We have carefully examined all books, vouchers, 
cancelled checks, and banks' statements for the fiscal 
year December 1, 1934, to November 30, 1935, and find 
same to correspond with published report of the 
Secretary-Treasurer. 

We have further checked the income and disburse- 
ments for the month of December, 1935, and find them 
to correspond with the banks' statements for the 
month of December, 1935. 

We have further checked accounts of income and 
disbursements from January 1, 1936, to and including 
January 10, 1936, and find the same correct. 

We have verified cash on hand in both banks in 
Chicago on January 22, 1936, and find as follows: 

First National Bank of Chicago $14,372.20 

The Northern Trust Company 9,778.89 



$24,151.09 
The difference in the Secretary-Treasurer's books 
and banks' statements are covered by outstanding 
checks. 

We further find that the accounts were kept along 
straight business lines and are a credit to the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 
Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed) Ivan Hunter, 

Percy J. Pryor, 
C. H. Angle. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 



Delegate Brown presented Secretary - Treasurer 
Olander with an ebony walking-stick as a personal 
gift in appreciation of a mutual friendship extending 
over a period of more than thirty years. In his re- 
sponse Secretary Olander gave evidence of deep feel- 
ing and keen appreciation. 

Secretary Olander stated he had compiled for pub- 
licity purposes certain sections of the 1921 report of 
the Committee on Policies and Education relating to 
skill and efficiency, as endorsed by this Convention, 
and had added to that compilation the proposal for 
action through the United States Board of Vocational 
Education, and that he desired the approval of the 
Convention before giving the compilation to the press, 
it being as follows: 

Skill and Efficiency 

The desire for freedom and — freedom having been 
attained — the purpose to make the highest and best 
use of our liberties is the keynote. 

The seaman's calling is an honorable one and is 
entitled to be again recognized as one of the world's 
most honored professions. It calls for unfaltering 
courage and virile manhood. It is no place for cowards 
and shirkers. For a time it suffered degradation and 
even shame, and press, pulpit, and author seemed to 
join in a combined sneer at the men who carry the 
world's commerce over the waters of the deep, but 
the real spirit of seamanship, with its stern code that 
demands willing sacrifice, undaunted courage, ready 
initiative, and a high order of intelligence, has sur- 
vived all attacks and through our International Union 
is now finding a new and revived expression of itself. 
The goal of freedom has been attained. The degrada^ 
tion of bondage has been wiped out. The law has per- 
formed its function, except in so far as it has not yet 
been properly enforced by the Government. 
* * * 

We are of the opinion that the time has now arrived 
when we can and must make good the promise that 
skilled seamanship, especially among the members of 
our International Union, shall be developed to the 
fullest possible extent. 



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THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



A decided advantage can be given to American in- 
dustry and to American seamen through the quick 
development of a high order of skilled seamanship and 
efficiency. 

* * * 

We believe that prompt action is as necessary in 
the interests of the members of our organization as it 
is for the industry. We, therefore, present for the 
consideration and action of the Convention the follow- 
ing recommendations on this subject. 

1. That the Executive Board be authorized and in- 
structed to secure the services of a vocational expert 
or experts who shall, under the direction of the Board, 
make a survey of the entire craft to ascertain its needs 
in respect to seamanship, general trade skill and effi- 
ciency, and to work out plans whereby the knowledge 
of seamanship in all degrees of skill necessary to the 
fullest development of all divisions of the craft may 
be transmitted to the members of all affiliated organi- 
zations. 

2. The plan must include arrangements whereby the 
members of the union shall be given opportunities to 
improve their skill and efficiency in general rigging 
and repair work on board ship, in all departments 
thereof. 

3. The plan should include lectures on the develop- 
ment and purposes of the craft and its practices, 
to be accompanied by illustrations in the form of 
stereopticon views, maps and, where necessary and 
possible, moving pictures in such manner as to be 
interesting as well as instructive. 

4. Lectures and discussions should include informa- 
tion on the question of discipline on board ship, its 
theory and practice, needs and purposes. 

5. Arrangements should be made for the compila- 
tion and circulation of printed matter, through which 
such information of seamanship, skill and efficiency, 
as may be presented in printed form, can be made 
accessible to the membership. It should be borne in 
mind that considerable work is involved in the com- 
pilation of this kind of information, which, to be of 
any real value, must be illustrated by drawings, maps, 
and pictures. 

6. Technical information on strains, leverages, 
weights, etc., involved in the use of ships' gear and 
equipment, should be transmitted to the membership. 

7. It should be thoroughly understood that the in- 
itial work of this plan should have for its purpose the 
improvement of seamanship skill and efficiency of the 
members of the Union who have had some substan- 
tial service on board ship, and who have attained the 
positions of able seamen, firemen and oilers, cooks, 
etc., with a view of later so developing the system as 
to fit the needs of the beginners in the calling. The 
development in this respect will undoubtedly be very 
rapid, once the plan is in operation. 

8. The Executive Board hereby is instructed to take 
the matter up immediately with the U. S. Board for 
Vocational Education with a view of developing a 



plan under the auspices of that board under arrange- 
ments that will provide for the fullest degree of coop- 
eration from the Departments of Labor, Commerce. 
Interior and Navy, and from the public vocational 
educational agencies at the various ports on the Pa- 
cific, Atlantic and Gulf Coasts and the Great Lakes. 

The statement as prepared by Secretary Olander 
was unanimously approved. 

At 2:40 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for the further consideration 
of pending matters. 

Committee of the IF hole 

Vice-President Pryor in the chair. 

Secretary Olander read these portions of his report 
under the captions "Able Seamen Certificates" and 
"Lifeboatmen Certificates." 

The matter was discussed by Secretary Olander. 
Delegates Grange, Farrell and Kile. 

Delegate Brown moved approval of these sections of 
the report and that, as one means of promoting safety 
of life at sea, the Executive Board be and is hereby 
instructed to consult with the appropriate departments 
of the federal government with a view to providing 
for a federal project for training merchant seamen of 
all grades, employed and unemployed, in the efficient 
handling of lifeboats and small boats in general, and 
also other life-saving equipment, under the supervision 
of the Bureau of Navigation, the Navy, the Coast 
Guard and selected experts available in the Merchant 
Marine, and under conditions and circumstances that 
will provide for such practice and training under heavy 
weather conditions, such training and practice to be 
on a purely voluntary basis, it being certain that large 
numbers of the union will eagerly take advantage of 
any reasonable and practical system of small boat 
training and practice which may be offered by the 
government. 

The motion was seconded and carried by unanimous 
vote. 

Secretary Olander read that portion of the report 
under caption "Reports of Officers." 

Delegates Brown, O'Brien and Secretary Olander 
discussed the subject. 

On motion that portion of the secretary's report 
under the above heading was approved td be referred 
to the Committee on Constitution. 

Secretary Olander read that portion of his report 
under the caption "Jurisdiction." 

The subject was discussed by Delegates Farrell, 
Grange, Van der Staay, Brown, Engstrom and Presi- 
dent Furuseth. 

Delegate O' Brien offered the following motion: 

That the Committee of the Whole endorse that 
portion of the Secretary-Treasurer's report dealing 
with "Jurisdiction" and that we ask that encroach- 
ments on our jurisdictions be called to the attention of 
the American Federation of Labor, insisting that our 
jurisdictions be protected against the inroads of \,ir- 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



149 



ious organizations now seeking to claim jurisdiction 
over groups of seamen and boatmen in different ports. 

The motion was seconded and carried by unanimous 
vote. 

That portion of the Secretary-Treasurer's Report 
under the heading "Annual Financial Statement" was 
approved by the Committee of the Whole, the report 
of the Committee on Audit having been previously 
received and approved by the Convention. 

The Committee of the Whole adopted a motion to 
recommend approval of the following sections of the 
report of the Secretary-Treasurer: 

Financial Reports for Five Previous Years. 

Comparative Statement. 

Improvement in Finances. 

Conclusion. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 5:05 p. m. the convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander read the following report on be- 
half of the Committee of the Whole. 

Able Seamen Certificates — Lifeboatmen Certificates 

(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 106) 
The Committee of the Whole approves that portion 
of the Secretary-Treasurer's Report under the above 
caption and further recommends that, as one means 
of promoting safety of life at sea, the Executive Board 
be and is hereby instructed to consult with the ap- 
propriate departments of the Federal Government with 
a view to providing for a federal project for training 
merchant seamen of all grades, employed and un- 
employed, in the efficient handling of lifeboats and 
small boats in general, and also other life-saving equip- 
ment, under the supervision of the Bureau of Navi- 
gation, the Navy, the Coast Guard, and selected ex- 
perts available in the Merchant Marine, and under 
conditions and circumstances that will provide such 
practice and training under heavy weather conditions, 
such training and practice to be on a purely voluntary 



basis, it being certain that large numbers of the union 
will eagerly take advantage of any reasonable and 
practical system of small-boat training and practice 
which may be offered by the Government. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by unani- 
mous vote. 

Jurisdiction 
(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 106) 

The Committee of the Whole endorses that portion 
of the Secretary-Treasurer's report dealing with "Juris- 
diction" and asks that encroachments on our jurisdic- 
tions be called to the attention of the American Feder- 
ation of Labor, insisting that our jurisdictions be pro- 
tected against the inroads of various organizations 
now seeking to claim jurisdiction over groups of sea- 
men and boatmen in different ports. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by unani- 
mous vote. 

Reports of Officers 
(Secretary-Treasurer's Report, page 106) 

The Committee of the Whole recommends approval 
of that section of the report of the Secretary-Treasurer 
under the heading "Reports of Officers," with the fur- 
ther recommendation that upon its adoption it will be 
referred to the Committee on Constitution. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by unani- 
mous vote. 

The Committee of the Whole recommends approval 
of the sections of the report of the Secretary-Treasurer 
under the following headings: 

Annual Financial Statement. 

Financial Reports for Five Previous Years. 

Comparative Statement. 

Improvement in Finances. 

Conclusion. 

The report of the Committee was adopted by unani- 
mous vote. 

At 5:10 p. m. the Convention adjourned to 9:30 a. m., 
February 4. 



TWENTIETH DAY 
Tuesday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, February 4, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:30 a. m. by 
Vice-President Hunter. 

Roll call — Absentee: Carlson, absent on business 
of organization. 

Secretary Olander announced that he had received 
five additional telegrams from members or persons 
signing themselves as members, similar to other tele- 
grams previously reported upon. 

At 9:45 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for the further consider- 
ation of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 
Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 



Senate Bill S. 2228, having to do with Panama Canal 
tolls, on motion, was referred to the Executive Board 
for such action as the Board may deem desirable. 

The Committee of the Whole proceeded with reso- 
lutions that had been presented. 

The subject covered in Resolutions Nos. 1 and 6 
was discussed by President Furuseth, Delegates Deal, 
Van der Staay, King, Grange, Engstrom, Keane, Kile, 
Editor Scharrenberg and Secretary Olander. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 11:55 a. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander, for the Committee of the Whole, 
reported progress. 

At 12 noon the Convention adjourned to 2 p. m. 



150 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



TWENTIETH DAY 
Tuesday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2 p. m. by 
Vice-President Hunter. 

Roll call — Absentees: O'Connor, sick; Carlson, ab- 
sent on business of the organization. 

Delegate Deal moved that the Secretary-Treasurer 
be authorized to take up the matter of expenses for 
the former delegates of the Sailors' Union of the Pa- 
cific, who are now sitting in the convention as guests, 
to see that, if necessary, they are provided for out of 
the funds of the International. The motion was sec- 
onded, and carried by unanimous vote. 

At 2:10 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for consideration of 
pending matters. 

Committee of the JVhole 

Vice-President Pryor in the chair. 

A substitute for the resolutions, Nos. 1 and 6, was 
adopted. (See report to Convention on following 
pages.) 

A motion was made and seconded to adopt Resolu- 
tions Nos. 2 and 5. 

The question was discussed by Delegates O'Brien, 
Murphy, Brown, Secretary Olander, and President 
Furuseth. 

Delegate O'Brien offered the following as a substi- 
tute for the two resolutions and the substitute was 
adopted. (See Report to Convention.) 

The following resolutions were then acted upon by 
the Committee of the Whole: 

Resolutions Nos. 3, 9 and 10. (See Report to Con- 
vention.) 

Resolution No. 12. Approved. 

Resolution No. 17. Approved. 

Resolution No. 18. Approved with comment. 

Resolution No. 19. Approved. 

The general subject of Marine Hospitals and hospi- 
talization of seamen was discussed by Delegates 
Deal, Van der Staay, King, Engstrom, and President 
Furuseth. 

Delegate Deal moved that the Executive Board be 
instructed to take such steps as may be necessary to 
remedy certain conditions complained of in relation to 
the Marine Hospital. Motion seconded and carried. 

Resolutions Nos. 13 and 14. Tabled. 

Delegate King moved adoption of Resolution No. 
15. Motion seconded. 

The subject was discussed by President Furuseth, 
Delegates Grange, Murphy, Engstrom, King, Van der 
Staay and Brown. Secretary Olander presented some 
important information to the committee. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 6:10 p. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander read the following report of the 
Committee of the Whole on various resolutions: 



The following two resolutions were acted upon 
jointly: 

Resolution No. 1 

By Delegate Ed. Coester, Sailors' Union of Pacific: 

WHEREAS, It has come to our attention that the 
shipowners of the United States of America, aided 
by influential and powerful financial interests, are 
going to demand from the coming session of Congress 
that Congress pass an act providing and compelling 
seamen to accept compensation for injuries; and 

WHEREAS, This would take away valuable rights 
which seamen now have to demand and collect from 
their employers maintenance and cure and would take 
away from all seamen the right to compel the em- 
ployer to pay damages for injuries to seamen; now, 
therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, By the International Seamen's Union 
of America that we are opposed to the passage of any 
law that will compel seamen to accept compensation, 
feeling that this would surrender valuable rights that 
are given to seamen under present existing laws. 

Resolution No. 6 

By Delegate J. E. Ferguson, P. C. M. F. O. W. 
and W. Association: 

WHEREAS, It has come to our attention that the 
shipowners of the United States of America, aided 
by influential and powerful financial interests, are 
going to demand from the coming session of Congress 
that Congress pass an act providing and compelling 
seamen to accept compensation for injury; and 

WHEREAS, This would take away valuable rights 
which seamen now have to demand and collect from 
their employers maintenance and cure, and would 
take away from all seamen the right to compel em- 
ployees to pay damages for injuries to seamen; now, 
therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That this thirty-third convention of 
the International Seamen's Union of America, now 
assembled, hereby go on record as being opposed to 
the passage of any law that will compel seamen to 
accept compensation, feeling that this would surrender 
valuable rights that are given to seamen under the 
present existing laws. 

The Committee of the Whole recommends as a sub- 
stitute for Resolutions No. 1 and No. 6, that the action 
of the conventions of 1921, 1922, 1926, and 1927, in 
relation to the subject of compensation arid liability, 
be readopted and the Legislative Committee be in- 
structed to proceed accordingly. 

(Secretary's Note: "The main features of the pre- 
vious conventions are as follows: 1921, . . . that the 
general principle of administration as proposed by 
S. B. 4708 (Compensation Bill) be approved. . . . All 
present rights of seamen should be safeguarded, in- 
cluding rights to payment of wages and other earn- 
ings, care and cure, and the right to bring suit in the 
courts for damages in lieu of compensation." 1922: 
Action of 1921 reaffirmed. 1926: ". . . that the Legis- 
lative Committee be instructed to work for the enact- 
ment of a Federal Seamen's Compensation Law, pro- 
vided that such a law shall not modify any existing 
remedy, including the choice between compensation 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



151 



and the right to sue for damages after the injury has 
taken place." 1927: Same as 1926.) 

The report of the Committee was adopted unani- 
mously. 

The two following resolutions were acted upon 
jointly: 

Resolution No. 2 

By Delegate Ed. Coester, Sailors' Union of Pacific: 

WHEREAS, There was presented to the United 
States Senate on December 16, 1929, a message from 
the President of the United States of America, trans- 
mitting to said Senate a certified copy of a convention 
(or treaty) for promoting safety of life at sea signed 
at London on May 31, 1929, with a request that the 
Convention (treaty) be ratified by the Senate; and 

WHEREAS, This treaty was considered by the 
said Senate in several sessions of Congress, and par- 
ticularly in the Seventy-fourth Congress, first session, 
at which time hearings were held before a subcom- 
mittee of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United 
States Senate, and said treaty was not acted upon at 
said Seventy-fourth Congress, first session; and 

WHEREAS, It has come to the attention of the 
International Seamen's Union of America that said 
convention (treaty) will again be brought before Con- 
gress in 1936, and will there have the support, as it 
has had heretofore, of the shipowners and financial 
interests of America; and 

WHEREAS, The said convention (treaty) would 
be harmful and would do damage in many ways to 
the rights of seamen, and, specifically, would take 
away from injured seamen many of the rights which 
they now possess under present existing laws, and 
would relieve the owners from liability to shippers of 
cargo in many cases where steamship owners are now 
liable to cargo shippers; and 

WHEREAS, This proposed convention (treaty) 
would permit the shipowners to establish their own 
rules and regulations for the safety of life, limb, and 
cargo at sea, and would bring the American standards 
of safety for life, limb, and cargo at sea down to a 
level with many foreign nations that have not safe- 
guarded the rights of workmen, passengers, and ship- 
pers; now, therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, By the International Seamen's Union 
of America that we go on record opposing the adop- 
tion of such convention (treaty), and that we instruct 
our legislative representatives to oppose the ratifica- 
tion of said convention (treaty), and to take such steps 
as may be necessary to have said convention (treaty) 
opposed when it comes before Congress for enactment. 

Resolution No. 5 

By Delegate J. E. Ferguson, P. C. M. F. O. W. 
and W. Association. 

WHEREAS, There was presented to the United 
States Senate on December 16, 1929, a message from 
the President of the United States of America trans- 
mitting to the said Senate a certified coply of a con- 
vention (or treaty) for promoting safety of life at 
sea, signed in London on May 31, 1929, with the re- 
quest that the convention (or treaty) be ratified by 
the Senate; and 

WHEREAS, This treaty was considered by the 
said Senate in several sessions of Congress, and par- 
ticularly in the Seventy-fourth Congress, first session, 
at which time hearings were held before the sub- 
committee of the Committee on Foreign Relations, 
United States Senate, and said treaty was not acted 
upon at said Seventy-fourth Congress, first session; 
and 



WHEREAS, This said convention (or treaty) would 
be harmful and would do damage in many ways to 
the rights of seamen and, specifically, would take away 
from injured seamen many of the rights which they 
now possess under existing laws and would relieve the 
owners from liability to shippers of cargo in many 
cases where steamship owners are now liable to cargo 
shippers; and 

WHEREAS, This proposed convention (or treaty) 
would permit the shipowners to establish their own 
rules and regulations for the safety of life, limb, and 
cargo at sea, and would bring the American standards 
of safety for life, limb, and cargo at sea down to a 
level with many foreign nations which have not safe- 
guarded the rights of workmen, passengers, and ship- 
pers; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That this convention of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America, now in session 
in Washington, D. C, oppose the ratification of said 
convention (or treaty), and to take such steps as may 
be necessary to have said convention (or treaty) op- 
posed when it comes before Congress for enactment. 

Substitute for Resolutions Nos. 2 and 5 

The Committee recommended adoption of the fol- 
lowing substitute for Resolutions Nos. 2 and 5: 

WHEREAS, The International Seamen's Union of 
America has been and is opposed to the proposed 
"Treaty on Safety of Life at Sea" and has, since 1930, 
submitted to the Senate and to governmental depart- 
ments and officials briefs, statements, etc., setting 
forth in detail various reasons why the said treaty 
should not be ratified by the United States; therefore 
be it 

RESOLVED, That the action of the 1930 Coiir 
vention in opposition to the aforesaid treaty be re- 
affirmed and the action of the Legislative Committee 
against the treaty be approved. 

The report of the Committee was adopted: 
The following three resolutions were acted upon 
jointly: 

Resolution No. 3 

By Delegate Andrew Vigen, Alaska Fishermen's 
Union: 

WHEREAS, In presence at the thirty-third con- 
vention of the International Seamen's Union of 
America there are delegates from the Copper River 
and Prince William Sound Fishermen's Union, the 
Salmon Purse Seiners* Union of the Pacific, the Her- 
ring Fishermen's Union of the Pacific, and the Deep 
Sea and Purse Seine Fishermen's Union of California, 
all of which have made applications for charters in the 
International Seamen's Union of America and that 
said charters have been pending for nearly a year; 
therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That this convention take immediate 
action in regard to these charters and the regularly 
credentialed delegates from the above organizations 
be seated as fraternal delegates to this convention; 
and be it further 

RESOLVED, That the respective representatives 
from the above-mentioned unions be called in if re- 
quired to take the floor in regard to the respective 
applications. 

Resolution No. 9 

By Delegate Al V. Quittenton, Sailors' Union of 
Pacific: 

WHEREAS, There exists an independent fisher- 
men's union of some 1,300 memberships in the Port 
of San Pedro, California, known as the "Deep Sea 



152 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



and Purse Seine Fishermen's Union," who are de- 
sirous of being affiliated with the American Federa- 
tion of Labor and with the "Maritime Federation of 
the Pacific Coast," and who also desire these affili- 
ations in the trade movement by first becoming 
affiliated with and being a part of the "International 
Seamen's Union of America"; and 

WHEREAS, Repeated efforts on the part of these 
militant union brothers and on the part of the San 
Pedro Branch of the "Sailors' Union of the Pacific" 
have been made to secure a charter from the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America; and 

WHEREAS, It is most essential for all the workers 
in the maritime industry to become affiliated and thus 
combine and strengthen our economic forces to repel 
the onslaughts of the employers; and 

WHEREAS, The preamble to the Constitution of 
the American Federation of Labor plainly states: 

"A struggle is going on in all nations of the civil- 
ized world, a struggle between the capitalist and the 
laborer, which grows in intensity from year to year 
and will work disastrous results to the toiling millions 
if they are not combined for mutual protection and 
benefit; 

"It, therefore, behooves the representatives of the 
trade and labor unions of America to adopt such meas- 
ures as will permanently unite them to secure the 
recognition of rights to which they are justly entitled;" 
and 

WHEREAS, A letter from Victor A. Olander, 
dated October 9, 1935, to Mr. George Ivankovitch, 
Secretary of the Deep Sea and Purse Seine Fisher- 
men's Union, that it is not within his discretion to 
decide whether to issue charters, and that the regular 
procedure should come as a recommendation from the 
District Committee; and 

WHEREAS, This action has already been approved 
by the District Committee and also by the Sailors', 
Firemen, Cooks, and Alaska Fishermen's Unions of 
the Pacific District; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That the thirty-third convention of 
the International Seamen's Union of America instruct 
the Executive Board and the Secretary-Treasurer to 
take immediate steps to issue a charter to the "Deep 
Sea and Purse Seine Fishermen's Union" at San 
Pedro, on adjournment of this convention. 

Resolution No. 10 

By Delegate Al V. Quittenton, Sailors' Union of 
Pacific: 

WHEREAS, The Deep Sea and Purse Seine Fisher- 
men's Union of California, with headquarters at San 
Pedro, has been in existence for the past two and a 
half years, has improved the conditions of the fisher- 
men by raising the price of their product, in some in- 
stances as high as 100 per cent, has increased the 
proportional shares for its members of the fishing ves- 
sels, has secured signed agreements with all canners 
in San Pedro and vicinity, has demonstrated its stabil- 
ity by maintaining a paid-up enrolled membership of 
1,400; and 

WHEREAS, The Deep Sea and Purse Seine Fisher- 
men's Union has on April 27, 1935, applied to Mr. 
Andrew Furuseth, for charter in the International 
Seamen's Union of America, and has since then ap- 
plied to Mr. Victor A. Olander on May 28, 1935, and 
has also made several repeated appeals to Mr. Olander 
for charter, following that date, but to no avail; and 

WHEREAS, Local organizations of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America have taken the 



following actions to indicate their willingness to have 
us in the International Seamen's Union: 

(1) Resolution introduced by Al V. Quittenton, and 
passed at Pacific Coast Conference of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America; 

(2) Resolution passed at Pacific Coast Conference 
of Maritime Federation urging our affiliation into 
International Seamen's Union of America; 

(3) Endorsements from officials of a number of 
International Seamen's Union locals on West Coast; 
therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That the National Convention of 
the International Seamen's Union of America go on 
record in favor of granting a charter to the Deep Sea 
and Purse Seine Fishermen's Union, with headquarters 
at San Pedro, and jurisdiction over the State of Cali- 
fornia, and that the Executive Board of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America be instructed to 
carry out this decision immediately upon adjournment 
of this convention. 

The Committee of the Whole submits the follow- 
ing report on Resolutions Nos. 3, 9, and 10, all of 
which deal with the same subject. 

The Committee points out that the issuance of char- 
ters to the organizations of fishermen named in the 
resolutions has been authorized by the convention and 
that, therefore, no action is needed on the three reso- 
lutions. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

Resolution No. 12 

By Delegate A. Keller. Eastern and Gulf Sailors' 
Association: 

WHEREAS, It i> now prevalent and becoming 
common among several shipowners of the Atlantic 
and Gulf to prohibit the employment of seamen over 
forty-five years of age; and 

WHEREAS, There are many members of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America that are now 
near and above the age of forty-five years; and 

WHEREAS, Those members find difficulty in find- 
ing employment on many vessels owned and operated 
by those shipowners that prohibit the employment of 
members of the crews of their vessels of and over 
forty-five years of age; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That we, assembled in this thirty- 
third convention, favor legislation to have this social 
evil eliminated. 

The Committee recommends adoption of Resolution 
No. 12. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

Resolution No. 17 

By Delegate Gerritt Van der Staay, Eastern and 
Gulf Sailors' Association: 

WHEREAS, Under the present rules of the United 
States Marine Hospital seamen are denied treatment, 
if application is made sixty days after the date of their 
last discharge; and 

WHEREAS, These rules frequently make it im- 
possible for sick and destitute seamen to receive the 
treatment for which the Marine Hospital service was 
expressly established; therefore, be it 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



153 



RESOLVED, By the International Seamen's Union 
of America, in annual convention assembled at Wash- 
ington, D. C, January 13, 1936, that we respectfully 
petition the Surgeon-General of the United States 
Marine Hospital to make such changes in the rules 
so as to remove this well-founded complaint and that 
our legislative representative be directed to carry the 
intent of this resolution into practical effect. 

The Committee recommends adoption of Resolution 
No. 17. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

Resolution No. 18 

By Delegate J. E. Ferguson, P. C. M. F. O. W. 
and W. Association: 

WHEREAS, The regulations of the Public Health 
Service have been construed in such a manner as to 
deny the benefits of the service except upon proof of 
"sixty days' continuous service" on board the vessel; 
and 

WHEREAS, The Alaska salmon fisherman works 
in an open boat during the period of the "run" and 
delivers his catch to a fish scow, instead of directly 
to the vessel; and 

WHEREAS, The method of operation in no way 
affects the nature of the fisherman's work, nor lessens 
the risk of accident or sickness incidental to his call- 
ing; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That the International Seamen's 
Union of America, in convention assembled in Wash- 
ington, D. C, January 13, 1936, at its thirty-third an- 
nual convention, goes on record that we respectfully 
request the passage by Congress of the pending bill, 
H. R. 2902, to include the fisherman in the definition 
of the term "seaman," as that term is used in the 
Public Health Service laws with the object of recog- 
nizing the fisherman's status as a seaman and insuring 
that he shall receive credit for the full period of the 
voyage on which he has been engaged; and be it 
further 

RESOLVED, That the legislative representatives 
of the International Seamen's Union of America be 
instructed to use their good offices to advance and 
support the enactment of Bill, H. R. 2902; also to 
notify the House Committee on Merchant Marine 
Radio and Fisheries of the action of this convention, 
urging immediate and favorable action by that com- 
mittee. 

The Committee reports that Resolution No. 18 is 
the same as Resolution No. 11, which has been adopted 
by the Convention, and the Committee, therefore, also 
recommends concurrence in Resolution No. 18. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

Resolution No. 19 

By Delegate E. F. Burke, Marine Cooks and Stew- 
ards' Association of Pacific Coast: 

WHEREAS, Due to the present economic situ- 
ation and the unemployment situation in general; and 

WHEREAS, The situation has a tendency to work 
hardships on seamen, especially hardships pertaining 
to sick, sore and disabled seamen, due to the fact that 
under present existing laws as set forth by the United 
States Public Health Service, seamen are not eligible 
to treatment or hospitalization after being off the ship 
for sixty days; now, therefore, be it 



RESOLVED, That this thirty-third convention of 
the International Seamen's Union of America, now 
assembled, go on record as in favor to have this 
present existing limitation of time extended whereby 
sick, sore and disabled seamen could receive such 
treatment and hospitalization up to and including a 
period of 120 days; and be it further 

RESOLVED, That if the delegates to this con- 
vention here assembled deem it necessary, that it be 
placed in the hands of a legislative committee to have 
immediate enactment passed. 

The Committee recommends adoption of Resolution 
No. 19. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

The Committee of the Whole recommends that the 
Executive Board be instructed to take such steps as 
may be necessary to remedy the condition complained 
of in relation to the Marine Hospital. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

The two following resolutions were acted upon 
jointly: 

Resolution No. 13 

By Delegate Ed. Coester, Sailors' Union of Pacific: 

WHEREAS, The proposed Copeland Bill in its 
present form tends to take from us all the gains made 
in the 1934 strike; and 

WHEREAS, The continuous service book as illus- 
trated is nothing more than a system of black-ball, 
as practiced in the various Fink halls prior to the 1934 
strike; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That we, the undersigned members 
of the International Seamen's Union of America, 
strongly protest the proposed continuous service book 
in any form; and be it further 

RESOLVED, That we go on record that there is 
only one book, a Union book, and only one hiring hall, 
our Union halls. 

Resolution No. 14 

By Delegate Al V. Quittenton, Sailors, Union of 
Pacific: 

WHEREAS, The proposed Copeland Bill in its 
present form tends to take from us all the gains made 
in the 1934 strike; and 

WHEREAS, The continuous service book as illus- 
trated is nothing more than a system of black-ball, as 
practiced in the various Fink halls prior to the 1934 
strike; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That we, the undersigned members 
of the International Seamen's Union of America, 
strongly protest the proposed continuous service book 
inany form; and be it further 

RESOLVED, That we go on record that there is 
only one book, a Union book, and only one hiring hall, 
our Union halls. 

The Committee recommends that Resolutions 13 
and 14 be tabled. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

The Committee recommends that S. 2228, relative 
to Panama Canal tolls, be referred to the Executive 
Board for such action as the Board may deem ad- 
visable. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

At 6:15 p. m. the Convention adjourned to 9:30 a. m., 
February 5. 



154 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1. 1936 



TWENTY-FIRST DAY 
Wednesday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, February 5, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 10 a. m. by 
Vice-President Hunter. 

Roll call: All present. 

Secretary Olander read a communication from New 
Orleans relative to the steamship Point Selinas, a west 
coast ship, now held up at that port by a strike of the 
crew. There was a general discussion' on the matter. 

At 11:05 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for the further consider- 
ation of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

Discussion was resumed on the motion of Delegate 

King to adopt Resolution No. 15. A substitute was 

offered by Secretary Olander, and an amendment to 

the substitute was offered by Delegate Murphy. Dele- 



gates Grange, O'Brien, Brown, Carlson, and Secretary 
Olander partook in further discussion on the subject. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 11:50 a. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
president in the chair. 

Editor Scharrenbcrg. for the Committee of the 
Whole, reported progress. 

Resolution No. 15 

Delegate Grange moved that Resolution No. 15 be 
tabled and all reference dealing with the resolution 
be stricken from the record. Motion seconded, and 
carried. 

Secretary Olander reported further in the Steamship 
Point Selinas matter. 

At 12:10 p. m. the Convention adjourned to 2 p. m. 



TWENTY-FIRST DAY 
Wednesday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2:30 p. m. 
by Vice-President Hunter. 

Roll call — Absentee: Delegate Grange, absent on 
business of the organization. 

At 2:35 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for the further consideration 
of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

The Committee of the Whole proceeded with con- 
sideration of resolutions. 

Resolution No. 16. Approved. 

Resolution No. 20. Approved. 

Resolution No. 21. Approved. 

Resolution No. 22. Approved. 

Resolution No. 24. Approved. 

Resolutions Nos. 25 and 48. Tabled. 

Resolutions Nos. 30, 31 and 32. Referred to Com- 
mittee on Constitution. 

Resolutions Nos. 33 and 34. Substitute adopted. 

Resolution No. 35. Tabled with comment. 

(See report to Convention referring to above reso- 
lutions). 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 5 p. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice-Presi- 
dent Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander read the following report of the 
Committee of the Whole on various resolution-: 

Resolution No. 16 

By Delegate Gerritt Van der Staay, Eastern and 
Gulf Sailors' Association. 

WHEREAS, The law establishing the minimum 
scale of provision for the crews of American ships has 



remained unchanged for many years although the 
general standard of living of the workers ashore has 
steadily advanced; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, By the International Seamen's Union 
of America, in annual convention assembled at Wash- 
ington, D. C, January 13, 1936, that our legislative 
representative be and is hereby instructed to cause to 
be introduced such amendments to the scale of pro- 
visions as will provide a better and greater variety of 
food for the crew- iA American ship-. 

The Committee recommends adoption. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 
Resolution No. 20 

By Delegate J. F. Conners. Marine Cooks and 
ards' Association of the Pacific Coast: 

WHEREAS, Due to the present economic strife 
and unemployment situation; and 

WHEREAS, At the present time on the Pacific 
Coast ships of American registry are being manned by 
Orientals at the scale of contract labor; and 

WHEREAS, Thi- create- a situation detrimental 
to American seamen and especially those seamen who 
are at present members of the International Seamen*- 
Union of America; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That this thirty-third convention of 
the International Seamen's Union of America here 
assembled go on record as demanding the removal oi 
all non-citizen Orientals; and be it further 

RESOLVED, That the Legislative Committee be 
instructed to seek ways, means, and measures for the 
removal of said non-citizen Orientals on all American 
-hip-: and be it further 

RESOLVED, That this Convention get behind this 
resolution unanimously to protect the interests of the 
membership of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

The Committee recommends adoption. 

The report of the committee was adojv 



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155 



Resolution No. 21 

By Delegate Adolf Kile, Eastern and Gulf Sailors' 
Association: 

WHEREAS, The Sleeping quarters of the crews 
on American ships are usually located in the bow or 
on the lower decks in inaccessible quarters; and 

WHEREAS, In case of fire or collision the safety 
of all hands aboard ship, especially the passengers, 
depends upon the prompt appearance of the entire 
crew at their respective stations; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, By the International Seamen's Union 
of America, in annual convention assembled at Wash- 
ington, D. C, February 5, 1936, that we strongly urge 
such changes in the law, rules and regulations as to 
provide for more accessible location of the crews' 
quarters in all newly built ships. 

The Committee recommends adoption. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

Resolution No. 22 

By Delegates Al V. Quittenton and Ed. Coester, 
Sailors' Union of Pacific. 

WHEREAS, The crew of the States line vessel, 
Iowa, have recently lost their lives during the wreck 
of the said steamer on the Peacock spit on the Co- 
lumbia River bar; and 

WHEREAS, The entire unlicensed personnel of 
the Iowa were all members of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America; and 

WHEREAS, There are possibilities that the vessel 
may have been improperly handled or may have been 
in an unseaworthy condition; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That this convention of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America hereby respect- 
fully requests the United States Steamboat Inspection 
Service at Portland, Oregon, and the Department of 
Commerce at Washington, D. C, to carry on a thor- 
ough investigation so as to determine the causes of 
the above-mentioned catastrophe. 

The Committee recommends adoption. 
The report of the Committee was adopted. 

Resolution No. 24 

By Delegate C. W. Deal, Ferryboatmen's Union of 
the Pacific: 

WHEREAS, The Ferryboatmen's Union of the 
Pacific has members employed on tugboats, freight 
boats, inland steamers, as well as ferryboats in all 
ports on the Pacific Coast; and 

WHEREAS, The name "Ferryboatmen's Union" 
does not properly define the jurisdiction of the Union; 
therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, By the International Seamen's Union 
of America, in this the thirty-third convention as- 
sembled, that the Executive Board of the International 
Seamen's Union of America shall be and is hereby 
authorized to confer with the Ferryboatmen's Union 
and make such changes in the name as may be mutu- 
ally satisfactory. 

The Committee recommends adoption. 

The report of the committee was adopted. 

The two following resolutions were reported on 
jointly: 

Resolution No. 25 

By Delegate Al V. Quittenton, Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific: 

WHEREAS, The appointment of international or- 
ganizers by the officers or Executive Board does not 
at all times meet with the approval of the member- 



ship in each locality or district where the International 
may deem it advisable or necessary to establish a 
branch of the International office, or place organizers 
in the field; and 

WHEREAS, The membership in these localities 
are more in a position to know those most suitable for 
organizing purposes; now, therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That the district or local union con- 
cerned shall ascertain if such organizers are necessary 
and that the membership shall have the power to 
nominate and elect these organizers from among the 
active seamen of their ranks. 

Resolution No. 48 

By Delegate Al V. Quittenton, Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific: 

WHEREAS, The appointment of international or- 
ganizers by the officers or Executive Board does not 
at all times meet with the approval of the member- 
ship in each locality or district where the International 
may deem it advisable or necessary to establish a 
branch of the International office, or place organizers 
in the field; and 

WHEREAS, The membership in these localities 
are more in a position to know those most suitable 
for organizing purposes; now, therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That the district or local union con- 
cerned shall ascertain if such organizers are necessary 
and that the membership shall have the power to 
nominate and elect these organizers from among the 
active seamen of their own ranks. 

The Committee recommends that Resolutions 25 
and 48 be tabled. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

Resolutions Nos. 30, 31, and 32, the Committee rec- 
ommends to be referred to the Committee on Consti- 
tution. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

The two following resolutions were reported on 
jointly: 

Resolution No. 33 

By Delegate Al V. Quittenton, Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific: 

WHEREAS, The organization of workers into 
unions is engendered by the desire of the workers to 
unite and struggle against low wages, long hours, poor 
working conditions; and 

WHEREAS, It is desirable at all times that the 
true sentiment of members of all unions affiliated with 
the American Federation of Labor have unrestricted 
channels of expression; and 

WHEREAS, The fact cannot be denied that in 
some international unions, especially in the Eastern 
states, freedom of expression on various democratic 
measures and trade-union questions, the membership 
of said international unions are often victims of 
gangsterism, racketeering, and graft; and 

WHEREAS, It is of vital importance that this con- 
dition be not allowed to extend or gain a foothold in 
the International Seamen's Union of America; now, 
therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That this, the thirty-third convention 
of the International Seamen's Union of America, now 
assembled, go on record as being absolutely opposed 
to gangster rule or racketeering in any of our districts 
or affiliated organizations; and be it further 

RESOLVED, That we advise our central bodies 
or local unions affiliated to use their best efforts to 
eliminate any and all such practices when and where 
proofs of such practices are brought to their attention. 



156 



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April 1, 1936 



Resolution No. 34 
By Delegate J. W. Engstrom, P. C. M. F. O. W. 
and W. Association: 

WHEREAS, The organization of workers into 
unions is engendered by the desire of the workers to 
unite and struggle against low wages, long hours, poor 
working condition; and 

WHEREAS, It is desirable at all times that the 
true sentiment of members of all unions affiliated with 
the American Federation of Labor have unrestricted 
channels of expression; and 

WHEREAS, The fact cannot be denied that in 
some international unions, especially in the Eastern 
states, freedom of expression on various democratic 
measures and trade-union questions, the membership 
of said international unions are often victims of 
gangsterism, racketeering, and graft; and 

WHEREAS, It is of vital importance that this con- 
dition be not allowed to extend or gain a foothold in 
the International Seamen's Union of America; now, 
therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That this, the thirty-third convention 
of the International Seamen's Union of America, now 
assembled, go on record as being absolutely opposed 
to gangster rule or racketeering in any of our districts 
of affiliated organizations; and be it further 

RESOLVED, That we advise our central bodies 
or local unions affiliated to use their best efforts to 
eliminate any and all such practices when and where 
proofs of such practices are brought to their attention. 

The Committee of the Whole recommends adoption 
of the following as a substitute for the two foregoing 
resolutions: 

Substitute for Resolutions Nos. 33 and 34 

WHEREAS, The organization of workers into 
unions is engendered by the desire of the workers to 
unite and struggle against low w r ages, long hours, poor 
working conditions; and 

WHEREAS, It is desirable at all times that the 
true sentiment of members of all unions affiliated with 
the American Federation of Labor have unrestricted 
channels of expression; and 

WHEREAS, The suppression of freedom of ex- 
pression and democratic measures tends to lead to 
gangsterism, racketeering, and graft; and 

WHEREAS, It is of vital importance that this con- 
dition be not allowed to extend or gain a foothold in 
the International Seamen's Union of America; now, 
therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That this, the thirty-third convention 
of the International Seamen's Union of America, now 
assembled, dedicates itself to the prevention of 
gangsterism, racketeering, and graft within our ranks, 
and any officer or member found indulging in any such 
practices shall upon proper trial be expelled and upon 
any district union being found to permit such prac- 
tices such district unions shall be dealt with by the 
Executive Board in such manner as may be necessary 
to effect the purpose of this resolution. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

The attention of the Committee on Constitution was 
directed to the substitute as adopted by the Con- 
vention. 

Resolution No. 35 

By Delegate Al V. Quittenton, Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific: 

RESOLVED, That all organizations affiliated with 
the International Seamen's Union of America refuse 



to join as members any persons who did work as a 
strikebreaker, and that they take action to remove 
from their organizations any persons who are known 
to have wilfully scabbed during any strike. 

The Committee recommends that Resolution No. 35 
be tabled. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Secretary Olander read a communication addressed 
to the President from the San Pedro Branch of the 
P. C. M. F. O. W. and W. Association relative to the 
intercoastal trade and the revocation of the charter 
of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific. 

The delegates from the Pacific Coast organizations 
submitted the following telegram in regard to the 
matter of the steamship Point Sclinas at Xew Orleans: 

"February 5, 1936. 
H. Woodhouse and Finn Schepstead 
S. S. Point Selinas, Ships' Delegates 
Foot of Galvez Street, New Orleans, La. 

Pacific Delegation to Convention advise that crew 
of Point Selinas sail the vessel under the existing 
agreements and without further delay stop We are of 
opinion the fears of crew regarding stranding on 
Pacific Coast are unfounded stop However we are 
notifying all Unions and Branches on the Pacific that 
you are sailing on our advice and recommendation and 
that the crew is to be allowed to carry out articles 
and reship on vessel it" tin \ d< 

PACIFIC DELEGATION 
King, Engstrom, Farrell, Oldenberi;. Murphy. 
Burke, O'Connor and Connors." 

COMMUNICATIONS FROM SHIPOWNERS 
Secretary Olander reminded the Convention of what 
he had said at previous sessions regarding his com- 
munications to the association of shipowners in his 
efforts to make certain that there was no truth in the 
claims broadcast by irresponsible persons regarding a 
possible lockout and stated that he now had definite 
assurance that the allegations were false, as evidenced 
by the following: 

1. A letter from John E. Craig, Chairman, Seagoing 
Personnel Committee Shipowners' Group, Atlantic and 
Gulf, New York, N. Y.. February 1, stating that if 
existing agreement is not ratified negotiations can and 
should be reopened. 

2. Telegram from Pacific American Shipowners' As- 
sociation, stating that the Association, San Francisco, 
Cal., February 3, had never desired to terminate the 
existing agreement with the International Seamen's 
Union of America. 

3. Telegram from Shipowners' Association of the 
Pacific Coast, San Francisco, Cal., February 4, stating 
the Association has had no desire to terminate the 
agreement with the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

Secretary Olander stated that the letter and tele- 
grams referred to were official responses to his official 
inquiries and, therefore, constitute definite proof that 
the allegations of possible lockout against the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union oi America are utterly false 
and were deliberately calculated to mislead and de- 
ceive the seamen. 

At 5:15 p. m. the Convention 1 adjourned t i 9:30 a. m., 
February 6. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



157 



TWENTY-SECOND DAY 
Thursday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, February 6, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:45 a. m. by 
Vice-President Hunter. 

Roll call: All present. 

Secretary Olander read a telegram dated San Fran- 
cisco, February 5, signed Sailors' Union of the Pacific, 
Lundeberg, Secretary-Treasurer, requesting that char- 
ter be restored. 

The Pacific Coast delegates requested unanimous 
consent for the introduction of a resolution proposing 
certain conditions upon which the charter of the 
Sailors' Union might be restored. 

Unanimous consent was refused, objections being 
raised. 

Delegate Grange called attention to a newspaper 
article relative to criticism by Howard S. Cullman, 
Vice-Chairman of the National Committee for Safety 
at Sea, regarding the International Seamen's Union's 
stand against ratification of the treaty and on other 
matters. 



A motion was passed requesting the Secretary, 
under authority of the Convention, to make an official 
answer on behalf of the International Seamen's Union. 

At 10:55 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for the further consider- 
ation of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President Hunter in the chair. 

Resolutions 37, 38, 39, and 41 were read and dis- 
cussed. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 11:55 a. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander, for the Committee of the Whole. 
reported progress. 

The secretary read a communication advising of the 
appointment of C. W. Deal as chairman of Fourth 
Division, National Railroad Adjustment Board. 

At 12 noon the Convention adjourned to 2 p. m. 



TWENTY-SECOND DAY 
Thursday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2 p. m., Vice- 
President O'Brien in the chair. 

Roll call: All present. 

At 2:05 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for the further consideration 
of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 
The Committee of the Whole proceeded with dis- 
cussion of Resolutions 37, 38, 39, and 41. 
Resolution No. 37. Tabled. 

Resolutions Nos. 38, 39 and 41. Substitute adopted. 
Resolution No. 44. Substitute adopted. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 5:15 p. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander read the following report of the 
Committee of the Whole on various resolutions: 

Resolution No. 37 
By Delegates J. W. Engstrom and A. M. Murphy, 
P. C. M. F. O. W. and W. Association: 

WHEREAS, Seamen the world over, as a class, are 
unique, when compared with other economic groups 
as to their mode of life and philosophy of life; and 

WHEREAS, Seamen as a legal entity are just 
emerging from the dark ages of fugitive laws and the 
social consciousness of labor servitude; and 

WHEREAS, Legal decisions have been handed 
down to the effect that all persons, excepting the 



rating of Master, employed on ships are to be known 
as seamen; and 

WHEREAS, Because of these aforementioned fac- 
tors, the condition has become apparent to all seamen 
that the methods employed in past struggles have 
proven unsatisfactory and unjust to that large mass of 
workers who cannot rightly be classified as skilled 
labor; and 

WHEREAS, The principle of joining economic 
forces against a common foe is ever and ever per- 
vading the minds of seamen; and 

WHEREAS, In looking for precedent, seamen have 
recognized the beneficial effects of such combinations 
as the Railway Labor Executives' Association and the 
United Textile Workers in their struggle for economic 
security; and 

WHEREAS, These premises find corroboration in 
the statements made by various officials of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor to the effect that "times and 
conditions change" as they affect old habits and prac- 
tices; and 

WHEREAS, Democracy is to always be regarded 
as a virtue where it has brought about a greater unity 
of purpose and a greater economic security for the 
masses of labor, both skilled and unskilled; now, there- 
fore, be it 

RESOLVED, That this thirty-third convention of 
the International Seamen's Union of America, here as- 
sembled, go on record as recognizing the just principle 
of that form of combination of economic forces known 
as industrial unionism. 

The Committee of the Whole recommends that 
Resolution No. 37 be tabled. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 



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April 1, 1936 



The Committee of the Whole submitted a joint 
report on the three following resolutions: 

Resolution No. 38 

By Delegate Earl King. P. C. M. F. O. W. and 
W. Association: 

WHEREAS, The 1935 convention of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor, which was held recently at 
Atlantic City, New Jersey, resolved that American 
organized labor must put up a vigorous fight to pre- 
vent Fascism from entering this country; and 

WHEREAS, The world economic crisis and the 
shattering of capitalist stabilization has given rise to 
the extreme instability of all international relations. 
The intensified struggle on the world market which 
has shrunk extremely as the result of the economic 
crisis has passed into a fierce economic war; and 

WHEREAS, This deplorable crisis is sharpening 
daily with increased burdens upon the American work- 
ing class despite the Government's scheme to revitalize 
industry: to absorb the millions of destitute un- 
employed people; and 

WHEREAS, German and Italian Fascism has now 
taken a definite stand: acting as the spearhead for 
international Fascism, which means sure death to 
trade unionism, and the suppression of our democratic 
rights; and 

WHEREAS, The American Federation of Labor is 
not strong enough to combat Fascism as it approaches 
the United States of America, as its membership com- 
prises approximately only four million workers, while 
fraudulent company unions have a membership of over 
three million, thus lea\ing over thirty million workers 
unorganized; and 

WHEREAS, The present "craft policies" of the 
American Federation of Labor have a tendency to 
keep us divided instead of uniting us to create a power- 
ful working-class bulwark against Fascism, the agent 
of imperialistic war; and 

WHEREAS, The industrial form of unionism as 
proposed by John J. Lewis, President of the United 
Mine Workers' Union, will organize whole industries 
and bring in the great mass of unorganized, thereby 
strengthening the American Labor movement by 
erecting a powerful united defense against Fascism, 
and its program of war; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, That the International Seamen's 
Union of America endorse Mr. Lewis' plan to organize 
the American working class upon industrial union 
principles; and be it further 

RESOLVED, That all trades unions be urged to 
work toward this goal for the creation of a united 
peoples movement in the struggle for peace and 
against Fascism, the instigator of war. 

Resolution No. 39 
By Delegates Al V. Quittenton and Ed Coester, 
Sailors' Union of the Pacific: 

WHEREAS, The 1935 convention of the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor, which was held recently at 
Atlantic City, New Jersey, resolved that American 
organized labor must put up a vigorous fight to pre- 
vent Fascism from entering this country; and 

WHEREAS, The world economic crisis and the 
shattering of capitalist stabilization has given rise to 
the extreme instability of all international relations. 
The intensified struggle on the world market which 
has shrunk extremely as the result of the economic 
crisis has passed into a fierce economic war; and 

WHEREAS, This deplorable crisis is sharpening 
daily with increased burdens upon the American work- 
ing class despite the Government's scheme to revitalize 



industry: to absorb the millions of destitute un- 
employed people; and 

WHEREAS, German and Italian Fascism has now 
taken a definite stand: acting as the spearhead for 
international Fascism, which means sure death to 
trade unionism, and the suppression of our demo- 
cratic rights; and 

WHEREAS, The American Federation of Labor 
is not strong enough to combat Fascism as it ap- 
proaches the United States of America, as its mem- 
bership comprises approximately only four million 
workers, while fraudulent company unions have a 
membership of over three million, this leaving over 
thirty million workers unorganized; and 

WHEREAS, The present "craft policies" of the 
American Federation of Labor have a tendency to 
keep us divided instead of uniting us to create a power- 
ful working-class bulwark against Fascism, the agent 
of imperialistic war; and 

WHEREAS, The industrial form of unionism as 
proposed by John L. Lewis, President of the United 
Mine Workers' Union, will organize whole industries 
and bring in the great mass of unorganized, thereby 
strengthening the American Labor movement by 
erecting a powerful united defense against fascism, and 
its program of war; therefore be it 

RESOLVED, That the International Seamen's 
Union of America endorse Mr. Lewis' plan to organize 
the American working class upon industrial union 
principles; and be it further 

RESOLVED, That all trades unions be urged to 
work toward this goal for the creation of a united 
peoples movement in the struggle for peace and against 
Fascism, the instigator of war. 

Resolution No. 41 
By Delegate Al V. Quittenton, Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific: 

WHEREAS, There has been an intensive mounting 
tide of vigilante terror and insidious propaganda 
against organized workers that tends to intimidate the 
leadership of labor in their natural functions of better- 
ing the conditions of the world; and 

WHEREAS, Such intimidation and propaganda en- 
dangers the entire trade-union movement; and 

WHEREAS, More specifically, such acts of terror 
are exemplified in events at Santa Rosa, the Jackson 
Mine terror of Amador County, the gangster water- 
front attacks on militant union officials in San Fran- 
cisco and elsewhere, the kidnaping in Imperial County. 
and numerous similar acts throughout various other 
states; and 

WHEREAS, The mounting tide of vigilantism and 
insidious propaganda is clearly exemplified in the for- 
mation of vigilante committees in Washington, Ore- 
gon and California, such as the notorious Committee 
of One Thousand of San Francisco, which has joined 
with the Junior Chamber of Commerce and the Water- 
front Employers' Association and other representa- 
tives of big business in an attempt to smash the trade 
union movement through a concentrated attack first 
upon the waterfront unions, and through them all 
union labor; and 

WHEREAS, The objective of the vigilante move- 
ment is clearly seen in their paid published statements 
in which they have set themselves up as a body to en- 
force settlement of industrial and other disputes at all 
cost, which settlement from these sources can only 
mean settlement in favor of the employers at the 
expense of the workers; and 

WHEREAS, The insidious, hypocritical nature of 
these organizations and the methods by which they 
propose to settle disputes was brought out clearly at 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



159 



a secret conference recently held in San Francisco in 
which ways and means to refuse to peacefully settle 
waterfront disputes is shown by the following state- 
ment made by Roger Lapham, head of the American- 
Hawaiian Steamship Company: 

"We think we have kept our skirts clean; but we 
fear we will be maneuvered into the position where 
other business men will demand that we arbitrate, and 
the forces of union labor are increasing in power — 
this is particularly true along the Pacific waterfront — 
public support is essential if this tendency is to be 
checked." 

Contrary to their released publicity obviously these 
organizations are not in symathy with the objectives 
of the organization of trade unions, nor do they favor 
peaceful arbitration as a means of settling industrial 
disputes; and 

WHEREAS, It is essential to the very life and ex- 
istence of the trade-union movement to be solidly 
united in combating such un-American methods of 
dealing with workers or their organizations insofar as 
"an injury to one is an injury to all" and this vigilante 
tendency, irrespective of whom it is directed against 
at present, will, if unchecked, engulf all; now, there- 
fore be it 

RESOLVED, That the Thirty-third Convention 
of the International Seamen's Union of America 
now assembled go on record and call upon all trade 
unions and central bodies to unite and mobilize their 
entire strength in as wide a manner as possible, using 
every factor at its command, such as all news organs 
and forums, in combating this vicious, un-American, 
anti-labor, fascist, vigilante action and propaganda. 

Substitute for Resolutions Nos. 38, 39 and 41 

The Committee of the Whole recommends the adop- 
tion of the following substitute for Resolutions Nos. 
38, 39 and 41: 

WHEREAS, There has been a mounting tide of 
Communist, Fascist and Vigilante propaganda, aimed 
in whole or in part at the Government of the United 
States, at the American Federation of Labor, at its 
various affiliated unions and especially at the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America; and 

WHEREAS, This vicious propaganda, deliberate 
misrepresentation and incitement to industrial strife is 
carried on by numerous anonymous slander sheets and 
by notorious alien character assassins who, although 
residing for many years in the United States, retain 
their foreign nationality; therefore be it 

RESOLVED, By the International Seamen's Union 
of America in Thirty-third Convention assembled at 
Washington, D. C, that we most vigorously repudiate 
and denounce all Communist, Fascist and Vigilante 
propagandists and particularly those persons who have 
recently attempted to discredit the organized seamen 
of America by issuing bombastic statements and pos- 
ing as spokesmen for seamen without any authority 
whatever. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

Resolution No. 44 

By Delegate Al V. Quittenton, Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific: 

WHEREAS, Thomas J. Mooney, a member of the 
International Molders' Union of North America for 
thirty-four years, has been imprisoned by the State of 
California for twenty of his best years on a life im- 
prisonment sentence on the foulest frame-up conspiracy 
ever recorded in the whole history of American juris- 
prudence; and 

WHEREAS, This monstrous frame-up conspiracy 
against Thomas J. Mooney was conceived, inspired, 



directed, executed, and paid for by the hireling hench- 
men agents procateur of the California Non-Union 
Open Shop Employers, particularly the Public Utili- 
ties Corporations of San Francisco, who had at that 
time direct control of the District Attorney's office 
and the Police Department; and 

WHEREAS, The real motive behind this out- 
rageous conspiracy is class fear and class hatred of 
Thomas J. Mooney because of his aggressive, militant 
activity in the California trade-union movement and 
his undying loyalty and devotion to the entire work- 
ing class; and 

WHEREAS, The original trial judge, Franklin A. 
Griffin, Captain of Detectives Duncan Matheson, in 
charge of the gathering of all the evidence, all of the 
living members of the jury that found him guilty, and 
the present District Attorney, have demanded his 
pardon and; 

WHEREAS, The Commissions appointed by Presi- 
dents Wilson and Hoover investigated this case and 
branded the frame-up as "shocking to one's sense of 
justice"; and 

WHEREAS, Associate Justice Honorable William 
H. Langdon of the California State Supreme Court 
on December 1, 1930, in a minority opinion in the 
matter of Warren K. Billings' application for a recom- 
mendation for pardon, said: "I do know that there has 
been a failure of proof to such an extent that there 
is now not even a semblance of a case against him": 
and 

WHEREAS, Hundreds of other public officials, 
countless thousands of worthy men and women, or- 
ganizations, and many scores of great daily news- 
papers and magazines throughout the world have 
branded this frame-up as a blot upon civilization, the 
shame of America, and a disgraceful smear upon the 
escutcheons of the State of California and an inter- 
national scandal; and 

WHEREAS, Thomas J. Mooney was, by a directed 
verdict, upon motion of the District Attorney, and 
over his protest, acquitted on May 24, 1933, on an in- 
dictment identical to the one on which he was con- 
victed twenty years ago; and with the verdict of not 
guilty still ringing in his ears, he was placed in irons 
and speeded back to San Quentin for the rest of his 
natural life; and 

WHEREAS, The United States Supreme Court 
on November 11, 1934, issued an order for the State 
of California to show cause why an original writ of 
habeas corpus should not issue to Tom Mooney, in 
which a decision on that action resulted in the present 
hearing before the Referee Commissioner appointed 
by the California State Supreme Court to take the 
testimony in the matter of the writ of habeas corpus 
for Tom Mooney; and 

WHEREAS, The California State Supreme Court's 
prejudice is obvious by their rulings not to allow 
Mooney a free copy of the transcript of the testimony 
of almost 20,000 pages, for which Mooney is compelled 
to pay, and the further hostile ruling refusing trans- 
portation costs and witnesses' expenses for Mooney 's 
witnesses; and 

WHEREAS, Thomas J. Mooney has established 
beyond any peradventure of a doubt the allegations 
in his writ, to wit: the State of California denied him 
his constitutional rights without due process of law by 
convicting him on perjured testimony, that they knew 
was perjured testimony, that they concealed valuable 
evidence material to justice in his case; therefore be it 

RESOLVED, That we demand the absolute un- 
conditional release of Thomas J. Mooney through a 
discharge from prison on his present writ of habeas 
corpus and bring to an end this farcical procedure 



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April 1, 1936 



that has been going on for the past five months before 
the Referee Commissioner sitting for the California 
State Supreme Court, with no more power than an 
ordinary notary public to hear a matter that involves 
the most fundamental of all rights, that of a fair trial 
in which the accusation is brought that his consti- 
tutional rights have been denied him, and he has been 
robbed of his liberty for twenty years; and be it 
further 

RESOLVED, By the delegates assembled in the 
thirty-third convention of the International Seamen's 
Union of America that we reiterate and declare once 
again our full and complete belief in the absolute inno- 
cence of our fellow trade-unionist, Thomas J. Mooney, 
and denounce with righteous wrathful indignation and 
scornful contempt the original framers of this foul 
conspiracy and every other public official who sub- 
sequent thereto by his decision, aiding, abetting, deeds 
or words of encouragement toward the continuation 
of this monstrous frame-up; and be it further 

RESOLVED, By this thirty-third convention that 
the sum of $500 be donated to the Tom Mooney 
Molders' Defense Committee to continue the fight for 
vindication and freedom of Thomas J. Mooney; and 
be it further 

RESOLVED, That the president of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America appoint a com- 
mittee of three (3) to call upon the President of the 
United States, the Governor of California, and the 
president of the American Federation of Labor and 
place this scandalous frame-up before them and de- 
mand that they put an end to this rotten situation and 
bring Mooney complete freedom and vindication; and 
be it further 

RESOLVED, That the President of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America send an official 
communication together with a copy of this resolution 
to each local union and district organization requesting 
the appointing of a standing committee for the dura- 
tion of Tom Mooney's imprisonment, and to be known 
as "The Committee for the Defense of Tom Mooney," 
the duties of which will be to carry the fight for jus- 
tice for Tom Mooney to, and enlist the active support 
of every section of the Labor Movement, the press, 
pulpit, and all public-spirited citizens, to arrange mass 
protest meetings and demonstrations and circulate 
literature for the freedom of Thomas J. Mooney; and 
be it further 

RESOLVED, That the International Seamen's 
Union of America delegates to all conventions of the 



American Federation of Labor present this resolution 
for adoption; and be it still further 

RESOLVED, That a copy of this resolution be 
sent to the President of the United States, the Gov- 
ernor of California, presidents of the American Feder- 
ation of Labor, the press, to all labor, liberal and 
radical newspapers, magazines and journals, to all 
national and international unions, department coun- 
cils, State Federation of Labor, Central Labor coun- 
cils, and to our fellow trade-unionist, Thomas J. 
Mooney. 

Substitute for Resolution No. 44 

The Committee recommends the adoption of the 
following substitute for Resolution No. 44: 

RESOLVED, Recent events indicate that the per- 
jured testimony rendered during their trials Thomas 
J. Mooney and Warren K. Billings will finally be judi- 
cially exposed and bring about their long-delayed 
vindication and release from prison; further 

RESOLVED, By the International Seamen's Union 
of America, in convention assembled, that we reaffirm 
our declaration in the innocence of these two brothers 
and extend to them our best wishes for the successful 
termination of the proceedings now in progress in 
California courts; further, be it 

RESOLVED, That the International Seamen's 
Union of America donate the sum of $250 to the cause 
of Thomas J. Mooney and Warren K. Billings. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

The Committee of the Whole have under consider- 
ation a letter from the Assistant Secretary of Labor, 
Hon. Edw. F. McGrady, relating to an inquiry made 
by the McCormick Steamship Company of San Fran- 
cisco, and makes the following recommendation: 

"That the Secretary be instructed to inform Mr. 
McGrady and Mr. Wheeler that, as far as the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union is concerned, the McCormick 
Steamship Company or any other company can oper- 
ate to British Columbia ports and the ships will be 
manned by members of the International Seamen's 
Union of America."" 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

At 5:20 p. m. the Convention adjourned to 9:30 a. m. f 
February 7. 



TWENTY-THIRD DAY 
Friday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, February 7, 1936. 
The Convention was called to order at 9:30 a. m.. 
Vice-President Hunter presiding. 
Roll Call — Absentee: Furuseth. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Secretary Olander read the following communi- 
cation. 

Washington, D. C, February 6, 1936. 
Dear Victor Olander: 

It makes Mrs. LaFollette and me more than happy 
to have a message from the International Seamen's 
Union on the new boy, and for all of us I want to 



express appreciation and to say that you and the 
others in your group have always our very best wishes. 
Sincerely vours, 

Robert M. LaFollette. 

A telegram from Seattle Branch No. 79, National 
Association of Letter Carriers, urging withholding of 
action on revocation of charter of Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific, was also read. 

Delegate Van der Staay offered a motion that no 
one but the accredited delegates properly seated or 
members of the Executive Board will be allowed to 
remain in the sessions of the Committee of the Whole 
and the Convention. Seconded, and carried. 



April 1, 1936 



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161 



At 10:10 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for the further consideration 
of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 
Vice-President Pryor in the chair. 
Resolution No. 45. Approved. 
Resolution No. 46. Approved. 
Resolution No. 40. Approved as amended. 
Resolution No. 42. Approved as amended. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 12:05 p. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander read the following report of the 
Committee of the Whole on various resolutions: 

Resolution No. 45 
By Delegates Al V. Quittenton, Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific, and J. W. Engstrom and Jack Connors, 
P. C. M. F. O. W. and W. Association: 

RESOLVED, That the Thirty-third Convention of 
the International Seamen's Union of America go on 
record in full support for the immediate abolition of 
fish traps and other fixed fishing appliances in the 
waters of the Territory of Alaska as embodied in the 
bills in regard to fisheries legislation now before the 
Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House 
of Representatives, beginning with public hearings on 
January 15, 1936. 

The Committee recommends adoption of Resolution 
No. 45. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

Resolution No. 46 

By Delegate V. A. Olander, by request of United 
Boatmen's Union of New York: 

WHEREAS, The United Boatmen's Union of the 
Port of New York and vicinity was organized in 
August, 1933, and was granted a charter by the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America on June 6, 1934; 
and 

WHEREAS, During its lifetime the United Boat- 
men's Union succeeded in raising the wages and im- 
proving the working conditions of the men employed 
on coal boats and deck scows, to wit: 

Coalboatmen's wages were raised from $1 a day 
to a standard wage of $80 per month, plus improved 
working conditions. Deckscowsmen's wages were 
raised — through a strike in June, 1934, with the as- 
sistance of the Associated Marine Workers, also an 
affiliate of the International Seamen's Union of 
America — from $30 a month to $60 a month, plus $5 
a load for trimming cargo, 
and 

WHEREAS, There was in existence from 1930 to 
August, 1933, Local 933-1 of the International Long- 
shoremen's Association, which made no effort to im- 
prove the wages or conditions of the men engaged in 
these industries, but after the United Boatmen's Union 
had won these substantial gains, sought to destroy the 
United Boatmen's Union by divers ways and means 
well known to be contrary to approved American 
Federation of Labor organization methods; and 

WHEREAS, The United Boatmen's Union entered 
into an agreement with the Coal Carrying Division 
of the Harbor Carriers of the port of New York, and 
Independent Coalboat Operators, effective as of Feb- 
ruary 15, 1935, to and including March 31, 1936, to 
cover wages and working conditions on coalboats, 



which said agreement ended the employers' practice 
of having one man in charge of as many as fifteen 
boats, and assured the men a steady wage of $80 a 
month, in contrast to Local 933-1, International Long- 
shoremen's Association, which even now permits cer- 
tain companies to have one man in charge of as many 
as ten or more boats; and 

WHEREAS, This pernicious practice of Local 
933-1, International Longshoremen's Association is 
detrimental to the welfare of the men engaged in the 
coalboat industry; and 

WHEREAS, In the deckscow industry the United 
Boatmen's Union is the first and only American Fed- 
eration of Labor organization to organize and win 
wages and conditions for the men in this industry; and 

WHEREAS, Local 933, International Longshore- 
men's Association, in November, 1935, granted a char- 
ter to Local 933-4, International Longshoremen's As- 
sociation, which said Local 933-4 is at present seeking 
to disorganize the United Boatmen's Union at a time 
when solidarity is most needed; be it 

RESOLVED, That we, the members of the United 
Boatmen's Union, protest the unethical methods of 
Local 933, International Longshoremen's Association, 
especially in the granting of a charter to Local 933-4, 
International Longshoremen's Association, in an in- 
dustry that is already 85 per cent organized in the 
United Boatmen's Union and consequently in the 
American Federation of Labor; be it further 

RESOLVED, That the International Seamen's 
Union of America take effective action to safeguard 
the interests of the United Boatmen's Union, and to 
establish once and forever its jurisdiction in the coal- 
boat and deckscow industries on New York Harbor. 

The Committee recommends that Resolution No. 46 
be adopted and referred to the Executive Board. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

Resolution No. 40 

By Delegate J. E. Ferguson, P. C. M. F. O. W. 
and W. Association: 

WHEREAS, In the 1935 tanker strike the seamen 
came off the tankers in support of their just demands 
for better working conditions and fairer compensation 
for their work and union recognition, namely, the right 
for preference of employment for members of the 
International Seamen's Union of America; and 

WHEREAS, These same tankers are being manned 
mostly by inexperienced seamen who are picked up 
from employment agencies; and 

WHEREAS, The different oil companies have vio- 
lated Article 5, Section B, of the National Labor Re- 
lations Act, namely, supporting and creating a com- 
pany union; and 

WHEREAS, The same men have been discrimi- 
nated against by the companies by refusing these bona 
fide seamen employment, thereby putting them on 
relief and making them wards of the State; therefore, 
be it 

RESOLVED, That this Convention of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America go on record as 
refusing any member of the International Seamen's 
Union of America the right to use any Standard Oil 
products and all commercial ships to stay away from 
any Standard Oil docks until such time as they will 
agree to meet with the negotiators of the International 
Seamen's Union of America. 

The Committee of the Whole recommends that 
Resolution No. 40 be referred to the Executive Board 
with instructions to take up the Pacific tanker situ- 
ation with the National Labor Relations Board under 



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April 1. 1936 



the National Labor Relations Act for the purpose of 
bringing about recognition of the International Sea- 
men's Union and its Pacific divisions by the tanker 
companies and the establishment of union conditions 
on the tankers. 

The Committee further recommends that the Ex- 
ecutive Board be instructed to follow the same pro- 
cedure with regard to certain steamship companies on 
the Atlantic and Gulf now operating on a non-union 
basis. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

Resolution No. 42 
By Delegates Ray M. Farrell and Gus A. Olden- 
berg, P. C. M. F. O. W. and W. Association: 

WHEREAS. Eight members of the maritime unions 
of the Pacific Coast are at the present time incarcer- 
ated in the penitentiaries of San Quentin and Folsom; 
and 

WHEREAS, The majority of these brothers are 
members of the International Seamen's Union; and 

WHEREAS, These brothers are incarcerated as 
part of a vicious attempt to undermine the morale of 
the men and thereby break the recent tanker strike; 
and 

WHEREAS, The prosecution was financed and 
conducted through the resources of the Standard Oil 
Company of California; therefore be it 

RESOLVED, That this, the thirty-third convention 
of the International Seamen's Union of America pro- 
test the infamous tact'.cs of the Standard Oil Company 
of California; and be it further 

RESOLVED, That this Convention endorse- the 
boycott of all products of the Standard Oil Company 
of California and refuses all members of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union the right to use any of the 
products of the said Standard Oil Company of Cali- 
fornia; and be it further 

RESOLVED, That the International Seamen's 
Union of America, in convention assembled, hereby 
goes on record as supporting the cause of the said 
Modesto defendants with all the moral, physical and 
financial means at our command; and be it lastly 

RESOLVED, That copies of this resolution be sent 
to all branches and district unions affiliated with the 
American Federation of Labor. 

The Committee recommends that Resolution No. 42 
be amended by striking out the last three paragraphs 
thereof and adding in lieu thereof the following, and 
that the resolution as then amended be adopted: 



RESOLVED, That the International Seamen's 
Union of America, in convention assembled, hereby 
goes on record as supporting the cause of the said 
Modesto defendants with all the moral strength at our 
command; and further 

RESOLVED, That the incoming Executive Board 
be and is hereby instructed to consider ways and 
means whereby the International Seamen's Union of 
America can be helpful in bringing about the release 
of the said defendants. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 
Resolution No. 43 

By Delegate J. E. Ferguson, P. C. M. F. O. W. 
and W. Association: 

WHEREAS, Eight members of the maritime unions 
of the Pacific Coast are at the present time incarcer- 
ated in the penitentiaries of San Quentin and Folsom; 
and 

WHEREAS, The majority of these brothers are 
members of the International Seamen's Union, and 

WHEREAS, These brothers are incarcerated as 
part of a vicious attempt to undermine the morale of 
the men and thereby break the recent tanker strike: 
and 

WHEREAS, The prosecution was financed and 
conducted through the resources of the Standard ( )il 
Company of California; therefore be it 

RESOLVED, That this, the thirty-third convention 
of the International Seamen's Union of America pro- 
test the infamous tactics of the Standard Oil Company 
of California; and be it further 

RESOLVED, That this Convention endorse the 
boycott of all products of the Standard Oil Company 
of California and refuse all members of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America the right to use 
any of the products of the said Standard Oil Company 
of California; and be it further 

RESOLVED, That the International Seamen's 
Union of America, in convention assembled, hereby 
go on record as supporting the cause of the said 
Modesto defendant- with all the moral, physical and 
financial means at our command; and be it lastly 

RFSOLVED, That copies of this resolution ' 
to all branches and district unions affiliated with the 
American Federation of Labor. 

The Committee recommends that Resolution No. 43 
be tabled for the reason that the subject-matter ha< 
been acted upon by the adoption of the amended Reso- 
lution No. 42. 

The report of the Committee was adopted 

At 12:10 p. ni. the Convention adjourned to 2 p. m- 



TWENTY-THIRD DAY 
Friday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2 p. m., Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 
Roll call: All present. 

U. S. BUREAU OF EDUCATION 

Editor Scharrenberg introduced to the Convention 
Mr. Frank Cushman, Chief of Trade and Industrial 
Service of the United States Bureau of Education. 

Mr. Cushman gave a most enlightening talk on the 
work of vocational education since the inception of 
the Department of Education in 1917, and outlined 



the work that has been done in various branches ol 
trade, especially the work of vocational education in 
the fire-fighting forces of the country. He expressed 
himself as highly in favor of working with the Sea- 
men's Union along the line that had been followed 
in other trades and crafts, and expressed the opinion 
that the work of the department could well fit in with 
the action that the Convention had taken dealing with 
vocational education for seamen. 

At 3:15 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into t lie 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



163 



Committee of the Whole for the further consideration 
of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

A communication from the Seafarers' Industrial 
Union of British Columbia, applying for a charter in 
the International Union, was read and discussed. 

Delegate O'Brien moved that the matter be referred 
to the Executive Board. Seconded, and carried. 
REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 4:25 p. m. the Convention reconvened and Secre- 
tary Olander submitted the following report of the 
Committee of the Whole. 



The Committee of the Whole has had under con- 
sideration an application for a charter from the Sea- 
farers' IndustPial Union of British Columbia and 
recommends that the matter be referred to the Ex- 
ecutive Board. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

Delegate Engstrom requested to be excused from 
attendance Saturday to visit his home in Connecticut. 
The request was granted. 

At 4:55 p. m. the rules, on motion, were suspended 
and the Convention adjourned to 9:30 a. m., Febru- 
ary 8, 1936. 



TWENTY-FOURTH DAY 
Saturday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, February 8, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:45 a. m. by 
Vice-President Hunter. 

Roll call: All present. 

At 9:50 the Convention resolved itself into the Com- 
mittee of the Whole for the further consideration of 
pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President Pryor in the chair. 

Vice-President Hunter stated the Committee on 
Constitution had a written report to submit: 

Upon motion by Delegate Brown, seconded by Dele- 
gate Murphy, the report of the Committee on Consti- 
tution was postponed until mimeograph copies could 



be prepared and furnished all delegates, in order that 
they might more intelligently follow the report of the 
Committee. 

Resolution No. 51 was then read and discussed. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 12 noon the Convention reconvened, Vice-Presi- 
dent Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander, for the Committee of the Whole, 
reported progress. 

The Secretary then read excerpts from certain docu- 
ments and reports which he had from the Pacific Coast 
relating to recent developments there. 

At 12:30 p. m. the Convention adjourned until Mon- 
day, 9:30 a. m., February 10, 1936. 



TWENTY-FIFTH DAY 
Monday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, February 10, 1936. 
The Convention was called to order at 9:35 a. m., 
Vice-President Hunter presiding. 
Roll call: All present. 

COMMUNICATIONS 

A letter under date of February 5, 1936, from Mr. 
William Green, President of the American Federation 
of Labor, addressed to Secretary Olander, and copies 
of letters sent by President Green to the San Fran- 
cisco Labor Council and State Federations of Labor 
and City Central Bodies on the subject of the revo- 
cation of the charter of the Sailors' Union of the Pa- 
cific, were read by Secretary Olander. 

At 9:45 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for the further consideration 
of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President Carlson in the chair. 

Mimeographed copies of the report of the Com- 
mittee on Constitution, referring to each Article of 



the Constitution of the International Seamen's Union 
of America, were distributed to the delegates, with 
printed copies of the Constitution in its present form. 
The various articles in the Report of the Committee, 
unless otherwise stated in the report, present proposed 
changes from the language of the present (1930) Con- 
stitution. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON 
CONSTITUTION 

Vice-President Hunter reported for the Committee 
on Constitution. The various sections of that Com- 
mittee's report were acted upon by the Committee of 
the Whole, as follows: 

Preamble. No changes recommended in preamble. 
Approved. 

Article I, Section 1. Adopted as reported by Com- 
mittee. 

Article I, Section 2. Adopted as reported by Com- 
mittee, with amendments. 



164 



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April 1. 1936 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 



Article I, Section 3. Adopted as reported by Com- Article III, Section 2. Under discussion. 

mittee. 

Article I, Section 4. Referred back tfl Committee on 

Constitution. At 12:05 p. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 

Article II, Section 1. Adopted as reported by Com- President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander, for the Committee of the Whole, 



mittee. 



Article II, Section 2. Adopted as reported by Com- 



mittee. 

Article III, Section 1. Adopted as reported by Com- 
mittee. P- m 



reported progress. 



\t 12:10 p. m. the Convention adjourned until 2 



TWENTY-FIFTH DAY 
Monday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2:10 p. m., 
Vice-President Hunter in the chair. 

Roll call: All present. 

Secretary Olander read a letter from the Ware- 
housemen's Union, Local 38-44, I. L. A., San Fran- 
cisco, bearing on the subject of revocation of the 
charter of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific. 

WARNING BY SECRETARY-TREASURER 

Secretary Olander then made a brief verbal report 
in which, he dealt with recent important developments 
and warned against the very apparent danger due to 
subversive activities within the union at large which 
are now on the point of being reflected in legislative 
proposals in Congress. In the course of his statement 
he referred to certain letters and other papers. 

At 2:45 p. m. the convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for further consideration of 
pending matters. 



Committee of the W hole 
Vice-President Carlson in the chair. 
Vice-President Hunter reported for the Committee 
on Constitution. 

Article III, Section 2. Adopted as reported by Com- 
mittee, with amendments. 

Article III, Section 3. Adopted as reported by Com- 
mittee. 

Article IV, Section 4. Adopted as reported by Com- 
mittee, with amendment. 

Article V, Section 1. Adopted as reported by Com- 
mittee. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 
At 5:05 p. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander, for the Committee of the Whole, 
reported progress. At 5:10 p. m. the Convention ad- 
journed until 9:30 a. m. February 11, 1936. 



TWENTY-SIXTH DAY 
Tuesday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, February 11, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:45 a. m. 
by Vice-President Hunter. 

Roll call: All present. 

The Secretary read a telegram under date of Febru- 
ary 10, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from Morton J. 
Semour, Branch Agent, George Fergersen, Branch 
Agent pro tern and Frank Casey, Delegate, Philadel- 
phia Branch, expressing confidence in the ability of 
the Convention to handle the problems before it. 

At 10:00 o'clock the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for the further consider- 
ation of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 
Vice-President Carlson in the chair. 
Vice-President Hunter reported for the Committee 
on Constitution, and various sections of that Commit- 



tee's report were acted upon by the Committee of the 
Whole, as follows: 

ARTICLE V. Section 2. Adopted as reported by 
Committee, with amendment. 

ARTICLE V. Section 2 (a). Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE V. Section 2 (b) Adopted as reported 
by Committee, and amended. 

ARTICLE V. Section 2 (c) Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE V. Section 3.. Adopted as reported by 
Committee. 

ARTICLE V. Section 4. Adopted as reported by 
Committee. 

ARTICLE VI, Section 1. Adopted as reported by 
Committee, and amended. 

ARTICLE VI. Section 2. Adopted as reported by 
Committee. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



165 



ARTICLE VII. Section 1. Adopted as reported by 
Committee. 

ARTICLE VII. Section 2. Adopted as reported by 
Committee. 

ARTICLE VII. Section 3. Adopted as reported by 
Committee, and amended. 

ARTICLE VII. Section 3 (a) Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE VII. Section 3 (b) Adopted as reported 
by Committee, and amended. 

ARTICLE VII. Section 3 (c) Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE VII. Section 3 (d) Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE VII. Section 3 (e) Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE. Referred back 
to Committee on Constitution. 

ARTICLE VIII. Referred back to Committee on 
Constitution. 

ARTICLE IX. Referred back to Committee on 
Constitution. 



ARTICLE X. Referred back to Committee on Con- 
stitution. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 12:00 noon the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander, for the Committee of the Whole, 
reported progress. 

The Secretary read a letter under date of February 
7, 1936, Galveston, Texas, addressed to himself as 
Secretary, from Captain Charles Kertell, concerning 
a proposed "Maritime Federation of the Gulf Coast." 

The letter together with other documents bearing 
on the subject were referred to the Committee on 
Constitution to bring in a report. 

Vice-President Pryor, because of illness, was re- 
lieved from his duties as a member of the Committee 
on Constitution, and Delegate Brown was named as 
his alternate. 

At 12:05 the Convention adjourned until 2:00 
o'clock. 



TWENTY-SIXTH DAY 
Tuesday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2:15 p. m., 
Vice-President Hunter in the chair. 

Roll call — All present. 

At 2:20 p. m., the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for further consideration of 
pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President Carlson in the chair. 

Vice-President Hunter resumed the report of the 
Committee on Constitution. Various sections of the 
Committee's report were acted upon by the Com- 
mittee of the Whole, as follows: 

ARTICLE XI. Adopted as reported by Committee. 

ARTICLE XII. Referred back to Committee on 
Constitution. 

ARTICLE XIII. Adopted as reported by Com- 
mittee. 

ARTICLE XIV. Section 1. Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 



Adopted as reported 
Adopted as reported 
Adopted as reported 



ARTICLE XIV. Section 2. 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE XIV. Section 3. 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE XV. Section 1. 
by Committee and amended. 

ARTICLE XVI. Section 1. Paragraphs (a), (b), 
(c), (d), (e) adopted as reported by Committee and 
amended. Paragraph (f) stricken out. Paragraph 
(g), now becoming paragraph (f), adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE XVII. Section 1. Adopted as reported 
by Committee and amended. 

ARTICLE XVII. Section 2. Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 4:55 p. m., the Convention reconvened. Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander, for the Committee of the 
Whole, reported progress. 

At 5 p. m., the Convention adjourned until 9:30 
a. m., February 12, 1936. 



TWENTY-SEVENTH DAY 
Wednesday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, February 12, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:45 a. m., 
Vice-President Hunter presiding. 

Roll call — Furuseth and Pryor absent on account 
of illness. 

At 9:50 a. m., the Convention resolved itself into 



the Committee of the Whole for the further consid- 
eration of pending matters. 

Committee of the W hole 
Vice-President Carlson in the chair. 
Vice-President Hunter resumed reporting for the 
Committee on Constitution. Various sections of that 



166 



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April 1, 1936 



Committee's report were acted upon by the Com- 
mittee of the Whole, as follows: 

ARTICLE XVIII. Section 1. Adopted as reported 
by Committee and amended. 

ARTICLE XVIII. Section 2. Adopted as reported 
by Committee and amended. 

ARTICLE XVIII. Section 3. Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE XVIII. Section 4. Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE XVIII. Section 5. Adopted as reported 
by Committee and amended. 

ARTICLE XVIII. Section 6. Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE XVIII. Section 7. Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE XVIII. Section 8. Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE XIX. Section 1. Adopted as reported 
by Committee and amended. 

ARTICLE XIX. Section 2. Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE XIX. Section 3. Adopted as reported 
by Committee, 

ARTICLE XIX. Section 4. Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE XIX. Section 5. Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE XIX. Section 6. Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 

ARTICLE XIX. Section 7. Adopted as reported 
by committee. 

ARTICLE XIX. (New Section) Section 8. 
Adopted. 

ARTICLE XX. Section 1. Adopted as reported 
by Committee. 



INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' FEDERA- 
TION AGREEMENT. Adopted as reported by 

Committee. 

Delegate Deal read a resolution pertaining to cer- 
tain legislation now pending in Congress, having for its 
purpose regulating of affairs of the Merchant Marine, 
and moved that it be the recommendation of the 
Committee of the Whole to the Convention that such 
resolution be passed. The motion was seconded and 
carried and it was so ordered. The resolution was 
numbered 52. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 11:55 a. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander, for the Committee of the Whole. 
reported progress. 

FALSE STRIKE PROPAGANDA 

The Secretary read a strike propaganda editorial 
from the Daily Worker of February 11, 1936, entitled 
"Seamen for Struggle" — also the official Communist 
Daily and a propaganda article of the same sort from 
another paper, as samples of propaganda now being 
broadcast among seamen on the Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts by irresponsible agitators who are seeking to 
force the district unions into a strike under circum- 
stances likely to result in a disastrous defeat. 

Upon motion by Vice-President O'Brien, duly sec- 
onded and carried, the question of the subject matter 
of these press comments and other propaganda of the 
same sort was made a special order of business for 
9:30 a. m. Thursday. February 13, 1936. 

At 12:05 p. m. the Convention adjourned until 
2 p. in. 



TWENTY-SEVENTH DAY 
Wednesday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2:10 p. m., 
Vice-President Hunter presiding. 

Roll call — Furuseth and Pryor absent on account 
of illness. 

A committee composed of Vice-President Carlson 
and Delegates Grange and Burke were appointed to 
visit President Furuseth and take the greetings of the 
Convention to him. 

At 2:15 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for further consideration 
of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

Vice-President Hunter resumed the report of the 
Committee on Constitution. 

Various sections of that Committee's report, which 
had been referred back to it by the Committee of the 
Whole, after being revised by the Committee on Con- 



stitution, were reported to and acted upon by the 
Committee of the Whole, as follows: 

ARTICLE VII. Section 4. Adopted as reported 
and amended. 

ARTICLE VIII. Section 1. Adopted. as reported 
and amended. 

ARTICLE VIII. (Xew Section) Section 2. In- 
serted and adopted. 

ARTICLE VIII. Section 3 (Old Section 2). 
Adopted as reported and amended. 

ARTICLE VIII. Section 4 (Old Section 3). 
Adopted as reported. 

ARTICLE IX. Stricken out. 

ARTICLE X. Section 1. Adopted as reported 
and amended. 

ARTICLE X. Section 2. Adopted as reported. 

ARTICLE X. Section 3. Adopted as reported. 

ARTICLE X. Section 4. Adopted as reported and 
amended. 



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167 



ARTICLE X. Section 5. Adopted as reported and 
amended. 

ARTICLE X. Section 6. Adopted as reported. 

ARTICLE X. (New Section) Section 7. Adopted 
as reported, with amendment. 

ARTICLE XII. Section 1. Adopted as reported 
and amended. 

ARTICLE XII. Section 2. Adopted as reported 
and amended. 

Motion made, seconded and carried that the report 
of the Committee on Constitution as a whole, as 
amended, be adopted and reported to the Convention. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 5:35 p. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

The Secretary, reporting for the Committee of the 
Whole, stated that the Committee had been in ses- 
sion revising the Constitution, and had completed its 
work and was ready to report. 

Motion was regularly made, seconded and carried 
that mimeograph copies of the Constitution, as revised 



by the Committee of the Whole, be prepared for the 
use of the delegates during final consideration of the 
proposed amendments by the Convention. 

Editor Scharrenberg introduced Resolution No. 53, 
dealing with unadjudicated war claims of American 
seamen against the Government of Germany, and the 
resolution was adopted. 

NATIONAL MARITIME LABOR COUNCIL 

Editor Scharrenberg also gave a brief report of the 
first meeting of the newly formed National Labor 
Maritime Council, which held its first meeting on this 
date and elected the following officers of the Council: 
President, James J. Delaney, President of National 
Organization of Masters, Mates and Pilots of Amer- 
ica; Vice-President, William J. Brown, President of 
National Marine Engineers' Beneficial Association; 
Secretary-Treasurer, Paul Scharrenberg, member of 
Executive Board, International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

At 5:45 p. m. the Convention adjourned until 9:30 
a. m., February 13, 1936. 



TWENTY-EIGHTH DAY 
Thursday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, February 13, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:45 a. m., 
Vice-President Hunter presiding. 

Roll Call — Absentee: Pryor, on account of illness. 

The Secretary read a letter under date of February 
10, 1936 from Andrew Vigen, Secretary-Treasurer of 
the Alaska Fishermen's Union, stating that the Mari- 
time Federation of the Pacific Coast had been noti- 
fied the Alaska Fishermen's Union had withdrawn 
from that Federation. 

Delegate Grange reported that the committee ap- 
pointed by the Convention to call on President Furu- 
seth had done so, and were glad to report they found 
him improved, and were happy to see him in attend- 
ance this morning. 

SPECIAL ORDER 

The special order of business provided for by the 
Convention with respect to propaganda on the strike 
situation was taken up. 

Delegate Van der Staay moved that a circular be 
drawn up and distributed depicting the true situation 
in regard to the so-called strike action. The motion was 
seconded. 

Delegate O'Connor moved, as an amendment that 
the Convention go on record as not favoring strike 
action at this time, and that the East and West Coast 
delegates get together to bring about unity on both 
coasts. The amendment was seconded. 

Warning 
Secretary Olander moved as an amendment to the 
amendment that the Convention hereby warns the 



District Unions, members and seamen generally, of 
the Atlantic and Gulf, against the danger of yielding 
to the subversive propaganda now being circulated 
from anonymous sources by irresponsible persons, 
intended to stampede the seamen into a strike under 
circumstances leading straight to disaster, it being the 
opinion of the Convention that strike action on the 
Atlantic and Gulf under existing conditions will not 
only result in defeat for the men in that district but 
will also seriously endanger the District Unions and 
membership in the Pacific District. 

Delegate O'Connor, with the consent of his sec- 
onder, withdrew his amendment. 

A roll-call was requested on the amendment to the 
amendment. 

Roll Call Vote 

The amendment to the amendment was adopted by 
a unanimous roll call vote, all delegates responding 
by voting yes, as follows: 

Yes: Pryor, Cummings, Brown, Keller, Kile, Van 
der Staay, Carlson, Bley, Keane, Grange, Allen, Angle, 
Kaiser, Warn, Olander, O'Brien, Hunter, King, Eng- 
strom, Farrell, Murphy, Oldenberg, Burke, Conners, 
O'Connor, and Deal. 419 votes. 

The motion, as amended, was adopted unanimously. 

It was suggested by the Secretary, and unanimous 
consent given by the delegates, there being no objec- 
tion, that the action of the Convention be prepared in 
a statement form over the signatures of the entire 
delegation, so that the action could be given publicity 
in a way calculated to reach great numbers of seamen. 



168 



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April 1, 1936 



At 11:05 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for the further considera- 
tion of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

Vice-President Hunter reported for the Committee 
on Constitution that Resolutions 26, 27, 28, 29 and 47 
were covered by the tentative constitution as adopted. 

Vice-President Hunter: Referring to letter from 
Charles R. Kertell regarding Arrgangements Commit- 
tee of Proposed Maritime Federation of the Gulf, your 
Committee notes that Article III, Section 3, provides 
for disposal of questions of this character. Therefore, 
your Committee recommends that the matter be re- 
ferred to the incoming Executive Board. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

Vice-President Hunter stated the Committee on 
Constitution still had three resolutions before it, Reso- 
lutions 30, 31 and 32. A motion to place these resolu- 
tions on file was carried, remedial action being pro- 
vided for in amendments to the constitution. 



Vice-President Hunter stated this was all the Com- 
mittee on Constitution had to report upon until such 
time as the tentative draft of the Constitution as acted 
upon "by the Committee of the Whole was mimeo- 
graphed. 

Resolution 51, as redrafted by the Secretary in ac- 
cordance with directions from the Convention, was 
then considered. 

At 11:40 a. m. the Committee of the Whole recessed 
to permit the Firemen Delegates to hold a caucus in 
regard to Paragraph (f) in Resolution No. 51, to bring 
back to the Committee of the Whole their recommen- 
dations in regard to the provisions of this paragraph. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 12:00 noon the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander, for the Committee of the Whole, 
reported progress. 

At 12:05 p. m. the Convention adjourned until 2:00 
p. m. 



TWENTY-EIGHTH DAY 
Thursday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2:30 o'clock 
p. m., Vice-President Hunter presiding. 

Roll Call — Absentee: Pryor, on account of illness. 

Due to the fact that Vice-President Pryor had re- 
turned to his home because of illness, it was duly 
moved by Vice-President O'Brien, seconded, and 
carried, that his vote be reapportioned among delega- 
tion of the Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association. 

At 2:35 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for further consideration 
of pending matters: 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

With relation to Resolution 51, paragraph (f), Dele- 
gate Murphy reported that the Committee of Firemen 
delegates in their caucus had agreed unanimously that 
legislation should be striven for providing as follows: 

"That new men must serve 6 months at sea and 
produce a discharge as wiper or coalpasser before 
they may apply for certificate of competency to be 
employed at higher rating; provided that men who 
can produce discharges for rating higher than wiper 
or coalpasser prior to the enactment of the legislation 
shall be eligible to secure a certificate of competency." 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 
At 2:40 p. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President O'Brien in the chair. 

Mimeographed copies of the Report of the Commit- 
tee of the Whole on the Constitution of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union of America, showing the pre- 
amble and each article and section in the form recom- 
mended by the Committee of the Whole for adoption 
by the Convention, the Committee of the Whole hav- 
ing acted under authority of Resolution No. 7 as 



adopted by the Convention, were placed in the hands 
of all delegates. 

Vice-President Hunter submitted the Report of the 
Committee of the Whole on the Constitution for the 
consideration of the Convention, and the recommen- 
dations of the Committee of the Whole were acted 
upon as follows: 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE 

WHOLE ON THE CONSTITUTION 

OF THE INTERNATIONAL SEAMEN'S 

UNION OE AMERICA 

The Committee of the Whole recommends that the 
Constitution of the International Seamen's Union of 
America be amended to read as follows: 

PREAMBLE 



Recognizing that organization is the only means by 
which the Seaman may hope for amelioration and final 
emancipation from the many evils attending our call- 
ing, and for the purpose of furthering organization, 
strengthening it where it already exists and bringing 
into closer relations the component parts of our call- 
ing, we have organized the INTERNATIONAL 
SEAMEN'S UNION OF AMERICA; and having in 
view that we are migratory, that our work takes us 
away in different directions from any place where 
the majority might otherwise meet to act; that meet- 
ings can have present only a fraction of the member- 
ship; that the absent members, who cannot be present. 
must have their interests guarded from what might 
be the results of excitement and passions aroused by 
persons or conditions, and that those who arc presenl 
may act for and in the interest of all, we have adopted 
this Constitution. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



169 



INTERNATIONAL SEAMEN'S UNION 
OF AMERICA 

CONSTITUTION 

ARTICLE I 
NAME, MEMBERSHIP AND JURISDICTION 

Section 1. This organization shall be known as the 
International Seamen's Union of America, hereinafter 
to be designated as the Union. 

Sec. 2. Eligible for membership shall be bona fide 
seamen, other than licensed officers working as such, 
namely: all men employed in the deck department, all 
men employed in the engine department, all persons 
employed in the steward's department and Fishermen, 
all of whom must be eligible to become citizens of 
these United States. Provided: That no one shall be 
admitted to membership, or if admitted be permitted 
to remain a member, if he is a member of or advocat- 
ing principles and policies of any dual organization or 
any organization hostile to the Union, its aims and 
purposes. 

Sec. 3. The Union claims jurisdiction over such 
work as seamen may be required to perform under 
maritime law, and over such work as fishermen usually 
do in connection with catching and handling of fish. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

ARTICLE II 
POWERS 

Section 1. The powers of the Union shall be Legis- 
lative, Executive and Judicial, with such limitations 
and in such form as the Convention shall from time to 
time provide. 

Sec. 2. Acceptance of a charter shall be deemed to 
constitute a full agreement to the constitution and 
laws of the Union. Any violation of the constitution 
and laws shall forfeit such charter subject to decision 
by the Convention, or, between conventions, by the 
Executive Board, as provided in Article VII. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

ARTICLE III 

FORM OF ORGANIZATION 

Section 1. In order to establish better unity in ac- 
complishing the purposes for which the Union is 
formed districts shall be organized and shall be known 
by their locality: The Atlantic and Gulf District, the 
Great Lakes District, the Pacific District, and such 
other districts as from time to time may be expedient 
to form. 

Sec. 2. The Districts shall be composed of such 
units as may be chartered by the Executive Board or 
by the Convention, as provided in Sec. 2 of Article I. 
The various units may be organized separately or 
jointly as the Convention or the Executive Board shall 
from time to time determine. Each such unit shall 
be known as a District Union. Each District Union 
shall have a permanent presiding officer, elected for 
not less than one year. Each such presiding officer 
must furnish a surety bond of one thousand ($1,000) 
dollars, the premium on said bond to be paid by the 
respective District Unions. Whenever it is deemed 
advisable by any member of the Executive Board such 
member shall have the right to preside at any meeting 
of any District Union or any Branch thereof. 

Sec. 3. It shall be the policy for District Unions to 
affiliate with State Federations of Labor and Central 
Labor Councils chartered by the American Federation 
of Labor. Affiliation with any other Federation, Coun- 
cil, League or Society whatever shall be permissible 
only upon approval of the Executive Board. 

Adopted by the Convention. (Two dissenting votes.) 



ARTICLE IV 
OFFICIAL PUBLICATION 

Section 1. For the purpose of education and organi- 
zation the Union shall publish a journal to be known 
as the Seamen's Journal. The editor of the Seamen's 
Journal shall be elected at the Convention, and he 
shall be entrusted with the editorial and business 
management subject to the control of the Executive 
Board and the Convention. The editor shall be a mem- 
ber of the Union. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

ARTICLE V 
CONVENTION AND REPRESENTATION 

Section 1. Conventions shall be held annually sub- 
ject to postponement if the exigencies warrant. 

Sec. 2. Representation at the Convention shall be 
based upon the amount of per capita tax paid for the 
fiscal year. For the purpose of determining the votes 
of delegates the total amount paid for the fiscal year 
shall be divided by twelve. When more than one dele- 
gate represents an organization the vote shall be 
equally divided between such delegates, provided that 
fractional votes shall be eliminated. 

(a) Organizations more than three months in ar- 
rears shall not be entitled to representation unless 
exempt from payments under Article XIII. 

(b) The number of delegates to the Convention 
shall be limited, as follows: One delegate for 200 
members or less, two delegates for 201 to 500 mem- 
bers, three delegates for 501 to 1000 members, and one 
delegate for each additional five hundred members. 

(c) Delegates to the Convention must have at least 
three years continuous membership in good standing 
in the Union, provided that this limitation shall not 
apply to delegates from newly chartered District 
Unions; provided further that in the event of a va- 
cancy after the election of delegates such vacancy may 
be filled in such manner as the District Unions may 
determine. 

Sec. 3. The President, the Editor and the Secretary- 
Treasurer shall always attend the conventions. If not 
delegates they shall have voice, but no vote. Their 
expenses shall be paid by the Union. 

Sec. 4. The Secretary shall make all necessary ar- 
rangements for the Convention. 

Adopted by the Convention. (One dissenting vote.) 

ARTICLE VI 
OFFICERS AND ELECTION 

Section 1. The officers of the Union shall consist 
of one President, eight Vice-Presidents, one Editor and 
one Secretary-Treasurer. They shall be elected at each 
regular convention and shall hold office until their 
successors qualify. 

Sec. 2. All vacancies occurring between conventions 
shall be filled by the Executive Board. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Motion made, seconded and carried to act upon the 
sections of Article VII seriatim. 

ARTICLE VII 

DUTIES OF OFFICERS 

PRESIDENT 

Section 1. The President shall preside at the Con- 
vention. He shall enforce due observance of the con- 
stitution and by-laws of the Union. He shall submit 



170 



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April 1, 1936 



a report to the Executive Board and the District 
Unions as often as may he necessary. He shall he 
chairman of the Executive Board. He shall have 
authority to travel to any port or city within the 
jurisdiction of the organization, and shall perform such 
other duties as the Convention or the Kxecutive Board 
■-hall assign to him. 

Prior to the meeting of each convention the 
President shall appoint a committee on audit and 
credentials. This committee shall meet with the Sec- 
retary-Treasurer pr.or to the opening of the conven- 
tion for the purpose of auditing the hooks, preparing 
a report upon credentials and allocation of the vote. 

In the event oi a vacancy occurring in the office of 
President between conventions, the First Vice-Presi- 
dent shall perform the duties of President. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

SECRETARY-TREASURER 

Sec. 2. The Secretary-Treasurer shall be the execu- 
tive officer of the Union and the Secretary of the 
Executive Board. On request of two or more mem- 
bers of the Executive Board he shall submit to the 
members a motion that the Board meet to act upon 
any stated question. He shall keep accurate records 
of proceedings. He shall have charge of the seal and 
the records of the Union. He shall receive and receipt 
for all moneys and pay all bills for and on behalf of 
the Union. He shall keep correct account of all re- 
ceipts and expenditures and shall submit a financial 
statement to the convention as a part of the report 
of the Executive Board. The fiscal year shall be the 
period beginning December 1 and ending November 30. 

The Secretary-Treasurer shall issue quarterly finan- 
cial statements setting forth the financial standing 
and the membership of the Union and of District 
Unions, as reported to him, together with a report 
upon the state of the Union. If any District Union 
shall fail to send regular reports the Secretary-Treas- 
urer shall cause an examination to be made as pro- 
vided in Section 6 of Article XVIII and take such 
other steps as may be necessary to meet the situation. 

The Secretary-Treasurer shall deposit all moneys 
in such bank or banks as may be designated by the 
Executive Board, subject to the check of the Secretary- 
Treasurer, not more than Ten Thousand ($10,000) 
Dollars to be deposited in any one bank. 

The Secretary-Treasurer's books and accounts shall 
be submitted for inspection to the Committee on Audit 
and Credentials and to the Executive Board, or an 
Auditing Committee, or a certified accountant se- 
lected by the Executive Board, at any time the Execu- 
tive Board may deem it necessary. He shall furnish 
a surety bond of Fifteen Thousand ($15,000) Dollars, 
premium on said bond to be paid by the Union. 

The Secretary-Treasurer shall have authority to 
travel to any port or city within the jurisdiction of the 
Union or to send a deputy whenever necessary. 

The Secretary-Treasurer shall have the power to 
appoint deputies, auditors and other assistants when- 
ever necessary. The compensation of deputies, audi- 
tors and other assistants shall be determined by the 
Secretary-Treasurer with the advice and consent of 
the Executive Board. 

The Secretary-Treasurer shall perform such other 
duties as the Convention or the Executive Board may 
from time to time assign to him. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 

Sec. 3. The Executive Board shall consist of the 
President, the Vice-Presidents, the Editor and the 
Secretary-Treasurer. It shall meet at such times and 



places as the Convention or a majority of its mem- 
bers may direct and shall promptly attend to such 
business as may come before it. Business which can 
be transacted by mail or wire may be so transacted. 
It shall have the power to issue charters and to revoke 
charters as hereinafter provided. It shall be the duty 
of the Board to see that the Constitution and laws 
of the Union and of such units thereof, as from time 
to time may be organized, are obeyed. For the pur- 
pose of enforcing the constitution and laws it shall 
proceed as follows: 

(a) If the offender he a branch of a District Union, 
it shall he the duty oi the headquarters of such of- 
fending branch to discipline such branch by removing 
any officer or officers or to abolish such branch. 

(b) If the offender be a District Union, the Execu- 
tive Board, after trying and failing to induce the 
headquarters of such District Union to obey the law 

shall for the protection of the loyal membership and 
pending reorganization, instruct the branches of such 
offending District Union to cease sending reports, 
moneys and other communications to said headquar- 
ters, tie up all funds and protect all property by ap- 
propriate legal proceedings and shall organize such 
other headquarters as shall obey the law. 

(c) If it shall be deemed necessary, the Executive 
Board may revoke the Charter of any offending Dis- 
trict Union, organize another in its place, and take 
such further steps as may be advisable to protect the 
interest of the loyal members. 

Adopted by the Convention. (Three dissenting 
votes.) 

Sec. 4. The Executive Board shall have power to 
remove any officer, organizer, or deputy, acting for, 
or in behalf of the Union, and to fill vacancies. The 
Board, any of its members, or any duly appointed 
deputy shall have the right to participate in any 
meeting. Members of the Board shall act promptly 
and definitely on any question brought before them 
and shall report violations of law or other important 
matters to the Secretary-Treasurer. 

Adopted by the Convention. (One dissenting vote.) 

Sec. 5. The Executive Board shall submit to each 
convention a report upon its transactions and deci- 
sions together with a review of the state of the Union 
and such recommendations as may be agreed upon by 
the Board. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE 

Sec. 6. A Legislative Committee to consist of five 
members shall be elected by the Convention. The 
Committee shall function under the general supervision 
and direction of the Convention or the* Executive 
Board. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

ARTICLE VIII 
DISTRICT COMMITTEE 

Section 1. A District Committee shall be organized 
in each District of the Union. The Committee shall 
meet at least once a month in one of the principal 
ports in the respective districts to be designated by 
the Committee. Each District Union shall be repre- 
sented in such meetings unless distance makes such 
attendance inconvenient or impossible. Each District 
Union shall have three representatives, provided that 
District Unions having membership restricted to one 
port or locality shall have only one representative. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 



April 1, 1936 



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171 



Sec. 2. Each District Committee shall prescribe rules 
of procedure for the conduct of its business, subject 
to the approval of the Executive Board of the Union. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of said Committee to 
adjust grievances between District Unions, between 
District Unions and operators of vessels, to guard over 
the interest of the District Unions, to promote har- 
mony of action and purpose; to call joint meetings 
in the interest of unity and organization and to carry 
out such instructions as shall be issued from time to 
time by the Executive Board of the Union. The mem- 
bers of the Committee shall have the right to par- 
ticipate in any meeting of any District Union within 
its District. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 4. The Committee shall keep records of its 
proceedings and shall furnish copies thereof to the 
Secretary-Treasurer of the Union and to each member 
within the District. In case the District Committee is 
unable to adjust any matter it shall refer same to the 
Executive Board of the Union, whose decision shall 
be binding between conventions. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

ARTICLE IX 
DUTIES AND RIGHTS OF MEMBERS 

Section 1. Members more than three months in 
arrears for dues, fines or assessments are considered 
in bad standing and shall not be entitled to any rights, 
benefits or privileges of the Union or any of its District 
Unions nor shall they be permitted to attend official 
meetings thereof. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 2. The duty of a member shall be to be true 
and loyal to the Union and its purposes, to honor and 
respect the obligation of membership and to obey 
such laws as the Union and its District Unions may 
from time to time adopt. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 3. Members shall have the right to such edu- 
cational facilities, industrial, legislative and legal pro- 
tection as the constitution and laws may provide. Such 
legal protection shall only extend to such cases as 
have a direct bearing upon the interests of all sea- 
men or fishermen, and to cases coming within the 
principles of maritime law not already declared by 
the courts. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 4. Members shall have the right of free transfer 
from one District Union into any other District Union 
of the same classification. Any member who thinks 
that he has been denied equal protection under the 
laws, or that in their application to him he has suffered 
injustice, may appeal from the District Union to the 
Executive Board. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 5. Any member who has ceased to follow the 
calling as a seaman, or is sailing as a licensed officer, 
shall be issued a retiring card; provided that this 
restriction shall not apply to members acting in official 
or representative capacity for the Union or any Dis- 
trict Union, the American Federation of Labor, or its 
State Branches or City Central Bodies; provided fur- 
ther, that the Executive Board shall have authority 
to direct District Unions to make such other excep- 
tions as may be just and fair. 

Adopted by the Convention. (Two dissenting votes.) 
Sec. 6. Upon revocation of the charter of a District 



Union the Secretary-Treasurer may accept dues from 
loyal members whose membership in the Union was 
terminated by such charter revocation. An official 
receipt for dues thus paid to the Secretary-Treasurer 
shall be evidence of membership-at-large in the Union 
with all duties and rights of membership, provided 
(a) to be in good standing the dues must not be more 
than three months in arrears, (b) the Union shall not 
assume responsibility for any of the financial benefits 
granted by the respective District Unions, (c) full 
jurisdiction and authority over such members-at-large 
shall be vested in the Executive Board. 

Adopted by the Convention. (One dissenting vote.) 

OBLIGATION 

Sec. 7. Obligation to be administered to new mem- 
bers: "I , do faith- 
fully promise to the best of my ability to observe the 
Constitution and obey all the rules and regulations of 
the International Seamen's Union of America, to do all 
in my power to advance the cause of the Union and 
to urge upon others to do the same. I also promise to 
keep the business of the Union in strict confidence so 
long as I am a member." 

INSTRUCTIONS 

At the time the obligation is administered the officer 
or chairman must state to the member or candidate 
upon being accepted as a member and taking the obli- 
gation of membership: "You do so with the under- 
standing that any serious or deliberate violation of 
the Constitution, rules or regulations of the Union 
will forfeit your membership and that the proper offi- 
cers of the Union have the right to cancel your cer- 
tificate of membership and void all rights thereunder 
following trial and conviction as provided herein." 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

ARTICLE X 
CORRECTIONS AND PUNISHMENT 

Section 1. A member charged with conduct bring- 
ing the Union or its members into ill-repute, with vio- 
lations of law, with being untrue to the Union and its 
purposes, or with using the Union as a cover for 
purely selfish or sinister purposes, shall be tried and 
corrected or expelled under such rules as the District 
Union shall provide and such action as may be taken 
shall, subject to appeal as provided in Article XVI, 
be binding upon all District Unions. Appeal must be 
entered within thirty (30) days. Provided a fine is 
imposed, the member may be reinstated by paying the 
fine without his right of appeal being in any way 
affected. Excessive fines shall not be imposed. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

ARTICLE XI 
INITIATION FEE AND DUES 

Section 1. Initiation fees shall be ten ($10) dollars 
and dues shall be one and one-half ($1.50) dollars per 
month, provided that the Executive Board may, upon 
appication, authorize an increase or reduction in such 
initiation fees or dues in the case of any District 
Union. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 2. Such initiation fees and dues shall be col- 
lected by the District Unions of the Union under such 
rules and safeguards as shall be provided by such 
District Unions, subject to the approval of the Execu- 
tive Board of the Union. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 



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April 1, 1936 



ARTICLE XII 
CERTIFICATE OF MEMBERSHIP 

The membership books issued by the District 
Unions shall be of the same general form and shall, 
upon application, be supplied to said District Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, under regulations approved by the 
Executive Board. Certificates of membership shall 
always be the property of the Union. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

ARTICLE XIII 
REVENUE 

Section 1. The regular income of the Union shall 
be ten ($10) dollars for each Charter issued, and ten 
(10) per cent of all initiation fees and dues collected 
by the District Unions and to be paid monthly; pro- 
vided that Unions collecting more than one dollar 
dues per month shall not be required to pay upon 
more than one dollar per month. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 2. Other incomes shall consist of such assess- 
ments or contributions as shall be recommended by 
the Convention or by the Executive Board and in- 
dorsed by a majority of the District Unions. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 3. If any District Union is financially unable 
to meet the assessments or contributions, such Dis- 
trict Union shall file a statement of its financial stand- 
ing with the Executive Board, which shall have the 
power to release such District Union from paying the 
assessments or contributions in whole or in part. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

ARTICLE XIV 

DISBURSEMENTS 

Section 1. Disbursements of funds shall be for per 
capita tax and assessments to the American Federation 
of Labor, for salaries as fixed by the Convention, for 
office expenses, traveling expenses, legislative, legal 
and organizing expenses, and such other expenses, dis- 
bursements and donations as the Convention of the 
Executive Board may authorize. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

ARTICLE XV 

REFERENDUM 

Section 1. All propositions submitted to referen- 
dum by the Convention or the Executive Board shall 
be voted upon in the manner prescribed as follows: 

(a) The Secretary-Treasurer shall issue a notice of 
referendum vote in the official paper and by communi- 
cation with all District Unions concerned, stating the 
question to be voted upon and the limit that has been 
fixed to the time in which such vote shall be taken, 
and the results returned. 

(b) He shall prepare, cause to be printed, and dis- 
tributed to District Unions a sufficient number of bal- 
lots containing the subject matter to be voted upon. 
Such ballots shall be arranged with voting squares for 
"Yes" and "No" and members shall signify their choice 
by marking an X in either square. The ballots shall 
bear the seal of the Union and none but such official 
ballots shall be used by District Unions for this pur- 
pose. 

(c) Members shall be qualified to vote: (a) if they 
are in good standing in the District Union, and, (b) if 



their District Union is in good standing with the 
Union. 

(d) The Convention or the Executive Board may 
order the polls kept open during any number of con- 
secutive meetings, not exceeding four, or any number 
of consecutive days, not exceeding twenty-eight. Dis- 
trict Unions may regulate the manner of voting and of 
canvassing the vote, but shall permit no member to 
vote more than once on the same proposition. 

(e) Immediately after the vote has been counted 
Secretaries of District Unions concerned shall send a 
report to the Secretary-Treasurer, of the results ob- 
tained. Such report shall be certified by the ballot 
committee and the District Union Secretary, under 
Seal of the District Union. 

(f) If the proposition has received a majority of all 
the votes cast by District Unions in good standing, 
the Secretary-Treasurer shall declare the same carried. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

ARTICLE XVI 
APPEALS 

Section 1. Appeals shall be based upon violation of 
law or right denied, and shall show wherein such vio- 
lation or right denied is claimed to exist. Appeals shall 
be submitted to and acted upon by the Executive 
Board without unnecessary delay. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 2. Decisions on appeals shall be made by a 
majority vote of all members of the Executive Board. 
Such decisions shall be final and effective when ren- 
dered but may be modified or reversed by the next 
Convention. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

ARTICLE XVII 
STRIKE OR LOCKOUT 

Section 1. The following rules must be closely ob- 
served by District Union contemplating a strike or 
in danger of being locked out. Failure on the part of 
any District Union to comply therewith shall work a 
forfeiture to all claims of financial assistance, and sub- 
ject the District Union to loss of Charter. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 2. In case a disagreement occurs between any 
District Union and any operator or operators, which 
may result in a strike or lockout, the matter in dispute 
shall first be submited to the District Committee, 
which shall endeavor to adjust the same. If it shall 
appear that any adjustment is either very difficult or 
remote, the facts, together with the opinions and ad- 
vice of the District Committee, shall be reported with- 
out delay to the Secretary-Treasurer, who shall at 
once proceed to the seat of the trouble, or appoint 
some other member, preferably a member of the Ex- 
ecutive Board, to act as his deputy. Together with the 
District Committee or a subcommittee thereof, he 
shall use all honorable means to reach a peaceable 
settlement. If his efforts shall prove futile, the Execu- 
tive Board may order a vote to be taken by all the 
District Unions involved or likely to be involved on 
the question of endorsing any proposed strike or of 
providing for joint action of all the members working 
for such operator or operators. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 3. Should such a vote be decided in the affirm- 
ative by a two-thirds majority, the Secretary-Treas- 
urer shall at once make a report to the Executive 
Board, giving a full statement of the difficulty, the 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



173 



efforts at settlement, the number of men involved, and 
also his recommendations as to the course to be pur- 
sued. Should circumstances warrant, the Executive 
Board may cause another vote to be taken. The Ex- 
ecutive Board may submit to a vote of the general 
membership the proposition of levying an assessment 
for the support of any strike. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 4. Such vote shall be taken in accordance 
with the provisions of Article XV, provided, that the 
Executive Board may, in case of urgency, order the 
results obtained in District Unions transmitted by 
telegraph. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 5. The Executive Board shall supervise the 
use and distribution of any funds raised. Strike bene- 
fits or subsistence as the members may receive shall 
not begin until he has been on strike or lockout for 
two weeks; it shall not exceed five dollars ($5) per 
week and shall in no case be considered or treated as 
a property right. Such strike benefit or subsistence 
shall not be continued after the member has obtained 
work, and in no case after the strike or lockout ha^ 
been declared at an end. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 6. During the progress of the strike or lock- 
out the Secretaries of District Unions affected shall 
make weekly reports to the Secretary-Treasurer, 
showing the amount of money paid out for benefits 
or subsistence. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 7. The Executive Board or its representatives 
shall, when satisfied from the facts or information in 
their possession that the strike or lockout has accom- 
plished all that it can reasonably be expected to ac- 
complish, lay such facts or information fully before 
the District Committee, and in agreement with such 
Committee shall call meeting or meetings and lay the 
facts before the members, who shall vote to continue 
or cease. Such vote shall be taken by secret ballot; 
provided, that the Executive Board shall have the 
power to withdraw financial assistance. 

Adopted by the Convention. (One dissenting vote.) 

Sec. 8. In case any District Union should enter 
upon a strike without complying with the constitu- 
tional provisions in this article, the Executive Board 
may take such actions as in the judgment of the Board 
may best conserve the funds of such District Union 
and the best interests of the members thereof. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

ARTICLE XVIII 
DISTRICT UNIONS 

Section 1. Each District Union shall adopt such 
constitution and laws, not inconsistent with the con- 
stitution and laws of the union, as shall seem most 
serviceable in furthering the aims and purposes of the 
organization. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 2. Amendments to the constitution and laws 
of District Unions shall not take effect until approved 
by the Executive Board. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 3. No officer shall have power to call any 
member out of any vessel unless so authorized and 
instructed by action of such District Union. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 4. No donation shall be made to any member 
unless such member has been in prison for the purpose 



of testing some question of law of importance to all 
seamen, whether members or not, and this shall only 
be done upon the same vote as may be necessary to 
amend the Constitution. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 5. The Secretary of each District Union shall 
furnish the Secretary-Treasurer with a weekly finan- 
cial report and shall also furnish a quarterly report 
of receipts, expenditures, and the number of members 
in good standing. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 6. The books and accounts of District Unions 
shall always be available for examiantion to the Sec- 
retary-Treasurer of the Union or to any auditor or 
public accountant duly appointed by the Secretary- 
Treasurer. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 7. The Secretary of each District Union shall 
keep the Secretary-Treasurer informed of the con- 
dition of his organization, of all matters of interest to 
the seafaring class, and shall communicate to him all 
suggestions, resolutions and amendments offered by 
his organization for the consideration of the Union. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

Sec. 8. Each District Union shall have an Execu- 
tive Board. 

Adopted by the Convention. (One dissenting vote.) 

ARTICLE XIX 
AMENDMENTS 

Section 1. This Constitution can be amended in 
the following manner by the Convention in regular 
session, in which case a two-thirds majority shall be 
required to carry such amendment. The Convention 
may, by a two-thirds majority, refer any amendment 
to a referendum vote. 

Adopted unanimously by the Convention. 

INTERNATIONAL SEAFARERS' 

FEDERATION 

AGREEMENT 

"That a member of any affiliated union joining a 
vessel of another nationality, other than that of the 
union of which he is a member, should be permitted 
to sail for three months, or one voyage if longer than 
three months, without being compelled to transfer. 
At the end of three months, or at the end of the voy- 
age, such member be requested to transfer, but with- 
out payment of entrance fee, all contributions due to 
be the property of the Union to which he is trans- 
ferred." 

Adopted by the Convention. 

The report of the Committee of the Whole on the 
Constitution, as acted upon, was then adopted as a 
whole and the Constitution of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America was declared amended and 
adopted accordingly. 

SPECIAL ORDER 

By action of the Convention, the subject of the re- 
vocation of the charter of the Sailors' Union of the 
Pacific was made a special order of business for 9:30 
o'clock a. m. Friday, February 14, 1936, the discus- 
sion to be limited to the forenoon session. 

At 5:25 p. m. the Convention adjourned until 9:30 
a. m. February 14, 1936. 



174 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

TWENTY-NINTH DAY 
Friday Morning Session 



April 1, 1936 



Washington, D. C, February 14, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:45 a. m., 
Vice-President Hunter presiding. 

Roll Call — Absentee: Engstrom. 

President Furuseth spoke on the matter of the Con- 
stitution that had been adopted by the Convention. 

SPECIAL ORDER 

At 10:10 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into 
the Committee of the Whole for the purpose of taking 
up the special order of business which had been pro- 
vided for by action of the Convention, the subject of 



the revocation of the charter of the Sailors' Union of 
the Pacific. 

Committee of the W hole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

Delegates Farrell, Murphy, Conners, King, Grange. 
Van der Staay, Burke, Kile, Oldenberg, Deal, Editor 
Scharrenberg, Vice-President Carlson and Secretary 
Olander took part in the discussion on the question. 
REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 12:45 p. m. the Committee of the Whole an 
and reported progress to the Convention. 

At 12:50 p. m. the Convention adjourned until 2 I 
p. m. 



TWENTY-NINTH DAY 
Friday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2:35 p. m., 
Vice-President Hunter presiding. 
Roll Call— All present. 

CONSTITUTION 

A motion was made by Delegate Engstrom and 
seconded that the Constitution as drawn up and 
adopted by the Convention yesterday be submitted to 
a referendum vote. 

A question was raised as to the legality of the mo- 
tion for the reason that the Constitution had been 
acted upon and all amendments finally adopted at a 
previous session. 

During the discussion Secretary Olander reminded 
the delegates that they had decided by a unanimous 
roll call vote only yesterday that there was grave 
danger involved in the subversive propaganda now 
being anonymously circulated by unknown persons 
on the strike question and he remarked that it seemed 
strange that under such circumstances anyone in the 
Convention should want to subject the whole Consti- 
tution of the Union, in its entirety, to the same sort 
of subversive tactics. He suggested that regardless 
of any points of order it might be well to have a roll 
call on the strange and peculiar motion in order that 
the vote might be clearly recorded. The point of order 
was thereupon withdrawn. 

ROLL CALL VOTE 

A roll call vote on the Engstrom motion was had, 
resulting as follows: 

Yes: King, Engstrom, Farrell, Murphy, Oldenberg, 
Burke, Conners, O'Connor. Total 115. 

No: Cummings, Brown, Keller, Kile, Van der 
Staay, Carlson, Bley, Keane, Grange, Allen, Angle, 
Kaiser, Warn, Olander, O'Brien, Hunter, Deal. Total 
304. 

Vice-President Hunter thereupon declared the mo- 
tion lost. 



At 3:10 p. m. the Convention resolved itself int.* tl i 
Committee of the Whole for the further consideratioi 
of pending matters. 

Committee of the W hole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

Resolution 51, introduced by President Furuseth. as 
revised by Secretary Olander on instructions from 
the Committee of the Whole, was presented as re- 
drafted and adopted unanimously. 

Secretary Olander presented draft of Declaration 
of Policies in relation to the Merchant Marine, which 
he had compiled in accord with instructions of the 
Committee, and it wa> taken up section by section, 
and adopted unanimously as a whole, as presented. 

The section captioned "A Dangerous Proposal." in 
the report of the Secretary-Treasurer, wa> discussed, 
and the following motion was made by Delegate 
Grange, and was carried: 

"With reference to that part of the Secretary- 
Treasurer's Report under the caption 'A Dangerous 
Proposal' we recommend approval of the report and 
severe censure for those who have sought to substi- 
tute the Maritime Federation of the Pacific Coast for 
the International Seamen's Union of America in mat- 
ters concerning agreements and awards." 

Discussion on this matter was taken part in by tin- 
following: Delegates Murphy. Engstrom, Deal, Kinu. 
Van der Staay, Farrell, Burke. Grange, Editor Schar- 
renberg, Vice-Presidents Hunter and Carlson, Presi- 
dent Furuseth and Secretary Olander. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 
At 5 p. m. the Convention reconvened. Vice-Presi- 
dent Hunter in the chair. 

Secretary Olander read the following report of the 
Committee of the Whole: 

"With reference to that part oi the Secretan 
Treasurer's Report under the caption 'A Dangerous 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



175 



Proposal' we recommend approval of the report and 
severe censure for those who have sought to substi- 
tute the Maritime Federation of the Pacific Coast for 
the International Seamen's Union of America in mat- 
ters concerning agreements and awards." 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

Secretary Olander: The Committee of the Whole 
has had under consideration Resolutions Nos. 30, 31 
and 32, which are as follows: 

Resolution No. 30 

By Delegate Patrick O'Brien, Sailors' Union of 
Great Lakes. 

WHEREAS, The International Seamen's Union of 
America has formulated rules and regulations for the 
conduct of its officers and members, and 

WHEREAS, These rules and regulations are part 
of the Constitution through which the rights of the 
District Organizations are protected, and 

WHEREAS, These rules and regulations have been 
ignored by the officers of some of the District Unions 
on the Pacific, thus endangering the agreements en- 
tered into between shipowners and unions of the At- 
lantic District, therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, By the International Seamen's Union 
of America, in the Thirty-third Convention assembled, 
that the actions of some of the unions of the Pacific 
District be condemned, and be it further 

RESOLVED, That any District Union whose rules 
and regulations as embodied in their constitutions are 
used or may be at some future time used to work an 
injury to any other District Organizations, is hereby 
instructed to change those rules and regulations in 
order that their constitutions may conform to the 
Constitution of the International Seamen's Union of 
America, and be it further 

RESOLVED, That when it becomes evident that 
the District Union will not conform to or abide by the 
rules and regulations of the International Seamen's 
Union of America, the Executive Board of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America shall forthwith 
revoke the charter of said District Union and take 
such action as may be deemed necessary to preserve 
all the rights, contracts, and agreements of the mem- 
bership as well as the integrity and standing of the 
International Seamen's Union of America. 

Resolution No. 31 

By Delegate Ivan Hunter, Marine Firemen, O. W. 
and C. U. of Great Lakes. 

WHEREAS, The officers of the District Organiza- 
tions of the Pacific have apparently refused to recog- 
nize the necessity of giving to its membership full 
information on questions which determine the policy 
of the organization, and 

WHEREAS, This information, if it had been trans- 
mitted to the membership, would have probably pre- 
vented a great deal of the trouble which now exists 
in the District Organizations of the Pacific, therefore, 
be it 

RESOLVED, That we condemn the officers of the 
District Unions of the Pacific for their refusal or lack 
of recognition as the necessity of giving this informa- 
tion to the membership, and be it further 

RESOLVED, That the International Seamen's 
Union of America in Convention assembled, condemn 
the apparent refusal on the part of the officers of the 
District Unions of the Pacific to cooperate with the 
Secretary-Treasurer of the International Seamen's 
Union of America by their refraining from sendincr 
the information asked for by the Secretary-Treasurer 



of the International Seamen's Union of America, thus 
hampering the Secretary-Treasurer in his efforts to 
deal with the conditions then prevailing on the Pacific 
and making it easier for those opposing the policies 
of the International Seamen's Union of America to 
gain their ends. 

Resolution No. 32 

By Delegate C. H. Angle, Marine Cooks and Stew- 
ards' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf. 

WHEREAS, The members of the Marine Cooks 
and Stewards' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf having 
full knowledge of the fact that they are also members 
of the International Seamen's Union of America, and 
by virtue of affiliation are, therefore, subject to its 
Constitution and the laws thereof, and 

WHEREAS, The Constitution of the International 
Seamen's Union of America is quite definite and spe- 
cific in its provision for the transfer of its members, 
quote "The member shall have the right of free trans- 
fer from one District Union of Sailors, Firemen. 
Cooks or Fishermen into any other District Union of 
the same division" end quote, and 

WHEREAS, The Marine Cooks and Stewards' As- 
sociation of the Pacific Coast has recently passed a 
resolution wherein they discriminate against members 
of the Atlantic and Gulf District by denying them the 
transfer privilege as prescribed by our International 
Constitution, and 

WHEREAS, We believe their action in this matter 
to be a direct and flagrant violation of our Interna- 
tional Constitution, and 

WHEREAS, All seamen being transients by virtue 
of their calling and at home as much in one port as 
another, and 

WHEREAS, The resolution further discriminates 
against members of the Atlantic District, inasmuch 
as it provides that "And then these members will not 
be shipped for thirty days after having registered," 
and 

WHEREAS, Members of the Atlantic District Ma- 
rine Cooks' Union have been taken off ships on arriv- 
ing in Pacific Coast ports from Atlantic Coast ports 
by officers of the Pacific District Union and refused 
employment on any ship and forced to hitch hike or 
return to the Atlantic Coast by whatsoever means 
they could find, and 

WHEREAS, These members of the Atlantic Dis- 
trict of the International Seamen's Union of America 
have been grossly discriminated against in violation 
of our International Constitution as well as in viola- 
tion of all existing laws of common decency and re- 
spect known to humanity, and 

WHEREAS, Members of the Atlantic District of 
the Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union have been fur- 
ther discriminated against by officers of the Pacific 
District to the extent of being forced to pay dues to 
the Pacific Coast delegates under penalty of being 
removed from their ship and being replaced by West 
Coast men unless they paid tribute to the delegates in 
the form of dues, and in some instances International 
fees. All these demands were made in complete and 
utter disregard of the fact that the members in ques- 
tion had paid their fees and dues on the Atlantic and 
had every intention of returning to the Atlantic Coast 
with the ship on its return voyage in Intercoastal 
trade, some of which being operated by signatories to 
the Atlantic Agreement, and 

WHEREAS, The results of these discriminatory 
methods have unquestionably retarded, interrupted 
and hampered beyond expression the greatly desired 
cohesive efforts, policies and intentions of the Inter- 
national Union as a whole, by unauthorized strikes. 



176 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1. 1936 



needless and excessive expenditures and retard of 
progress, and 

WHEREAS, The Marine Cooks and Stewards' 
Union of the Atlantic and Gulf reports it is in posses- 
sion of signed affidavits in support of certain of the 
claims contained herein, be it therefore 

RESOLVED, By the International Seamen's Union 
of America in convention assembled, hereby instructs 
its Executive Board to take steps to protect the mem- 
bers of the Marine Cooks and Stewards' Union of the 
Atlantic and Gulf by requiring the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards' Association of the Pacific Coast to obey the 
laws of the International Seamen's Union of America. 

The Committee of the Whole has inquired into the 
conditions and actions criticized and complained of in 
the aforesaid Resolutions Nos. 30, 31 and 32 and has 
sought to provide the means of remedying the situa- 
tion by presenting appropriate amendments to the 
Constitution, which have been acted upon by the Con- 
vention. The Committee, therefore, is of the opinion 
no further action will be necessary on Resolutions 
Nos. 30, 31 and 32. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

Secretary Olander: The Committee of the Whole 
submits the following report: 

Referring to letter from Charles R. Kertell regard- 
ing arrangements Committee of Proposed Maritime 
Federation of the Gulf, your Committee notes that 
Article III, Section 3, provides for disposals of ques- 
tions of this character. Therefore, your Committee 
recommends that the matter be referred to the incom- 
ing Executive Board. 

Adopted. 

Secretary Olander: The Committee of the Whole 
recommends the adoption of the following: 
Resolution No. 51 

By President Andrew Furuseth (as redrafted by 
Committee of the Whole. 

WHEREAS, The vast majority of the population 
of the United States is of racially Nordic descent and 
many of the youth of the nation would under proper 
conditions seek the sea for a living, and 

WHEREAS, In prehistoric and early historical 
times the inhabitants of Northern Germany and the 
Scandinavian countries were in blood, in social organi- 
zation and in religion a unity which recognized no 
hereditary bondage and whose seamen knew nothing 
of bondage for themselves and they developed a sea 
power which assisted the Egyptians, the Carthagini- 
ans and later on the Romans in dominating the Medi- 
terranean, and 

WHEREAS, They also dominated the Baltic, the 
North Sea and the Bay of Biscay in the latter part of 
the reign of Charles the Great and for about two hun- 
dred years after his death, and 

WHEREAS, Individuals of the sea profession were 
then eligible to and sometimes received the Golden 
Spurs of Knighthood, and 

WHEREAS, Christianity in its struggle against 
slavery had succeeded in abolishing chattel slavery. 
Master and servant laws, however, held a large pro- 
portion of the people to the soil and to their em- 
ployers, and 

WHEREAS, Changes in the Rhodian Law modified 
the system of laws governing seamen to what became 
known as the Consulate of the Sea, and 

WHEREAS, The adoption of the Laws of Wisby 
and later the adoption by England of the Statutes of 



Oleron were highly important developments in rela- 
tion to the status of seamen, and 

W'HEREAS, The introduction of the Master and 
Servant Laws made of the seamen, under the Con- 
sulate of the Sea, and the laws of Wisby, "children oi 
the ship," and under the laws of Oleron, "companion- 
of the ship," thus gradually making the seamen more 
and more subject to bondage, which was further ex- 
tended in France by the King, who issued a rescript 
establishing what is now known as the Inscript Mari- 
time. The system of bondage was then further ex- 
tended into England by laws subjecting the seamen 
on the pain of penal servitude to carry out any con- 
tracts made even in British ports and later adopted 
into the laws of the United States by the first Con- 
gress, through the Act which became known as tin 
Fugitive Seamen's Law, and 

WHEREAS, This gradual loss of the seamen's 
freedom and the gradual lessening of the seamen's in- 
dependence made it impossible for them, held in the 
shackles of their status, to follow the upward trend of 
human society resulting from the abolition of slavery 
and serfdom, and 

WHEREAS, The gradual deterioration of the sea- 
men's life and income made it impossible for them to 
marry and thus utterly destroyed their social status, 
and 

WHEREAS, These facts so influenced the popula- 
tion of the United States that boys, youths and men 
shunned the sea to such an extent that the United 
States did not have a sufficiet number of native sea- 
men to man its Merchant Marine and its Navy and 
had become dependent upon other nations' seamen 
both for the Merchant Marine and the Navy to a very 
large extent prior to the passage of the Seamen's Act, 
and 

WHEREAS, The Seamen's Act so changed the pub- 
lic opinion that boys and youths of American birth 
came to the sea in such numbers that in 1919, when a 
census was taken, it was ascertained and definitely 
proven that fifty-one per cent of the men serving in 
the then Merchant Marine of the United States wen 
of native birth, and 

WHEREAS, The United States, desirous of a 
proper share in the world's carrying trade and the 
development of a sea power reasonably capable of 
proper and necessary service in peace and war, is now 
expending millions each year in the building and op- 
erating of American ships which as yet are largely 
manned by officers and men insufficiently trained to 
give efficient service and to restore and maintain safety 
at sea. and 

WHEREAS, The basis of all sea power is skilled 
and courageous seamen, the development of which is 
as yet largely neglected by the United States, and 

WHEREAS, Among the purposes for which tin- 
International Seamen's Union of America' was organ- 
ized are the development of a native body of skilled 
seamen in sufficient number to give efficient service 
in peace and war and to restore to the seamen their 
true status in human society, therefore be it 

RESOLVED, That we favor 

(a) The legal prohibition of anyone being engaged 
as a boy, youth or man on board an American vessel 
in an American harbor unless he is a citizen of the 
United States or capable of becoming a citizen under 
existing laws. 

(b) The proper and efficient inspection of vessels, 
in which the certificate of inspection shall be such that 
no vessel not specifically seaworthy in all n 
shall receive a clear inspection certificate and be per- 
mitted to go to sea. 

(c) That the Inspection Service shall superintend 
the inspection of ships to ascertain that they are in all 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



177 



respects seaworthy before they are permitted to go to 
sea. 

(d) They shall superintend the examination of all 
persons seeking to become deck officers of vessels to 
see that they are efficient in actual experience on 
board ship and in the theory and practice of seaman- 
ship and navigation, all of which shall be ascertained 
by the examiners before they are granted any certifi- 
cate that will entitle them to be employed as deck 
officers on American vessels. 

(e) They shall superintend the examination of all 
persons seeking to become engineering officers of 
vessels to see that they are efficient in actual experi- 
ence on board ship and in the theory and practice of 
marine engineering, all of which shall be ascertained 
by the examiners before they are granted any certifi- 
cate that will entitle them to be employed as engineer 
officers of American vessels. 

(f) They shall examine all applicants for certificate 
of able seamen before issuing such certificates, and 
they shall examine applicants to serve as firemen, oil- 
ers and watertenders after proof properly submitted 
that they have served as wipers or coalpassers for the 
required period and issue to such applicants after 
proper investigation a certificate similar to the able 
seamen's certificate and they shall issue a certificate 
as boatmen to persons applying therefore, after such 
applicants have been examined and favorably recom- 
mended by the Coast Guard Service. New men in the 
engine department should be required to serve six 
months at sea and produce discharges as wipers or 
coalpassers before they may apply for certificates of 
competency to be employed at higher ratings; pro- 
vided that men who can produce discharges for rating 
higher than wiper or coalpasser prior to the enactment 
of the legislation shall be eligible to secure a certifi- 
cate of competency, and be it further 

RESOLVED, That we urge the passage of appro- 
priate legislation to provide that jurisdiction over the 
personnel of the Merchant Marine now vested in the 
Department of Commerce be transferred to the De- 
partment of Labor to be administered by the depart- 
ment through a Seamen's Bureau. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

Secretary Olander: The Committee of the Whole 
recommends the adoption of the following Declaration, 
based upon similar declarations of previous conven- 
tions : 

Declaration 

For the Development and Support of the American 

Merchant Marine 

1. Enforce the Seamen's Act. Enact legislation 
necessary to clear up any doubt as to the application 
of certain sections to foreign ships leaving American 
harbors as well as to American ships. 

2. The monopoly which the law now gives to 
American shipyards does not produce ships. Ameri- 
cans should be permitted to purchase seaworthy ves- 
sels wherever the cost is lowest and to place such 
vessels under the American flag without restrictions 
as to the trade in which they may sail. Government 
aid in the building of ships may be necessary. 

3. Repeal the sections of the Tariff Act under 
which a heavy duty is levied on repairs to American 
ships in foreign yards and on supplies purchased in 
foreign ports and also repeal tariff duties on all ship- 
building materials. 

4. Develop skill among American seamen to the 
point where the crews of American ships will be able 



to give maximum service in the sailing, the upkeep, 
and the repair of American vessels. This is possible if 
the Government and the associations of shipowners 
will cooperate with the union. The union has urged 
this for many years. 

5. Develop an American personnel. Employ — and 
thus train — Americans first with the most skilled men 
of other nationalities eligible and willing to become 
citizens. 

6. Cease employing Asiatics in preference to Ameri- 
cans and other seamen eligible to citizenship. 

7. Require that seamen be shipped only through 
authorized government shipping commissioners. Abol- 
ish all private discharge books and substitute there- 
fore discharge books to be issued to the seamen by 
the government. 

8. Abolish the practice of requiring some seamen 
to work twelve to sixteen hours a day. 

9. Establish working hours on board ship com- 
patible with American standards by extending the 
three-watch system by law to include the deck crew 
as already established by law in the engine depart- 
ment, and provide for an eight-hour day by law as 
applicable to the stewards' department at sea and to 
the entire crew in port. 

10. American seamen who have served thirty-six 
months in the merchant service and are otherwise 
eligible should be permitted to voluntarily enter the 
navy on short-term enlistments of not to exceed one 
year for intensive training. 

11. The United States should maintain full sov- 
ereignty over its own ports and should exercise the 
right to determine the conditions under which foreign 
ships may use American harbors. The Government 
should not enter into any treaty providing for a sur- 
render of such sovereignty, even though such covenant 
with foreign nations may be disguised in such form 
as the proposed treaty for alleged "safety of life at 
sea." 

12. American railroads should be required to cancel 
any contracts which give preference to foreign steam- 
ship lines as against American ships. 

13. The Government should be prepared to protect 
and assist such American ships as are made the sub- 
ject of assaults upon their legitimate business by for- 
eign shipping interests acting through so-called con- 
ferences or conspiracies. 

14. Americans should ship by and travel on Ameri- 
can vessels whenever possible. They should give pref- 
erence to the merchant marine of their own flag. 

15. The union does not favor government owner- 
ship of the merchant marine. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 

The Secretary read a communication from I. L. A. 
Local 38-79, under date of February 4, 1936, enclosing 
resolution regarding revocation of charter of Sailors' 
Union of the Pacific; also a letter under date of Feb- 
ruary 5, 1936, from Bargemen's, 1 1. L. A., Local 38-101, 
on same subject. 

At 5:25 p. m. the Convention adjourned until 9:30 
a. m. February 15, 1936. 



178 



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April 1, 1936 



THIRTIETH DAY 
Saturday Morning Session 



Washington, D. C, February 15, 1936. 

The Convention was called to order at 9:45 a. m., 
Vice-President Hunter presiding. 

Roll Call— All present. 

At 9:50 a. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for the further considera- 
tion of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

The question of the President's salary was discussed 
briefly, but not acted upon at this time. 

It was moved by Vice-President Hunter, seconded 
by Delegate Grange, and carried, that the salary of 
the Secretary-Treasurer be $100 per week. 

Delegate Grange, on behalf of delegates to the Con- 
vention, presented to Mrs. Victor A. Olander a hand- 



some silver service as a token of the esteem in which 
the delegates held her. 

Mrs. Olander graciously expressed her thanks for 
the gift. 

Discussion was had on the question oi the salary of 
the Editor, no action being taken on the matter, how- 
ever, before the noon adjournment. In this connection 
the possibility of combining the office of Editor with 
that of the Legislative Representative was considered, 
and the question of legislation was discussed. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 12:30 p. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

The Secretary, for the Committee of the Whole. 
reported progress. 

At 12:35 p. m. the Convention adjourned until 2 
p. m. 



THIRTIETH DAY 
Saturday Afternoon Session 



The Convention was called to order at 2:15 p. m.. 
Vice-President Hunter in the chair. 

Roll Call— All present. 

A letter from the International Mercantile Marine 
Company, concerning a new Panama Canal Tolls Bill, 
introduced by Senator Gore, was read, and was re- 
ferred to the incoming Executive Board. 

At 2:20 p. m. the Convention resolved itself into the 
Committee of the Whole for the further consideration 
of pending matters. 

Committee of the Whole 

Vice-President O'Brien in the chair. 

The Committee of the Whole then discussed, and 
prepared recommendations, on the following matters: 

The salary of the President. 

The position of Editor and Legislative Representa- 
tive, and salary. 

Salary of officers not otherwise provided for. 

Salary of organizers. 

Hotel allowances of organizers and officers, when 
traveling. 

The matter of expenses of Ed Coester and Al V. 
Quittenton. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE 

At 5:15 p. m. the Convention reconvened, Vice- 
President Hunter in the chair. 

The Secretary read the report of the Committee of 
the Whole and action was taken thereon as follows: 

The Committee of the Whole recommends adoption 
of the following resolution: 



Resolution No. 52 
B) the Committee of the Whole. 

WHEREAS, Various bills have been introduced in 
the Congress for the purpose of regulating the affairs 
of the Merchant Marine, and 

WHEREAS, Some of these will, if enacted into 
law, restrain and re strict the seaman in the exercise oi 
his freedom by proposing to establish agencies which 
may have the authority to adjust wages and conditions 
of work without recognition ni the fu'l rights of sea- 
men in the conduct of collective bargaining, therefore, 
be it 

RESOLVED, That the Executive Board be and i> 

hereby directed and authorized by this, the Thirty- 
third Convention of the International Seamen's Union 
of America, to prepare and urge upon the Congrc>> 
legislation similar to the Railway Labor Act, for the 
purpose of establishing an impartial Board or Boards 
to assist in the peaceful settlement of disputes that 
may ari>e between shipowners and the organizations 
of seamen. 

The report of the Committee was adopted. 
The Committee of the Whole submitted the follow- 
ing recommendations: 

1. That the salary of the Secretary-Treasurer be 
$100 per week. 

2. That the salary of the President be $100 per 
week. 

3. That the position of Editor and Legislative Rep- 
resentative be combined, and that the salary of the 
combined positions be $100 per week — the office to 
be in Washington, D. C. 

4. That the salary of officers not otherwise provided 
for be $60 per week when actually engaged in the 
service of the Union. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



179 



5. That the salary of organizers be $52.50 per week. 

6. That hotel allowances of organizers and officers 
when traveling be as follows: Organizers, $5 per day; 
officers, $7.50 per day. 

The recommendations of the Committee were 
adopted. 

The Committee of the Whole recommended that 
the Secretary-Treasurer be instructed to pay to Ed 
Coester and A. V. Quittenton, former delegates from 
the Sailors' Union of the Pacific, to assist them in 
meeting their personal expenses, the sum of $100 
each, in addition to the $100 each previously paid to 
them by the Secretary-Treasurer. 

The recommendation of the Committee was 
adopted. 

Motion was carried to suspend the rules and stay 
in session until the business of the Convention was 
completed. 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS 

President 

Andrew Furuseth, Member at Large, was nomi- 
nated for President. There being no further nomina- 
tions the Secretary, under instructions of the Conven- 
tion, cast the unanimous vote of the Convention for 
Andrew Furuseth as President of the International 
Seamen's Union of America, and he was declared 
elected accordingly. 

First Vice-President 

Ivan Hunter, of the Marine Firemen, Oilers and 
Watertenders' Union of the Great Lakes, was nomi- 
nated for the office of First Vice-President. There 
were no further nominations. In accord with instruc- 
tions of the Convention, the Secretary cast the unani- 
mous vote of the Convention for Ivan Hunter as First 
Vice-President of the International Seamen's Union 
of America, and he was declared elected accordingly. 

Second Vice-President 

Percy J. Pryor, of the Eastern Gulf Sailors' Asso- 
ciation and E. F. Burke, of the Marine Cooks and 
Stewards' Association of the Pacific Coast were nomi- 
nated for the office of Second Vice-President. 

A roll call vote was taken, as follows: 

For Pryor: Cummings, Brown, Keller, Kile, Van 
der Staay, Carlson, Bley, Keane, Grange, Allen, Angle, 
Kaiser, Warn, Olander, O'Brien, Hunter, Burke, and 
Deal. 

For Burke: King, Engstrom, Farrell, Murphy, 
Oldenberg, Conners, and O'Connor. 

Total: For Pryor, 323; for Burke, 96. 

Percy J. Pryor, of the Eastern Gulf Sailors' Asso- 
ciation, was declared elected as Second Vice-President 
of the International Seamen's Union of America. 

Third Vice-President 

Oscar Carlson, of the Marine Firemen, Oilers and 
Watertenders' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf, and 
A. W. Murphy, of the Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, 
Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers' Association, were 
nominated for the office of Third Vice-President. 



A roll call vote was taken, as follows: 

For Carlson: Cummings, Brown, Keller, Kile, Van 
der Staay, Bley, Grange, Allen, Angle, Kaiser, Warn, 
Olander, O'Brien, Hunter, and Deal. 

For Murphy: King, Engstrom, Farrell, Murphy, 
Oldenberg, Burke, Conners, and O'Connor. 

Total: For Carlson, 249; for Murphy, 115. 

Oscar Carlson, of the Marine Firemen, Oilers and 
Watertenders' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf was 
declared elected as Third Vice-President of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 

Fourth Vice-President 

David E. Grange, of the Marine Cooks and Stew- 
ards' Association of the Atlantic and Gulf, and Jack 
Conners of the Marine Cooks and Stewards' Associa- 
tion of the Pacific Coast, were nominated for the 
office of Fourth Vice-President. 

A roll call vote was taken, as follows: 

For Grange: Cummings, Brown, Keller, Kile, Van 
der Staay, Carlson, Bley, Grange, Allen, Angle, Kai- 
ser, Warn, Olander, O'Brien, Hunter, Conners, and 
Deal. 

For Conners: Keane, King, Engstrom, Farrell, Mur- 
phy, Oldenberg, Burke, and O'Connor. 

Tota: For Grange, 296; for Conners, 123. 

David E. Grange, of the Marine Cooks and Stew- 
ards' Association of the Atlantic and Gulf, was de- 
clared elected as Fourth Vice-President of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union of America. 

Fifth Vice-President 

G. H. Brown, of the Eastern Gulf Sailors' Associa- 
tion, was nominated for the office of Fifth Vice-Presi- 
dent. There were no further nominations. In accord 
with instructions of the Convention, the Secretary cast 
the unanimous vote of the Convention for G. H. 
Brown as Fifth Vice-President of the International 
Seamen's Union of America, and he was declared 
elected accordingly. 

Sixth Vice-President 

C. W. Deal, of the Ferryboatmen's Union of the 
Pacific, and Earl King, of the Pacific Coast Marine 
Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers' Associa- 
tion, were nominated for the office of Sixth Vice- 
President. 

A roll call vote was taken, as follows: 

For Deal: Cummings, Brown, Keller, Kile, Van 
der Staay, Carlson, Bley, Grange, Allen, Angle, Kaiser, 
Warn, Olander, O'Brien, and Hunter. 

For King: Engstrom, Farrell, Murphy, Oldenberg, 
Burke, Conners, and O'Connor. 

Total: For Deal, 265; for King, 103. 

C. W. Deal, of the Ferryboatmen's Union of the 
Pacific, was declared elected as Sixth Vice-President 
of the International Seamen's Union of America. 

Seventh Vice-President 

James Hayman, of the Marine Firemen, Oilers and 
Watertenders' Union of the Great Lakes, and Patrick 
Keane of the Marine Firemen, Oilers and Watertend- 



180 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



ers' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf, were nominated 
for the office of Seventh Vice-President. 

A roll call vote was taken, as follows: 

For Hayman: Cummings, Brown, Keller, Kile, Van 
der Staay, Carlson, Grange, Allen, Angle, Kaiser, 
Warn, Olander, O'Brien, Hunter, and Deal. 

For Keane: Bley, King, Engstrom, Farrcll, Mur- 
phy, Oldenberg, Burke, Couriers, and O'Connor. 

Total: For Hayman, 249; for Keane, 143. 

James Hayman, of the Marine Firemen, Oilers and 
Watertenders' Union of the Great Lakes, was declared 
elected as Seventh Vice-President of the International 
Seamen's Union of America. 

Eighth Vice-President 

Claude Goshorn, of the Sailors' Union of the Great 
Lakes, and B. J. O'Sullivan, of the Pacific Coast Ma- 
rine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers' As- 
sociation, were nominated for the office of Eighth 
Vice-President. 

A roll call vote was taken, as follows: 

For Goshorn: Cummings, Brown, Keller, Kile, Van 
der Staay, Carlson, Bley, Grange, Allen, Angle, Kai- 
ser, Warn, Olander, O'Brien, Hunter, and Deal, 

For O'Sullivan: Keane, King, Engstrom, Farrell, 
Murphy, Oldenberg, Burke, Connors, and O'Connor. 

Total: For Goshorn, 277; for O'Sullivan. 142. 

Claude Goshorn, of the Sailors' Union of the Great 
Lakes, was declared elected as Eighth Vice-President 
of the International Seamen's Union of America. 

Secretary-Treasurer 

Patrick O'Brien of the Sailor's Union of the Great 
Lakes, and James Engstrom, of the Pacific Coast Ma- 
rine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers' As- 
sociation, were nominated for the office of Secretary- 
Treasurer. 

A roll call vote was taken, as follows: 

For O'Brien: Cummings, Brown, Keller, Kile, Van 
der Staay, Carlson, Bley, Keane, Grange, Allen, Angle, 
Kaiser, Warn, Olander, Hunter, Engstrom, and Deal. 

For Engstrom: King, Farrell, Murphy, Oldenberg, 
Burke, Conners, and O'Connor. 

Total: For O'Brien, 313; for Engstrom, K>3. 

Patrick O'Brien, of the Sailors, Union of the Great 
Lakes, was declared elected as Secretary-Treasurer 
of the International Seamen's Union of America. 

Editor 

Paul Scharrenberg, present Editor and Member at 
Large, and A. W. Murphy, of the Pacific Coast Ma- 
rine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers' As- 
sociation, were nominated for the office of Editor of 
the Seamen's Journal. 

A roll call vote was taken, as follows: 
For Scharrenberg: Cummings, Brown, Keller, Kile, 
Van der Staay, Carlson, Bley, Keane, Grange, Allen, 
Angle, Kaiser, Warn, Olander, O'Brien. Hunter, and 
Deal. 



For Murphy: King, Engstrom, Farrell, Murphy. 
Oldenberg, Burke, Conners, and O'Connor. 

Total: For Scharrenberg, 304; for Murphy, 115. 

Paul Scharrenberg was declared elected as Editor of 
the Seamen's Journal. 

Delegates to American Federation of Labor 
Andrew Furuseth was nominated as first delegate to 
the American Federation oi Labor Convention, and 
there being no further nominations he was unani- 
mously elected. 

Paul Scharrenberg was nominated as second dele- 
gate to the American Federation of Labor Conven- 
tion, and there being no further nominations, he was 
unanimously elected. 

Ivan Hunter was nominated as third delegate to the 
American Federation of Labor Convention, and there 
being no further nominations, he was unanimously 
elected. 

Legislative Committee 

Paul Scharrenberg, Editor of the Seamen's Journal, 
was nominated as the first member of the Legislative 
Committee. There being no further nominations, he 
was declared elected. 

Ivan Hunter, of the Marine Firemen, Oilers and 
Watertenders' Union of the Great Lakes, was nomi- 
nated as the second member of the Legislative Com 
mittee. There being no further nominations, he was 
declared elected. 

Patrick O'Brien of the Sailors' Union of the Great 
Lake-, was nominated as the third member of the 
Legislative Committee. There being no further nomi- 
nations, he was declared elected. 

Oscar Carlson, of the Marine Firemen, Oiler> and 
Watertenders' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf, was 
nominated as the fourth member of the Legislative 
Committee. There being no further nominations, he 
was declared elected. 

David E. Grange, of the Marine Cooks and Stew- 
ards' Association of the Atlantic and Gulf, and Patrick 
Keane, of the Marine Firemen, Oilers, and Water- 
tenders' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf, were nomi- 
nated for the position of fifth members of the Legis- 
lative Committee. 

A roll call vote was taken, as follows: 

For Grange: Cummings, Brown, Keller, Kile, Van 
der Staay, Carlson, Bley, Grange, Allen, Angle. Kai- 
ser, Warn. Olander, O'Brien. Hunter, Burke, O'Con- 
nor, and Deal. 

For Keane: King, Engstrom, Farrell, Murphy, ( >1 1- 
enberg, and Conners. 

Total: For Grange, 314; for Keane, 78. 

David E. Grange, of the Marine Cooks and Stew- 
ards' Union of the Atlantic and Gulf, was declared 
lected as fifth member of the Legislative Committee. 

Date of Next Convention 
The Convention, by unanimous vote, decided that 
the next Convention shall convene on the second 
Monday in January, 1937. 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



181 



Convention City 

Washington, D. C, and Los Angeles, California, 
were placed in nomination. 

A roll call vote was taken, as follows: 

For Los Angeles: Carlson, Bley, Keane, Grange, 
Allen, Angle, Kaiser, Warn, Olander, O'Brien, Hun- 
ter, King, Engstrom, Farrell, Murphy, Oldenberg, 
Burke, Conners, O'Connor, and Deal. 

For Washington: Cummings, Brown, Keller, Kile, 
and Van der Staay. 

Total: For Los Angeles, 330; for Washington, 89. 

Los Angeles, California, was declared selected as 
the next Convention City. 

Printing of Proceedings 

The Secretary-Treausurer was given authority to 
print the proceedings of the Convention, showing all 
motions and actions taken by the Convention. 

Verbatim Transcript 

The Secretary stated that, in conformity with in- 
structions of the Executive Board issued prior to the 
Convention, a typewritten verbatim transcript, which 
would be very lengthy, would be made of the entire 
proceedings, unless instructions were given to the con- 
trary by the Convention, and would be on file in the 
Secretary's office. 

SAILORS' UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Motion was made and seconded that the matter of 
the charter of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific would 
be given attention by the Executive Board. 



Secretary Olander stated that the motion of the 
kind offered neither added to nor detracted from any- 
thing that had been done previously by the Conven- 
tion, that the Executive Board was empowered by 
the Constitution to act in accord with its judgment 
after the adjournment of the Convention, unless oth- 
erwise specifically instructed by the Convention, and 
would necessarily continue to give its attention to the 
subject matter referred to in the pending motion as 
well as to many other matters for the purpose of 
carrying out all actions of the Convention in the man- 
ner best calculated to promote the best interests of 
the International Seamen's Union of America. 

The motion was thereupon adopted. 

ADJOURNMENT 

Following a statement by Secretary Olander con- 
cerning his retirement as Secretary-Treasursr, a mo- 
tion was duly made, seconded, and carried by a rising 
vote that the Convention tender its sincere regrets to 
Secretary Olander upon his relinquishing the duties 
of Secretary-Treasurer, and expressing gratitude for 
the effective service he had rendered during his term 
of office. 

At 8:25 p. m., the Thirty-third Convention of the 
International Seamen's Union of America was ad- 
journed sine die. 

Fraternallv submitted, 



(Seal) 




Secretary-Treasurer, 
International Seamen's Union of America. 



182 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



INDEX 



Page 
A 

Able Seamen's Certificates 106, 149 

Addresses: 

Frank Morrison, Secretary, American Federa- 
tion of Labor 81 

Miss Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor 120 

Robert W. Bruere, U. S. Representative to 
Geneva Maritime Conference 126 

Harold Builer, Director of International La- 
bor Office 132 

Leifur Magnnssen, Director of Washington 
Office, I. L. 132 

Edward F. McGrady, Assistant Secretary of 
Labor 142 

Frank Cushman, Chief of Trade and Indus- 
trial Service, U. S. Bureau of Education 162 

Aged Seamen, Discrimination Against (Res. 12).. 152 

Agreements and Awards 95-98, 123 

American Federation of Labor, Election of Dele- 
gates 180 

American Merchant Marine, Declaration for De- 
velopment and Support 177 

Atlantic Coast Negotiations with Shipowners. ...92, 121 

Audit, Report of Committee 147 

Australian Seamen's Union, Cablegram to 125 

Audit and Credentials, Report of Committee 81 

B 

British Columbia Seafarers' Industrial Union, Ap- 
plication for Charter 163 

British National Union of Seamen, Cablegram of 
Greeting to Convention 135 

c 

Canada, Seamen of 106, 146 

Charters Issued 100, 131, 140 

Committee Reports: 

Credentials 81 

Audit 147 

Constitution 163, 168 

Communist Agitators, Efforts to Disrupt Union. .93. 94 

Communist, Fascist and Vigilante Propaganda 
Condemned (Substitute for Res. 38, 39 and 41) 159 

Compensation Law for Seamen (Res. 1 and 6) 150 



Page 

Connery Bill (H. R. 7286) Approved— Transfer of 
Jurisdiction of Seamen from Department of 
Commerce to Department of Labor 141 

Constitution, Appointment of Special Committee 
on 144 

Constitution Committee, Report of 163, 168 

Constitution, as Amended by Convention 168-173 

Constitution, Violations of 101, 136 

Convention City of 1937 181 

Copper River and Prince William Sound Fisher- 
men's Union, Grant of Charter to 118, 122 

Crews Quarters, Location of (Res. 21) 155 

D 

Declaration for the Development and Support of 
the American Merchant Marine 177 

Deep Sea and Purse Seine Fishermen's Union of 
San Pedro. Grant of Charter to 140 

E 

Education and Policies, Statement Adopted by 
Convention 147 

Election of Officers . 179 

Engineers' Convention (N. M. E. B. A.) Commit- 
tee Appointed to Convey Greetings 125, 126 

Executive Board, Actions of 98, 138 

F 

Ferryboatmen's Union of the Pacific, Change of 
Name (Res. 24) 155 

Fish Traps, etc., Protest Against (Res. 45 and 
49) 121, 161 

Furuseth, Andrew, President I. S. U. of A.: 

Report to Convention 83 

Statement of Revocation of Charter of Sailor-' 
Union of the Pacific 135 

G 

Gangsters and Racketeers Condemned (Substitute 
for Res. 33 and 34) 155, 156 

Geneva Maritime Conference in 1936 83. 105, 145 

Great Lakes Situation 94. 121 



H 

Harbor Boatmen, Jurisdiction Dispute (Res. 36).... 123 



April 1. 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



Pag< 



Herring Fishermen of the Pacific, Grant of Char- 
ter to 118. 122 

Houston, Texas, Strike on S. S. Jacob Lucken- 
bach 131, 132 



International Labor Office, Conferences on Sea- 
men's Problems 83. 105, 145 



International Relations 105, 145 

I. S. U. of A. Financial Statements 107-116, 149 



N 



183 

Page 



Investigation of Parties Fomenting a Seamen's 
Strike (Res. 50) 133 

Ioiva, S. S.. Tribute to Members of Crew 117, 120 

Investigation to Determine Causes of 'Wreck 
(Res. 22) 155 



K 

King, Earl, Efforts to Seat Rump Delegates 82 

King-Schulte Bill (H. R. 358) Reindorsed 141 



N.R. A. Shipping Code, Failure of. 86 - 92 

National Labor Relations Act 105, 145 

National Maritime Board Plan 

86. 101, 130, 132, 137, 138, 139 

National Maritime Labor Council: 

Appointment of Special Committee 130 

Adoption of Constitution and By-Laws 143 

Report on First Meeting and Election of Offi- 
cers \()7 



Officers, Election of 179 

Olander, Victor A., Secretary-Treasurer, I. S. U. 
of A., Report to Convention 84—1 1 '> 

Olander. Secretary, Comment on False Stories 
Circulated Among Seamen, etc 142, 156, 164. 1(>'> 

Orientals on American Ships (Res. 20) 154 



La Follette, Robert M., Message from. 



1M) 



La Follete-Welch Bill (S. 1933 and H. R. 7290) 

Reindorsed 140 



Legal Status of Seamen. 



105. 145 



Legislation, Comment by Secretary Olander 

...104, 105, 140, 141 

Legislation: List of Additional Bills Pending in 
Congress 145 

180 

106. 149 



Legislative Committee, Election of. 
Lifeboatmen's Certificates 



M 



Maintenance and Cure, Need for Legislation 145 

Marine Hospital, Rules Regarding Admission 
(Res. 17, 18 and 19) 152, 153 

Maritime Board Plan, Opposed by Shipowners 
and by Communist Marine Workeis' Indus- 
trial Union 86. 101 

Maritime Conference at Geneva in 1936 83, 105, 145 

Maritime Federation of the Pacific Coast 98, 129 

Masters, Mates and Pilots' National Organiza- 
tion, Report of Committee Visiting Convention 137 

Miller, Harry, Appeal of 102, 134 

Modesto, Cal., Defendants, Support for (Res. 42).. 162 

Mooney and Billings, Reaffirming Declaration in 
Innocence of (Substitute for Res. 44) 160 



Pacific Coast Maritime Federation 98, 129 

Pacific Coast Agreements and Awards 95-98, 123 

Pacific Coast Steam-Schooner Strike 131 

Pacific Coast Strike of 1934 87, 121 

Pacific Coast Tanker Strike (Res. 40) 161 

Panama Canal Tolls, Legislation Concerning. 149, 153 
Proceedings: 

First Da)- — Morning Session ..: 81 

First Day— Afternoon Session S^ 

Second Day — Morning Session 117 

Third Day — Morning Session 118 

Third Day — Afternoon Session 119 

Fourth Day — Morning Session 120 

Fourth Day — Afternoon Session 12.) 

Fifth Day — Morning Session 121 

Fifth Day — Afternoon Session.. 122 

Sixth Day — Morning Session 122 

Seventh Day — Morning Session 124 

Seventh Day — Afternoon Session 124 

Eighth Day — Morning Session 125 

Eighth Day — Afternoon Session 126 

Ninth Day — Morning Session 126 

Ninth Day — Afternoon Session 127 

Tenth Day — Morning Session 128 



184 THESEAMEN 

Page 

Tenth Day — Afternoon Session 128 

Tenth Day— Night Session 130 

Eleventh Day — Morning Session 130 

Eleventh Day — Afternoon Session 131 

Twelfth Day — Morning Session 132 

Twelfth Day — Afternoon Session 132 

Thirteenth Day — Morning Session 133 

Thirteenth Day — Afternoon Session 135 

Fourteenth Day — Morning Session 137 

Fourteenth Day — Afternoon Session 138 

Fifteenth Day — Morning Session 139 

Fifteenth Day — Afternoon Session 139 

Sixteenth Day — Morning Session 140 

Sixteenth Day — Afternoon Session 141 

Seventeenth Day — Morning Session 141 

Seventeenth Day — Afternoon Session 142 

Eighteenth Day — Morning Session 143 

Nineteenth Day — Morning Session 145 

Nineteenth Day — Afternoon Session 147 

Twentieth Day — Morning Session 14') 

Twentieth Day — Afternoon Session 150 

Twenty-first Day — Morning Session 154 

Twenty-first Day — Afternoon Session 154 

Twenty-second Day — Morning Session 157 

Twenty-second Day — Afternoon Session 157 

Twenty-third Day — Morning Session 160 

Twenty-third Day — Afternoon Session \u2 

Twenty-fourth Day — Morning Session 163 

Twenty-fifth Day — Morning Session 163 

Twenty-fifth Day — Afternoon Session 164 

Twenty-sixth Day — Morning Session 164 

Twenty-sixth Day — Afternoon Session 165 

Twenty-seventh Day — Morning Session 165 

Twenty-seventh Day — Afternoon Session 166 

Twenty-eighth Day — Morning Session 167 

Twenty-eighth Day — Afternoon Session 168 

Twenty-ninth Day — Morning Session 174 

Twenty-ninth Day — Afternoon Session 174 

Thirtieth Day — Morning Session 178 

Thirtieth Day — Afternoon Session 178 

Provisions, Scale of (Res. 16) 154 



'S JOURNAL April 1,1936 

Page 
R 

Resolutions introduced: 

No. 1— By Delegate Coester 150 

No. 2 — By Delegate Coester 151 

No. 3 — By Delegate Vigen 151 

No. 4— By Delegate 1'ryor 117 

No. 5 — By Delegate Ferguson... 151 

No. 6 — By Delegate Ferguson 150 

No. 7 — By President Furuseth and Delegate 

Olander 144 

No. 8 — By Delegate Quittenton.. 125 

No. 9 — By Delegate Quittenton 151 

No. 10 — By Delegate Quittenton 152 

No. 11 — By Delegate Vigen 144 

No. 12— By Delegate Keller 152 

No. 13— By Delegate Coester 153 

No. U — By Delegate Quittenton 153 

No. 15 — By Delegate Coester 154 

No. 16 — By Delegate Van der Staay 154 

No. 17— By Delegate Van der Staay 152 

No. 18 — By Delegate Ferguson 153 

No. 19— By Delegate Burke 153 

No. 20 — By Delegate Conners 154 

No. 21— By Delegate Kile 155 

No. 22 — By Delegate Quittenton 155 

No. 23 — By Delegates Murphy. Fngstrom, 

Conners and King (withdrawn).... 121 

No. 24— By Delegate Deal 155 

No. 25 — By Delegate Quittenton 155 

No. 26— By Delegate King 144, 163 

Xo. 27— By Delegate King 144, 163 

No. 28— By Delegate King 144. 163 

No. 29— By Delegate Murphy 144. 163 

No. 30— By Delegate O'Brien ,*. 175 

No. 31 — By Delegate Hunter 175 

No. 32 — By Delegate Angle 175 

No. 33 — By Delegate Quittenton 155 

No. 3-1 — By Delegate Engstrom 156 

No. 35 — By Delegates Quittenton, Coester 156 

No. 36 — By Delegate Morris 123 

No. 37 — By Delegates Engstrom. Murphy 157 

No. 38— By Delegate King 158 

No. 39 — By Delegates Quittenton, Coester 158 



April 1, 1936 THE SEAME 

Page 

No. 40 — By Delegate Ferguson 161 

No. 41— By Delegate Quittenton 158 

No. 42— By Delegates Farrell, Oldenberg 162 

No. 43 — By Delegates Ferguson, Engstrom 162 

No. 44 — By Delegate Quittenton 159 

No. 45 — By Delegates Quittenton, Engstrom, 

Conners 161 

No. 46— By Delegate Olander 161 

No. 47— By Delegate Quittenton 144, 168 

No. 48— By Delegate Quittenton 155 

No. 49 — By Fishermen's Delegation 121 

No. 50— By Delegate Olander 133 

No. 51— By President Furuseth 176 

No. 52— By Delegate Deal 178 

No. 53 — By Editor Scharrenberg 167 

Rules of Order 82 



Safety of Life at Sea, Proposed Treaty Opposed.. 151 

Sailors' Union of the Pacific, Revocation of 

Charter 135, 136, 137, 140, 143, 157, 181 

Salmon Purse Seiners of the Pacific, Grant of 

Charter to 118, 122 

Scharrenberg, Paul, Appeal Sustained by Execu- 
tive Board 102, 134 

Seamen's Journal 103, 139 

Secretary-Treasurer Victor A. Olander's Report: 

Outlook for the Future 84, 120 

District and Local Unions 84, 120 

Review of Conventions 85, 120 

The Economic Depression 85, 121 

National Recovery Administration 86, 121 

Effect of Federal Government Policy 87, 121 

Pacific Coast Strike 87, 121 

Atlantic and Gulf Coast Maneuvers 92, 121 

Great Lakes Situation 94, 121 

The Rivers 94, 121 

Agreements and Awards 95-98, 123 

Maritime Federation of the Pacific Coast.. ..98, 129 

Actions of Executive Board 98, 138 

Charters Issued 100, 131, 140 

National Maritime Board Plan 

86, 101, 130, 132, 137, 138, 139 

Violations of Constitution 101, 136 

Appeals 101, 134 



N'S JOURNAL 



185 



Page 

A Dangerous Proposal 102, 175 

District Offices 103, 138 

District Committees 103, 138 

Seamen's Journal 103, 139 

Legislation 104, 140, 141, 142 

Legal Status 105, 145 

National Labor Relations Act 105, 145 

Social Security Act 105, 142 

International Relations 105, 145 

Canada 106, 146 

Skill 106, 147 

Able Seamen's Certificates 106, 149 

Lifeboatmen's Certificates 106, 149 

Reports of Officers 106, 149 

Jurisdiction 106, 149 

Financial Statements 107-116, 149 

Improvement in Finances 116, 149 

Conclusion 116, 149 



Sergeant-at-Arms, Appointment of. 



82 



Shipowners, Letters and Telegrams from, denying 
alleged desire to terminate agreements 142, 156 



Shipping Code under N.R.A., Failure of. 



.86-92 



Skill and Efficiency, Statement adopted by Con- 
vention 147 

Social Security Law for Seamen 105, 142 

Strikes, Efforts of Disrupters to Foment 

142, 156, 164, 166, 167 



Treaties Emanating from International Labor 

Office 83, 105, 145 



U 



United Boatmen's Union of New York, Dispute 
with I. L. A. (Res. 46) 161 



Voice of the Federation, Reply to Personal Attack 
upon Secretary Olander 119 



w 



Warning Against Subversive Strike Propaganda.. 167 



186 THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL April 1, 193€ 

THE MUNITION BUSINESS A SOVIET RECEPTION 



The Senate Munitions Committee made a spec- 
tacular finish to its amazing investigation. It car- 
ried the inquiry straight into the sale by our own 
War Department of discarded and superseded 
guns. It showed that the vultures of the muni- 
tions trade look to these sales as regular sources 
of supply. 

For example. Jacob Paley of New York testi- 
fied that in August, 1933, he bought from the 
War Department at Schenectady, Xew York, ma- 
chine guns for which he paid 12 cents each. He 
got for $1,500 guns which had cost the govern- 
ment more than $1,660,000. These guns were 
"mutilated" before being sold; but the evidence 
showed that they could be easily reassembled. 
And weapons singularly like these have appeared 
in South American uprisings. 

It will pay to give a few details. Among the 
guns which Paley got were 3,334 Colt-Marlins 
and 500 Hotchkiss machine guns. There was 
nothing whatever wrong with them : they were 
not quite up to date in the matter of mass mur- 
der, and the War Department wants the latest 
developments in this line. But there is not the 
slightest doubt that half these guns would have 
turned battle into rout if used on either side of 
the international and domestic outbreaks which 
have occurred in South America since the sale. 

Other tales were told lie fore the committee. 
One involved our neighbor, Canada. The Cana- 
dian Government sold a patrol boat for $18,000; 
and it was resold to Brazilian rebels for $50,000. 

A hundred machine guns were sold to Brazilian 
insurrectos in 1932 for $49,000. On this basis, 
the guns which Paley bought for $1,500 would 
have brought $2,940,000. 

There is nothing new about this. Jn one of 
the last of our Indian wars, American soldiers 
were killed with American rifles which had been 
bought in this country — no one knows all the de- 
tails- — by speculators in slaughter, and sent to the 
Apaches by a double bit of smuggling over the 
Mexican line. And. of course, one must never 
forget that J. P. Morgan, the elder, belonged to 
a syndicate which bought discarded carbines at 
the opening of the Civil War. sold them to the 
government for several times their cost, though 
they were so defective that they blew off the 
thumbs of the soldiers who fired them. 



An amusing description of the reception given 
an American crew in the Port of Vladivostok is 
published in a semi-communistic sheet published 
in San Francisco. 

I lere are some glimpses of the Bridges' Elysium 
as portrayed by an American able seaman: 

"We arrived at Vladivostok yesterday at 2 p. m. 
'Hie first thing we had to do was to put under a 
Custom's Seal all articles purchased abroad and 
also any binoculars, radios, liquors, etc. These 
Russians were not taking any chances with smug- 
gling ! Then, still keeping us closely guarded in 
the messroom, they searched the ship from stem 
to stern-holds, forecastles, gear lockers, etc. After 
keeping us for over two hours, were were finally 
released and told that we could secure special 
passes from the Soviet Government for shore 
leave. And — if we lost them, we would be fined 
10 rubles! More red tape! Well, to make a long 
story short, some of the boys went ashore and 
there, much to their disgust, it cost them 5 rubles 
for a glass of wine. An outrage! And how. Rex 
Harper, our militant bos'n, decided it would be 
much cheaper to remain aboard ship and wet his 
whist k- with some good old vodka and beer, the 
produce of Dairen ! The longshoremen here 
worked all night and only handled a few tons. 
The mate just about blew his cork. Why back 
in tin- States they could have unloaded and loaded 
the ship in that time! Well, such is life, 'when in 
Rome, do as the Romans do.' an old adage. The 
soldiers patrolled the ship all night. Ashore, 
there were two soldiers on each block, with rifle 
and fixed bayonet. They must be afraid of in- 
vasion." 



The bosses own the "company unions" just as 
much as they own their factories and machines. 
Carefully authenticated records prove that every 
"company union" in the land has been formed 
either directly or indirectly by the employer. 
Bud McKillips. 



Take no stock in anything that does not bear 
the Union Isabel. 



Circumstances ! 
poleon. 



I make circumstances. — Xa- 



April 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



187 



THE SPICE OF LIFE 



TO ENCOURAGE OTHERS 

Hard was the lot of Albert Spink, 
Who could "stop his car as quick as 

a wink." 
But a telephone pole, it stopped him 

quicker, 
When he tried to mix his gas with 

likker. 

HIS PRECIOUS STEED 

Cavalry Sergeant (to recruit 
marching too close behind charger) 
— How often have I told you not to 
walk too near his hoofs? One of 
these days you'll get kicked on the 
head, and then I shall have a lame 
horse on my hands. 



SANDPAPERED 

"That friend of yours is very 
polished." 

"Yes, you see he has rubbed up 
against the best people." 



HIGH HOTEL 

"Buddy, how high is this hotel?" 
"So high, sir, that we have a lunch 
counter in each elevator." 



EVEN AS YOU AND I 

"You can cut some people by 
ignoring them." 

"Wish I could cut the lawn that 
way." 

EARLY SYMPTOMS 

Fond Mother — What do you think 
baby will be when he grows up? 

Exasperated Father — I don't 
know; town crier, most likely. 



NOT SECRET SERVICE 

Mistress — Cook, your fingermarks 
were on the plates we used at din- 
ner. 

Cook (truculently) — And what are 
you going to do about it? Ring up 
J. Edgar Hoover's G-men? 



PERSONAL 

The young mistress sent her 
colored maid, newly hired, for a bill 
of toilet articles. 

"Mandy," said the mistress a few 
days later, "where is that tar soap 
you got for me the other day?" 

"Lawzee, miss," exclaimed Mandy, 
"what all's a blonde lady like you 
to do wid tar soap, Ah thought 
you ordered it for mah own pus- 
sonal use." 



HIGH VALUE 

He — For the love of you, I could 
become anything. 

She — Become a millionaire. 



TOO LATE 

She wanted to be in the beauty 
chorus, so she wrote an application, 
enclosed her photograph, and was 
asked to come for an interview. 
Imagine her surprise when she was 
told by the manager that she was 
too late. 

"Is the position filled, then?" she 
asked. 

"No," replied the manager, "I 
meant that you should have come 
when you had your photograph 
taken." 

FROM REEL TO REAL 

They were movie "fans" and this 
was the first time they had seen a 
legitimate performance. To them 
the play seemed tiresome. 

In one of the intervals the hus- 
band stifled a yawn, and turned to 
his wife. "What comes next?" he 
asked. 

She consulted her program. "It 
says here: 'Act Four same as Act 
One." 

"Heavens," exclaimed the hus- 
band. "Let's get out. I couldn't 
sit through all that awful mess 
again." 

WE OFTEN WONDERED 
Nurse Girl — "You mustn't ask so 

many delicate questions, Johnny. 

Don't you know that curiosity once 

killed a cat?" 

Johnny — "What did the cat want 

to know?" 

PROVED BY THE BOOK 

Henry — Mom. did you ever hear 
a rabbit bark? 

Mom — Rabbits don't bark, dar- 
ling. 

Henry — Yes, they do, mom. My 
book says they eat cabbage and 
bark. 

EDUCATIONAL 

"My boy friend and I discovered 
that my father was in the room 
all the time we were petting. 

"Do you think he got wise?" 
"I'll say. He must have learned 
a lot he never knew before." 



ENTIRELY WRONG 

Irate Caller — You spoiled my 
article by a misprint. 

Editor — I'm very sorry. What 
did we get wrong? 

Caller — A proverb I employed. 
You printed it, "A word to the 
wife is sufficient." 



BETRAYED 

An actor who made a very re- 
spectable income at his profession 
but spent it just as quickly, was 
one day button-holed by a friend 
on Broadway. 

"You haven't a dollar on you, 
have you ?" 

"Gosh," replied the actor, "I 
haven't, but who told you?" 



A PROLONGED DAY 

A retired colonel had been ad- 
vised by his doctor that if he did 
not give up whisky it would shorten 
his life. 

"Think so?" asked the colonel. 

"I am sure of it, colonel. If you 
will stop drinking I am sure it will 
prolong your days." 

"Come to think of it, I believe 
you are right about that, doctor," 
said the colonel. "I went 24 hours 
without a drink six months ago, 
and I never put in such a long day 
in my life." 

NOR A HORSE 

"What did you think of the 
horse show?" 

"I din't see a single frock I 
liked." 

FOOTLOOSE, ETC. 

Son — Say, dad, what does it 
mean when the paper says some 
man went to a convention as a 
delegatc-at-large? 

Dad — It means his wife didn't 
go with him, son. 



OR SO IT SEEMED 

The actress was hurrying home 
to luncheon deep in thought when 
her attention was attracted by a 
long row of cod in a window. 

"Good gracious." she said, as she 
looked at their flat, expressionless 
heads and eyes, "that reminds me, 
I have a matinee today." 

MISAPPLIED 

The following letter was received 
recently by a concern that manufac- 
tures corn molasses: "Dear Sirs: 
Though I have taken six cans of 
your corn medicine my feet are no 
better now than they were before I 
started." 

SURE TO BE BIG 

"Well, Johnny," said the uncle, 
who hadn't seen him for some 
time, "you are getting to be quite 
a big boy now, aren't you?" 

"Yep," replied the kid, "pop says 
I'm growing like the public debt." 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



April 1, 1936 



A LABOR ANALYSIS OF THE DEPRESSION 



(Written by the Editor of the Seamen's Journal 
for the Des Moines (Iowa) "Public Forums") 



1. Definition of the Issue. — Today the savages, not the 
civilized peoples, are the only ones free from unem- 
ployment. In the United States we have unemploy- 
ment, suffering, and starvation, not because we are 
short of necessities, but because we have too much. 
In other countries it is because there is not enough to 
go around. In the old days, unemployment and suffer- 
ing came from famine, drought, floods, or a siege of 
locusts. Poverty was due to natural causes. Can any 
intelligent man say that present conditions in our 
country are due to natural, rational causes? 

2. Our depression is man-created and, therefore, not 
beyond human control. We of the United States can 
produce enough to supply all our people with all the 
necessities and comforts of life and then supply an- 
other nation of the same size without pinching our- 
selves. We are in the habit of blaming our present 
condition on the war, or reparation, the gold standard, 
prohibition, the tariff, the stock market, taxes, over- 
production, or foreign trade. All these causes are 
contributory, perhaps, but not one is fundamental. 

3. Production has been our goal and workers have 
been told they could have more pay and shorter hours 
by producing more. But we have made the machine 
a cruel master instead of a useful servant. To end 
so-called depressions we must give more attention to 
the equitable distribution of the wealth which nature, 
men and machines so freely and bountifully produce. 

4. Arguments: 

(a) Our trouble is "underconsumption," not "over- 
production." 

(1) We never had an overabundance of goods, but 
there has been increasing inability to sell goods — at a 
profit. 

(2) The aspiration for a higher standard of living 
has not vanished. As our physical needs are satisfied 
our efforts turn to higher wants, a field of endless 
possibilities. 

(3) Our country has not reached a stage of eco- 
nomic development in which it is possible to produce 
more than the people would like to consume. 

(b) We have solved the problem of production— 
what we need is equitable distribution. 



(1) Millions of workers are unemployed because the 
machine has rendered them superfluous as wealth pro- 
ducers. 

(2) With the purchasing power of the masses thus 
restricted the products of the machine are unsold and 
unsalable. 

(3) This vicious circle can be broken by better dis- 
tribution — by increasing wages and decreasing work- 
ing hours in proportion to increasing production. 

(c) A strong labor movement is essential to enable 
the workers to obtain a just share of production. 

(1) Without union recognition and collective bar- 
gaining it is impossible to establish and maintain equi- 
table industrial relations. 

(2) Many employers still resist union recognition 
and then claim that strikes prevent recovery. 

(3) There is no satisfactory substitute for voluntary 
organization. The establishment of just labor rela- 
tions by mutual agreement is better than compulsory 
regulation by government. 

(d) Planned social insurance is better than hap- 
hazard relief. 

(1) If society is unable to provide work for all, the 
state should furnish adequate social insurance. 

(2) With few exceptions business has given little 
consideration to the stabilization of employment. 

(3) By placing the cost of unemployment squarely 
upon employers and the public purse all will be con- 
scious of the need for constructive action. 

5. Conclusion. — The one redeeming feature of this 
depression is the fact that it has caused men to think. 
On every hand an atmosphere of inquiry prevail-; 
men and women, as never before, are trying to under- 
stand the facts of political, economic and social phi- 
losophy. Again, the suffering and privation of the last 
few years have driven home to workers the old 
that organization — collective self-help — must be main- 
tained and perfected. To summarize, the working peo- 
ple are learning how to save themselves. To that end 
they reject and will fight to the bitter end the theory 
that there must always be a high percentage of avail- 
able labor for which no profitable use can be found. 
In our own rich and resourceful land there is no law, 
no reason or principle under which a single willing 
and able worker must necessarily be unemployed. 



SPARKS FROM THE ANVIL 



The golden thread of love is never broken by An idler is a watch that lacks both hands, as 
se. — Royston. useless if it goes as if it stands. — Cowper. 



Let them obey who know not how to rule. — The best preparation for good work tomorrow 
lakespeare. is to do good work today. — Elbert Hubbard. 



The intellect should be the servant of the heart, Much must he risk who would much attain, 
never its slave. — Comte. Schiller. 



Doubt comes in at the window when inquiry 
is denied at the doors. — Prof. Jowett. 



Mistakes are made by the mouth, not the ears. 
Thought accomplishes much, talking little. The 
doers of the past were men of action, not words. 



Those who have the most of happiness think 
the least about it, but in thinking about and doing 
their duty, happiness comes. — Thackeray. 



We strive for the right and true; it is circum- 
stance that thrusts wrong upon us. — Richard 
Jefferies. 



The dialectical controversies of the nineteenth 
century will not satisfy the political hunger of 
the twentieth century. — Margaret Bondfield. 



The man who is in a hurry to see the full effects 
of his own tillage must cultivate annuals, and not 
forest trees. — Whately. 



The man whom I call deserving the name is one 
whose thoughts and exertions are for others 
rather than himself. — Walter Scott. 



The race advances only by the extra achieve- 
ment of the individual. You are the individual — 
Towne. 



Be noble ; and the nobleness that lies 
In other men, sleeping, but never dead, 
Will rise in majesty to meet thine own. 

— Lowell. 



For good or ill, whether we will or no, we 
are bound up together in this world, and can 
only achieve our well-being together. — Professor 
Herron. 



The hand that follows intellect can achieve. — 
Michaelangelo. 



The best bargains for housewives are union- 
made goods because they boost the pay envelope 
of all wage earners in the family. 



Great results cannot be achieved at once; and 
we must be satisfied to advance in life as we walk, 
step by step. — S. Smiles. 



The best portion of a good man's life — his 
little, nameless, unremembered acts of kindness 
and of love. — Wadsworth. 



Nothing has ever remained of any revolution 
but what was ripe in the conscience of the 
masses. — Ledru Rollin. 



Upon a sound physical foundation alone can 
we build a high moral and spiritual civilization. — 
J. A. Hobson. 



God grants liberty only to those who love it, 
and are always ready to guard and defend it. — 
Webster. 



Why dost thou fear thy last day? All days 
travel toward death; the last arriveth. — Mon- 
taigne. 



Great occasions do not make heroes or cowards ; 
they simply unveil them. Silently, day by day, we 
grow strong or weak, and at last some crisis shows 
what they have become. — Canon Westcott. 



There is a spirit of resistance implanted by 
the Deity in the breast of man, proportioned to 
the size of the wrongs he is destined to endure. — 
C. J. Fox. 




DECLARATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL SEAMEN'S 

UNION OF AMERICA FOR THE DEVELOPMENT 

AND SUPPORT OF THE AMERICAN 

MERCHANT MARINE 



1. Enforce the Seamen's Act. Enact legisla- 
tion necessary to clear up any doubt as to 
the application of certain sections to foreign 
ships leaving American harbors as well as to 
American ships. 

2. The monopoly which the law now gives 
to American shipyards does not produce 
ships. Americans should be permitted to pur- 
chase seaworthy vessels wherever the cost is 
lowest and to place such vessels under the 
American flag without restrictions as to the 
trade in which they may sail. Government 
aid in the building of ships may be neces- 
sary. 

3. Repeal the sections of the Tariff Act un- 
der which a heavy duty is levied on repairs 
to American ships in foreign yards and on 
supplies purchased in foreign ports and also 
repeal tariff duties on all ship-building ma- 
terials. 

4. Develop skill among American seamen 
to the point where the crews of American 
ships will be able to give maximum service in 
the sailing, the upkeep, and the repair of 
American vessels. This is possible if the Gov- 
ernment and the associations of shipowners 
will cooperate with the union. The union has 
urged this for many years. 

5. Develop an American personnel. Em- 
ploy — and thus train — Americans first with the 
most skilled men of other nationalities eligible 
and willing to become citizens. 

6. Cease employing Asiatics in preference 
to Americans and other seamen eligible to 
citizenship. 

7. Require that seamen be shipped only 
through authorized government shipping com- 
missioners. Abolish all private discharge 
books and substitute therefor discharge books 
to be issued to the seamen by the gov- 
ernment. 

8. Abolish the practice of requiring some 



seamen to work twelve to sixteen hours a 
day. 

9. Establish working hours on board ship 
compatible with American standards by ex- 
tending the three-watch system by law to in- 
clude the deck crew as already established 
by law in the engine department, and provide 
for an eight-hour day by law as applicable 
to the stewards' department at sea and to the 
entire crew in port. 

10. American seamen who have served 
thirty-six months in the merchant service and 
are otherwise eligible should be permitted to 
voluntarily enter the navy on short-term en- 
listments of not to exceed one year for inten- 
sive training. 

11. The United States should maintain full 
sovereignty over its own ports and should 
exercise the right to determine the conditions 
under which foreign ships may use American 
harbors. The Government should not enter 
into any treaty providing for a surrender of 
such sovereignty, even though such covenant 
with foreign nations may be disguised in 
such form as the proposed treaty for alleged 
"safety of life at sea." 

12. American railroads should be required 
to cancel any contracts which give preference 
to foreign steamship lines as against Ameri- 
can ships. 

13. The Government should be prepared to 
protect and assist such American ships as are 
made the subject of assaults upon their legiti- 
mate business by foreign shipping interests 
acting through so-called conferences or con- 
spiracies. 

14. Americans should ship by and travel 
on American vessels whenever possible. 
They should give preference to the merchant 
marine of their own flag. 

15. The union does not favor government 
ownership of the merchant marine. 



CALFtMfj 




Our Aim: The Brotherhood of the Sea 



Our Motto: Justice by Organization 



Vol. L, No. 5 



WASHINGTON, D. C, MAY 1, 1936 



Whole No. 2068 



I. S. U. HONORS AGREEMENTS 



The month of April, 1936, has been one of the 
most eventful periods in the history of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union. East and West the 
newspapers have from day to day recorded and, 
indeed, frequently magnified the efforts of va- 
rious groups to substitute chaos for orderly 
progress- 
In New York, a self-appointed committee has 
attempted by the use of divers questionable 
methods, including gangster tactics, to tie up ships 
under agreement with the Atlantic District Unions 
of the I. S. U. That these abortive efforts have 
been unsuccessful is due to the common sense and 
the inherent loyalty of the rank and file of the 
Atlantic District Unions. 

The Communist press has finally thrown all 
discretion overboard and is soliciting funds on 
a nation-wide basis for the disruptive element in 
New York City. 

Since the Communists are officially backing 
the New York wrecking crew it was, of course, a 
foregone conclusion that some sort of elaborate 
stunt would be pulled on the Pacific Coast just to 
demonstrate the solidarity of the red disrupters 
and incidentally to show their contempt for all 
contracts and agreements with shipowners. 

After considerable maneuvering and beating of 
the war drums the Grace liner Santa Rosa was 
designated for a display of class-conscious fury. 
The Santa Rosa, it should be distinctly under- 
stood, was manned by members of the Interna- 
tional Seamen's Union regularly supplied by the 
Atlantic District Unions of the I. S. U. But 
these men did not have the red brand on their 
union books. Therefore, the ultra-radical Pa- 
cific Coast Maritime Federation decided to boycott 
the Santa Rosa. This was done in violation of 



existing agreements and awards, and without any 
authorization of the membership. Shortly after 
the arrival of the Santa Rosa at San Francisco a 
committee from the Maritime Federation called 
on the Grace officials at the dock with the demand 
that the entire crew be discharged. This was 
refused, so was their subsequent demand that 
they be permitted to go aboard and "examine" 
the crew. In the meantime, the Santa Rosa was 
graciously permitted to discharge baggage and 
mail but the cargo remained in her holds un- 
touched. 

The organized shipowners, who observed one 
of their members singled out for punishment 
merely because this member (the Grace line) was 
faithfully living up to a regular American Fed- 
eration of Labor trade-union agreement, decided 
it was time to call the bluff. Accordingly, they 
served formal notice on the San Francisco Long- 
shoremen's Union announcing suspension of re- 
lations with that union. Then came a grand 
somersault. Before the ink was dry on the ship- 
owners' announcement the longshoremen reversed 
themselves and declared they were willing to work 
the Santa Rosa. 

By this time the shipowners were as "hot" as 
the Santa Rosa's cargo. They declared that if 
the Maritime Federation was really anxious for a 
fight they could be accommodated, etc. It took a 
solid week of palavering and negotiating before 
things were straightened out and then all hands 
involved signed an agreement providing for a 
strict and honest compliance with the arbitration 
award dated October 12, 1934, and renewed for 
a period of one year on September 30, 1935. 

Under this agreement the San Francisco long- 
shoremen solemnly bind themselves to settle every 



190 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May 1. 1936 



controversy that may arise "in the orderly method 
provided through the Labor Relations Committee 
or through arbitration." In other words the 
Santa Rosa and all other ships manned by loyal 
members of the I. S. U. will be loaded and dis- 
charged, all instructions and orders from the Com- 
munist party to the contrary notwithstanding ! 

It is needless to say that the Pacific Coast 
fiasco has been a bitter pill for the New York 
trouble makers. Having been promised every- 
thing under the sun by their red Pacific Coast 
cohorts the glorious promises turned suddenly 
into the proverbial pie crusts ! 

Ships are still moving in and out of New York 
manned by loyal members of the International 
Seamen's Union under an agreement providing 
for increased wages, as heretofore announced, 
and providing further for preference in employ- 
ment to members in good standing of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union. 

Nowhere else along the Atlantic have the dis- 
rupters gained even a foothold and their clownish 
maneuvering in New York has earned them the 
well deserved contempt of all true union members ! 

No one claims that the Atlantic agreement, or 
any other agreement arrived at through collective 
bargaining, is perfect or even bordering on per- 
fection. For 14 long years American ships sailed 
the seven seas without any trade union agree- 
ment of any kind whatever. They paid wages 
ranging from a total blank (received by the 
work-a-ways) up to such meagre amounts as 
circumstances and necessity required. 

Where were these self-appointed leaders who 
are now trying to kick over a trade-union agree- 
ment which definitely recognizes the union and 
provides for wages twice as high as formerly 
paid by many shipowners ? Where were they and 
why did they not raise their voices during those 
lean and bitter years? 

Let us bear in mind that only once before, for 
a comparatively short period, beginning during 
the World War and ending on May 1, 1921, 
have union conditions prevailed on American 
ships sailing from Atlantic ports. At that time, 
however, there was no negotiated or signed agree- 
ment. Union conditions were reluctantly conceded 
because of the exigency created by the war and 
the nation-wide scarcity of men. 

Needless to state, the present signed pact be- 
tween shipowners and seamen is not based either 



upon an emergency due to war or upon a scarcity 
of seamen. It is no secret that there are con- 
siderably more than enough seamen available to 
man every ship afloat. 

The Atlantic agreement, therefore, spells a vol- 
untary concession on the part of America's biggest 
shipowners toward a New Deal. And for that 
new attitude, that expressed desire to have the 
seamen's cooperation in developing the American 
Merchant Marine, the shipowners deserve full 
credit. 

In but few of the great basic industries of 
the United States lias collective bargaining been 
established. The "right to organize" guaranty 
under Section 7(a) of the National Industrial 
Recovery Act has been declared unconstitutional 
by the United States Supreme Court. Certainly, 
the hair-splitting interpretations of Labor's 
"rights" by the courts can never be as satisfactory 
as the voluntary recognition of those rights by 
the employers. 

The agreement now in effect on the Atlantic- 
places a grave responsibility upon all the members 
of the Atlantic District Unions. Every "right" 
has a corresponding "duty" and every privilege 
is necessarily balanced by an obligation. Only by 
due restraint and frank recognition of our own 
responsibilities can we demonstrate that the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union will, in the future as 
in the past, honor and respect an agreement duly 
executed by its authorized representatives. 

Recognition of the International Seamen's 
Union and collective bargaining seemed far away 
a couple of years ago. The promises of a shipping 
code faded away into thin air. And yet, due 
to the loyalty and cooperation of the International 
Seamen's Union membership) — new and old, East 
and West — our union is now recognized every- 
where, except on the steel trust controlled fleet on 
the Great Lakes. 

If we use our heads, if we frown upon internal 
strife and personal animosity, the days ahead 
will enable us to consolidate our forces and perfect 
in America a union of seamen that will be an 
example and inspiration to seamen the world 
over! 



If the League of Nations would only agree not 
to have another war until the last one is paid for. 
everlasting peace would be assured. — Lord 
Dewar. 



May 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



191 



WILL HISTORY REPEAT ITSELF? 



With 5,500,000 men under arms and 7,000,000 
awaiting the bugle-call to the colors, Europe is 
again watching itself plunging desperately along 
the roads which led to 1914. 

In April, 1914, the General Staffs of Britain 
and France were arranging action in the event that 
mightily armed Germany struck westward. Last 
month they were preparing for similar action. 

In April, 1914, France and Russia had an 
alliance against the contingency of a German 
attack. Last month, they had the same arrange- 
ment. 

In April, 1914, Britain was playing the role 
of "honest broker" between the Austro-Germans 
and the Franco-Russians. Last month, Britain 
had assumed the same role in the Rhineland crisis. 

In April, 1914, Italy sat squarely on the fence, 
waiting to see which side offered the best terms. 
Last month, Italy straddled the same fence. 

In April, 1914, Europe staggered under its 
burden of arms. Today, the Europe of 1936 
makes the Europe of 1914 look like a shooting- 
gallery. 



"HIGHER" EDUCATION 



profit system is doomed. Chronic unemployment 
is its Nemesis. It cannot continue to exist with 
the workers two-thirds employed and one-third 
unemployed. 

"The new order, the emerging society, will 
sweep away the foundations of economic parasit- 
ism upon which Harvard and its students now 
subsist. Harvard and all kindred institutions will 
either die with the passing of the profit system 
or else be reborn in body and spirit to serve the 
new society based on production for use." 

Seacroft, of which Dr. Zeuch is the head, is 
a new workers' school where teachers and stu- 
dents cultivate the soil and carry on other pro- 
ductive activities toward self-support as well as 
conduct classroom courses. Seacroft is a workers' 
college in a social laboratory. The community 
anticipates the future society by maintaining a 
miniature economy of planned cooperative pro- 
duction for use. 



"Harvard continues to prepare youth for a 
world that is passing into the limbo, for a world 
that shortly will no longer exist," declared Dr. 
Wm. E. Zeuch in a talk recently at Seacroft, the 
new workers' college on a square mile sea island 
near Port Royal, S. C. 

"Harvard," said Dr. Zeuch, "is representative 
of all privately endowed colleges and universities. 
Its teachers of the social studies appear unable to 
realize that 'the old order changeth, yielding place 
to new,' that our country is in a state of transi- 
tion toward a new type of society in which the 
bundle of prejudices, attitudes and conceits known 
as 'the Harvard man' will be as outmoded as 
Neandertal Man, as unfitting as the character of 
Java Man. In another generation or two 'the 
Harvard man' will be as obsolete as the dodo. 

"Harvard and all similar educational institu- 
tions," continued Dr. Zeuch, "are tied to the profit 
system by endowments. Harvard derives its in- 
come from the exploitation of workers. Its stu- 
dent body comes largely from the class that lives 
on dividends from stocks and bonds. But the 



SHIPOWNERS SEEK INJUNCTION 



Alleging a violation of the 1934 arbitration 
award Pacific Coast shipowners have petitioned 
the United States District Court in San Francisco 
for an injunction to restrain shipping through the 
union halls. 

Naming the International Seamen's Union of 
America, the Sailors' Union of the Pacific, the 
Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, Water- 
tenders and Wipers' Association, and the Marine 
Cooks and Stewards' Union of the Pacific as 
defendants, the petition terms employe-controlled 
hiring halls "combinations and conspiracies in re- 
straint of trade." 

The shipowners maintain that under the pro- 
visions of the arbitration award of April 10, 
1935, employers are privileged to hire seamen at 
their offices or on the docks if they chose to do so. 

They point to Sec. 43 of the award as con- 
clusive evidence. Sec. 43 reads as follows : 

No seafaring employee shall be required as a condi- 
tion of employment to register with any private hiring 
hall or any similar institution. Employment shall be 
at the docks or at the Union offices at the option of the 
employers. The employers shall have entire freedom 
of selection from those eligible. No system shall be 
established that will directly or indirectly interfere in 
any manner with the employer's option to hire from 
the docks or the Union offices, or the employer's right 
to entire freedom of selection from those eligible; and 
no system shall be established that directly or indi- 
rectly will compel any employe to register with any 
private hiring hall or similar institution or that will 
interfere with his right to choice of employment. 



192 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May 1, 1936 



SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 

Established in 1887 
Published on the first day of each month at the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor Building, Washington, D. C, by 
and under the direction of the International Seamen's 
Union of America. 

PAUL SCHARRENBERG, Editor 



Application for transfer of second class entry from 
San Francisco, Calif., to Washington, D. C, pending. 

Members in good standing can obtain copies of the 
SEAMEN'S Journal at the headquarters and branches of 
I. S. U. District Unions. 

Subscriptiqn to nonmembers (by mail).. $1.00 per year 

NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS 
Communications from seafaring readers will be pub- 
lished, provided they are of general interest, brief, legi- 
ble, written on one side only of the paper, and accom- 
panied by the writer's own name and address. The 
Journal is not responsible for the expressions of corre- 
spondents, nor for the return of manuscripts. 



F< )(")D FOR THOUGHT 



SAFETY AT SEA 



For 44 years the International Seamen's Union 
has been the leader in every genuine movement 
to promote and assure greater safety of life at sea. 

Talent, time, and real money have been freely 
and generously given by the organized seamen of 
America to educate the traveling public, but espe- 
cially the members of Congress, to the urgent 
need for sound and constructive legislation upon 
this subject. 

As every practical person knows, safety at sea 
has for its prime requisite an efficient and com- 
petent personnel. Of course, there can be no 
efficiency aboard ship without discipline. Yet. 
during the month we had the edifying spectacle 
of witnessing a group of conscientious objectors 
to discipline delivering lectures on Safety of Life 
at Sea to various Government officials at Wash- 
ington, D. C. Most of the members of this 
strange delegation have been engaged for some 
time in trying to popularize an outlaw seamen's 
strike in New York harbor. The leader of the 
gang, Joseph Curran, has been a member of the 
I. S. U. for almost one whole year. Yet. accord- 
ing to the Communist propaganda bureau, Mr. 
Curran is an experienced seaman with mam years 
of service. And all those years, this new cham- 
pion of safety at sea did not come near the Union 
hall where the good fight has been carried on 
without intermission for more than four decades. 

Safety of life at sea means "safety above divi- 
dends." It also means safety above and beyond 
any selfish exploitation by group or individual for 
any purpose whatever! 



The union has agreements with employers which 
have been negotiated through machinery voluntarily 
accepted on both sides. 

It is the duty of the union to see that these agree- 
ments are observed. 

The union and the members have certain responsi- 
bilities as well as certain rights, and regard must be 
had to both. 

The issue that now confronts us is whether the union 
shall be allowed to function and carry out its agree- 
ments, or otherwise. 

We would again warn all our members against being 
misled into following a course which can only result 
in weakening their organization, jeopardizing their 
agreements, and bringing into disrepute the machinery 
for negotiation which has been built up over a period 
of years and has been effectively used on their behalf. 

The members now out are instructed to return to 
work and others to continue at work. 

No, the foregoing was not said or written by 
Joseph P. Ryan, by Ivan Hunter or any other 
American trade-union official. 

It is a declaration by Ernest Bevin, president of 
the Transport and General Workers Union of 
Great Britain, made recently when a few self- 
styled "progressives" attempted to call an unau- 
thorized strike in London. 

Mr. Harry Bridges, the notorious alien, who 
has been fifteen years in our United States and 
refuses to become a citizen of the land that Feeds 
him, should carefullv peruse Mr. Bevin's timely 
admonition. 

Of course, it is not expected that such a char- 
acter as Bridges will profit from Mr. Bevin's 
trenchant logic. 

Perhaps Mr. Bridges can be induced to take a 
squint at his native land — Australia. 

According to the Australian labor press, Mr. 
Bridges' pals, the Communists, are altogether re- 
sponsible for the recent disastrous Seamen's strike 
in that country. We quote from the militant 
Brisbane "Worker." 

Anyone who has any doubt regarding the activities 
of the Communist Party in connection wjth the sea- 
men's strike and Other industrial troubles, would do 
well to peruse the recent issues of the official organ of 
the party which is published in Sydney, and which is 
very largely devoted to an enthusiastic boost for the 
seamen who are eulogised for their "fine solidarity," 
chiefly because they are following a course of action 
which must eventually land them on the rocks and 
probably smash the union as a militant and virile 
working class organization. 

In accordance with the world-wide policy of the 
Communist Party, if they can smash the Seamen's 
Union in Australia, it will be a step nearer the ulti- 
mate Communist objective which is the destruction of 
all working class organizations as they exist today, 
for the purpose of a general rebuilding on approved 
Communistic lines. 

That it is an absurd objective, that the methods are 
as callous and as cruel as they are stupid, and that they 



May 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



193 



have never failed to lead the workers to defeat and 
disaster wherever they have been used, has frequently 
been emphasized by us of late, and we have no hesi- 
tation in saying that the wives and families of the un- 
fortunate seamen, and the men themselves who have 
turned a willing ear to the destroyers, will immediately 
begin to feel the effects of their misplaced confidence, 
and no matter what happens the majority will soon 
have cause to regret that they turned their backs upon 
those fundamental principles of Democracy for the 
spurious militancy of a few place seekers and profes- 
sional disruptors. 

The foregoing comment, fresh from Bridges' 

early stamping grounds carries a striking analogy 

to current events in America. 

In America, as well as in Australia, men of the 
Bridges' type have one objective — to force the 
Seamen's Union to become an annex to the Com- 
munist party so that the men who earn their live- 
lihood at sea may be effectively used as propa- 
ganda carriers for world revolution. 

Whenever the rank and file become aware of 
the preposterous game now played by their self- 
appointed saviours there will be a day of reck- 
oning. And when that day comes it will be no 
longer healthy for Bridges and his general staff 
to appear before the rank and file. 



SOCIAL SECURITY FOR SEAMEN 



The last convention of the International Sea- 
men's Union of America, by unanimous vote, 
declared for the prompt enactment of a Federal 
Social Security law for Seamen. 

Drafting of such a bill has already had the 
earnest attention of the Legislative Committee of 
the I. S. U. 

As though anticipating the need for such legis- 
lation, Joseph B. Eastman, Federal Coordinator of 
Transportation, has now recommended to Con- 
gress the enactment of a law providing unem- 
ployment compensation for approximately 1,564,- 
000 workers in the railroad, motor, water and air 
transportation industries. 

The measure was drafted after a prolonged 
study by the labor relations section of Mr. East- 
man's office. It proposes that unemployment in 
transportation industries shall be on a national 
instead of a State basis and would exempt these 
industries from the State insurance plans pro- 
vided under the Social Security Act and establish 
a uniform Federal plan. 

According to the Eastman program, funds for 
the insurance would be provided by payroll taxes 
on railroad companies of 1 per cent in 1936, 2 



per cent in 1937 and 3 per cent in 1938 and fol- 
lowing years. These rates are the same as those 
fixed in the Federal Social Security Law enacted 
by Congress last year. 

The insurance or compensation payments under 
the Eastman measure would be based on the wage 
loss principle. A totally unemployed worker 
would receive benefits equal to 50 per cent of his 
average earnings up to a maximum of $75 a 
month. The average earnings would be deter- 
mined by selecting the highest monthly earnings 
in each quarter of a year and averaging the earn- 
ings of the four months thus selected. 

Mr. Eastman pointed out that by adopting the 
wage loss principle the plan would allow a part- 
time worker benefits based on a mathematical 
formula. A transportation employe who nor- 
mally earns $100 and whose earnings were 
reduced by part time to $40 a month would re- 
ceive $25 under this program. 

Earnings in excess of $150 a month would not 
be considered in the benefit calculations. 

The law would be administered by a division 
of transportation unemployment compensation in 
the Federal Social Security Board. The measure 
also creates an advisory board composed of rep- 
resentatives of employers and employes. 

The Eastman plan, as has already been pointed 
out by railroad labor executives, has several 
serious weaknesses. However, it is too late for 
Congress to consider such legislation at this ses- 
sion of Congress. And there is ample time to 
prepare for the next session, which convenes in 
January, 1937. 



The Journal regrets to report that early in 
April President Andrew Furuseth of the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union was taken seriously ill 
and compelled to go to a Washington Hospital 
for treatment. At the time of going to press his 
condition is still very unsatisfactory although a 
slight improvement is reported by his physician. 
On behalf of the many thousands of American 
seamen who have benefited by the years of faith- 
ful and unselfish labor of Andy Furuseth the 
Journal extends to our grand old man the best 
wishes for early and complete recovery ! 



Our advance in civilization depends upon the 
extent to which the individual is set free from the 
individual gamble against the chances and acci- 
dents of life. — F. Henderson. 



194 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May 1, 1936 



A "FRAME-UP" THAT FAILED 



Aided and abetted by the reactionary San Fran- 
cisco Chronicle, which sought to pull off a "news 
beat" on other San Francisco papers, Mr. Earl 
King, recently elected Secretary of the Pacific 
Coast Marine Firemen's Union, tried his utmost 
to set a trap for Ivan Hunter, Secretary-Treas- 
urer of the International Seamen's Union of 
America. 

It is scarcely necessary to refer to the animus 
back of this despicable plot. The events of the 
recent past fully explain the motive. Mr. King 
and associates wanted to "get" Ivan Hunter. 
That they failed utterly and were themselves 
caught in their own net is due to retributive jus- 
tice. 

For more than a week prior to April 7 a shifty- 
eyed person who called himself James Walker, 
but whose real name is said to be W. J. Neill, 
attempted to shake down Ivan Hunter for a cash 
advance for services to be rendered in lining up 
loyal members for the I. S. U. When Hunter 
remained adamant on the cash-in-advance de- 
mand the enterprising Mr. Walker interviewed 
the more receptive Mr. King. 

Here is the full story of the great murder con- 
spiracy as extracted from the very reluctant Mr. 
King under cross examination by Attorneys Wal- 
ter McGovern and John L. McNab : 

For the first time in his life Mr. King was 
contacted by Neill "some time" during April 3, 
when Neill telephoned King at the latter's office. 

"I have some information you ought to have," 
Neill told Mr. King. 

"What is the nature of it?" King asked. 

"It's about Hunter of the I. S. U." Neill re- 
sponded. 

King immediately left to meet Neill in the 
lobby of the Palace Hotel. There Neill outlined 
an alleged murder conspiracy. He naively told 
King that Hunter had offered him $500 to kill 
King and Harry Lundeberg, Secretary-Treasurer 
of the Sailor's Union, Al Quittenton, Assistant 
Secretary of the same Union, and A. M. Murphy, 
Assistant Secretary of the Firemen's Union. Neill 
assured King that he, Neill, did not mean to carry 
out the plot — that he was merely stringing Hunter 
along in order to get some money out of him. 

"I don't see why I shouldn's make some money 
out of Hunter," King quoted the stooge. Neill 



maintained that he already had been paid $350 
as a down payment for the job. 

Mr. King was "so upset" about the whole mat- 
ter that he didn't know whether to take it to the 
police or not. He did, however, confide the plot 
to Murphy, Lundeberg and Quittenton, and ar- 
ranged for them to be present at a meeting with 
Neill the next day. At this meeting Neill retold 
his story of the alleged conspiracy and advised 
the boys that he would need some expense money 
while the case was brewing- He also advised 
King that he would need a ship out of San Fran- 
cisco as soon as the affair was pulled off. (Lun- 
deberg laughed at the story and told Mr. King et 
al "anybody could bump me off that wanted to. 
I walk around San Francisco all the time and I am 
not putting out any money for anything like 
that.") 

Neill assured King that he was willing to make 
an affidavit and go to the district attorney with 
his story, put thumb prints on the affidavit to 
show that he meant business, or do most any- 
thing. King asked Neill how much expense 
money he would need, and Neill said, "Oh, $50." 
Mr. King agreed to pay if Neill would sign an 
affidavit. This Neill agreed to do. 

Accordingly, Murphy and King took Neill to a 
public stenographer at the Palace Hotel, where 
King himself dictated an affidavit to the effect 
that Hunter had offered Neill $500 to kill Ear) 
King or have him killed. (It is interesting to 
note that although three other men were named 
as the alleged death victims, they were not named 
in the affidavit ; neither was mention made of the 
fact that Neill claimed to have received the $350 
down payment). 

The notary public was not available imme- 
diately, so Neill, Mr. Murphy and Mr. King re- 
paired to Bradley's five and ten drinking place on 
Turk Street, where Mr. King consumed one 
"enormous beer" during the 45 minutes they 
were there. Mr. Neill drank something also. 
King, however, was so engrossed in his troubles 
that he didn't know whether Neill was drinking 
beer or gin fizzes, although they sat side by side. 

After the drinks the trio returned to the Palate 
Hotel, where Neill was given the $50 cash. He 
then signed the affidavit. 

Still in a "very agitated" frame of mind. Mr. 
King pocketed the affidavit and kept his own 
counsel until Monday morning; then he placed 
the document in a safety deposit box at a place 



May 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



195 



on Steuart Street. Just how long it remained 
there was not brought out, but some time later 
King recovered the precious document and took 
it to his bosom friend Harry Bridges in the latter's 
office. 

The affair was thoroughly discussed and Mr. 
Bridges took charge, saying that he would take 
the matter to his friend, Mr. Paul Smith, execu- 
tive editor of the San Francisco Chronicle. 

They were received by Mr. Smith that after- 
noon. After considerable discussion of the af- 
fair Mr. Smith requested the Chief's office to 
send him two police officers. Upon arrival of 
the officers a further conference was held be- 
tween Mr. Smith, Mr. Bridges, Mr. King, Offi- 
cers J. J. McCarthy and Thomas Gillham and 
Stanley Bailey, Chronicle reporter. It was then 
and there decided to spring the trap on Mr. Hun- 
ter. Officer George Heeg, a young police officer 
in the Bureau of Identification, was called into 
the picture. He was not taken into the full con- 
fidence of the others, but merely was given his 
instructions by Mr. King. Heeg was told to go 
with King to Bradley's five and ten, where they 
would meet Neill; that he would remain as a 
listener throughout the affair to get evidence on 
Mr. Hunter. Throughout this conference Mr. 
Bridges remained in the background, permitting 
Mr. King, Mr. Smith and the officers to take the 
initiative. 

From the conference in the newspaper office, 
King and three officers and the Chronicle reporter 
drove in a police car to within half a block of the 
Turk Street drinking place. There, King and 
Heeg left the rest of the party and went to the 
rendezvous with Neill. 

King introduced the young police officer to 
Neill as "this is the man who will be your pal in 
this affair." While they were talking a tall young 
man came out of the telephone booth and joined 
the party, saying that Hunter was at McNab's 
office. He gave them the telephone number. Offi- 
cer Heeg and Neill then went into the booth to- 
gether, while Neill called Hunter on the tele- 
phone and arranged for a meeting at Montgomery, 
Market and Post Streets at 5 p. m. 

Officer Heeg and Neill walked down to the 
rendezvous, while King returned with the Chron- 
icle reporter and two policemen to the police 
car. They parked a short distance from the 
rendezvous to witness the springing of the "trap." 



(Harry Bridges posted himself across the street, 
so that he also might observe the "kill.") 

Right there on a busy street corner the trap was 
sprung, but at no time during the conversation 
did Mr. Hunter by word or act indicate that he 
was aware that a murder plot was being dis- 
cussed. He had only discussed the fight of the 
I. S. U. against the disruptive element in the 
Sailors' Union of the Pacific. 

At any rate, Hunter and Neill were arrested 
and whisked out to police station in the out- 
skirts of the city while Mr. King and reporter 
Bailey followed in a taxicab. The arrested men 
were taken to the distant station instead of to 
Central station or to the Hall of Justice, as is 
customary, to accommodate the San Francisco 
Chronicle, which hoped to obtain a "news beat" 
over other papers. 

Mr. Hunter was promptly released on $250 
cash bail. And a few days later after exhaustive 
hearing, during which Earl King "corpus delecti" 
of the farce was chief witness, Municipal Judge 
Daniel S. O'Brien threw the case out of court. 

To sum up — Ivan Hunter, Secretary-Treasurer 
of the International Seamen's Union of America, 
was completely exonerated. 

Harry Bridges was revealed as the guiding 
spirit of the affair and, last but not least, Mr. 
King was forced to admit from the witness stand 
that he paid W. J. Neill $50 cash to make the 
affidavit on which the ridiculous charges were 
based. 

The aftermath to the attempted frame-up came 
when the grand jury of San Francisco became 
interested. After examining various witnesses 
the grand jury returned indictments against three 
of the principals involved in the plot. 

Earl King and A. M. Murphy, his assistant, 
were named in indictments charging criminal 
libel. The third indictment named W. J. Neill, 
alias James Walker, on two counts of perjury. 

The grand jury based the criminal libel indict- 
ments against King and Murphy on a telegram 
they sent to Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins, 
in which, without qualification, they accused 
Hunter of the spurious murder plot. 

And so this delectable trio will have to stand 
trial. Those who sought to discredit an honorable 
and upright man have only succeeded in dis- 
crediting themselves. 



196 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May 1, 1936 



SHIP SUBSIDY LEGISLATION 



Ship subsidy legislation, centered in Senator 
Copeland's bill (S. 3500) is generally assumed to 
be out of running for the session — unless the 
White House becomes insistent, a development 
not presently anticipated. This eventuality un- 
doubtedly will result in inclusion of ocean mail 
subsidies which were removed from the Post Of- 
fice appropriations, in the forthcoming definiency 
bill. 

The ship subsidy problem is complicated by 
the fact that the Department of Commerce has 
forwarded a report to the House indicating that 
two-thirds of the $85,000,000 loaned mail con- 
tract shipping lines by the government will be 
defaulted if the House sustains the Senate's ac- 
tion in eliminating from the Treasury-Post Office 
appropriations bill the $26,500,000 annually al- 
lotted for the payment of ocean mail contracts. 

The $26,500,000 was knocked out by the Sen- 
ate Appropriations Committee, it was explained 
at the time, in the hopes of obtaining new subsidy 
legislation before the present session of Con- 
gress adjourns. 

The corresponding House committee has since 
refused to agree to the elimination, and as a re- 
sult of the consequent deadlock a test vote on the 
matter will be sought in the House. 

Chairman Ludlow, of the House Appropria- 
tions sub-committee, declared that though he was 
not in favor of paying merchant marine subsidies 
in the guise of mail contracts, he did not see 
"how we can abrogate existing contracts (42 in 
all) without causing great damage." 



THE LONDON NAVAL CONFERENCE 



Mr. Average Man has had neither time nor 
patience to follow the newspaper reports about 
the protracted London Naval Limitation Confer- 
ence. Well, here is what happened: 

Until 1942, three of the great naval powers — 
Britain, France and the United States — will ob- 
serve some restraint in the armaments race. The 
Naval Treaty signed on behalf of the three 
powers imposes, at any rate, some qualitative lim- 
itations in the building of naval armaments. They 
have agreed that no bigger capital ships than 
those already in existence shall be built; that is, 
no warships larger than the 35,000-ton class rep- 
resented by the "Rodney" and "Nelson" in the 
British fleet. Gun -power will also be reduced 



from 16 inches to 14 inches if Japan and Italy 
ultimately become parties to the agreement ; but 
not otherwise. The 10,000-ton cruiser is also to 
be prohibited. The three powers have agreed 
not to build cruisers over 8,000 tons. As many 
naval experts consider the 10,000-ton cruiser a 
technically unsatisfactory craft, this is probably 
an economy; but the important aspect of it, from 
the standpoint of building programs is that there 
will be no ships built between 8,000 tons and 
17,500 tons, the latter tonnage being the minimum 
for capital ships. Aircraft carriers are restricted 
to a maximum of 23,000 tons, but larger ones 
were not regarded favorably anyway. There is 
no quantitative limit imposed by the treaty. 
Finally, it should be noted that Italy lias not 
added her signature t<> the Treaty and Japan 
withdrew from the discussions. 



THE A. F. OF L. AND THE SEAMEN 



The American Federation of Labor, directly 
and indirectly does more for the rank and file of 
the workers than any other human institution in 
our country. All International Unions, including 
the I. S. U., pay part of their per capita tax into 
the American Federation of Labor for the purpose 
of helping to support and carry on its work. The 
American Federation of Labor has its own build- 
ing of seven floors in the City of Washington. 
The legislative work alone, carried on by its 
three legislative representatives, is of such value 
that the average member cannot possibly under- 
stand the service rendered. It is certainly a joke 
to hear some of the newcomers in the movement, 
many of whom were driven in, attack the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor for, as they say. its 
refusal to immediately change things over, even 
if it takes a revolution to do so. Some of those 
boys that talk to the rank and file in the meetings 
and give them false information are more dan- 
gerous than reptiles creeping into a Boy Scout 
camp at night. They spread their venom and 
their poison through their ignorance into the 
minds of the honest but unthinking members. 
Watch out for such men who attack one of the 
greatest labor institutions in the world that is con- 
tinually rendering service to the masses, namely 
the American Federation of Labor. 



If there is anything that cannot bear free 
thought, let it crack. — Wendell Phillips. 



May 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



197 



INCREASE IN SHIPBUILDING 



Merchant shipbuilding in the first three months 
of 1936 increased 276,961 tons, or nearly 20 per 
cent, according to the quarterly report of Lloyd's 
Register of Shipping, just published. The total 
under way in the shipyards of the world on 
March 31 was 1,820,114 tons, as compared with 
1,543,153 tons at the start of the year. 

The yards of Great Britain and Ireland main- 
tained their standing as the most active in the 
world, with a total of 842,361 tons, an increase of 
99,275 tons for the quarter. The United States, 
with a tonnage of 49,760, rose from eighth to 
seventh place as a shipbuilder, its tonnage repre- 
senting a gain of 16,389 tons. 

Gains also were reported by the yards of Japan, 
Holland and Sweden, and small declines were re- 
ported by Denmark and France, while Italy re- 
ported no change in her previously reported total 
of 25,590 tons. Italy stood at the bottom of the 
list of the nine leading shipbuilding nations, as 
she did also at the start of the quarterly period. 

The leading nations and their tonnages for the 
last two quarters were as follows : 

March 31 Dec. 31 

Great Britain and Ireland 842,361 743,080 

Germany 317,053 254,121 

Japan 150,662 118,610 

Holland 146,280 104,325 

Sweden 112,750 94,802 

Denmark 55,405 61,085 

United States 49,760 33,371 

France 49,558 56,078 

Italy , 25,590 25,590 

During the quarter just ended new work under 
construction totaled 579,279 tons, which exceeded 
the tonnage launched by 185,333 tons. In the 
previous quarter new work totaled 582,564 tons 
and exceeded launchings by 225,410 tons. Tanker 
construction increased 162,336 tons to a total of 
600,896 tons in the quarter, bringing this type of 
construction nearly to one-third of the total con- 
struction of all classes of tonnage. 

As a builder of tankers the United States was 
a more important factor in the world picture, 
ranking fifth among the nations with a total of 
45,300 tons. With the exception of tanker ton- 
nage the American yards are building only 4,460 
tons of commercial ships, the report showed. 
Great Britain leads as a tanker builder with 160,- 
670 tons, Germany second and Holland third with 
148,100 and 73,458 tons respectively. The other 
nations in order are Sweden, the United States, 



Japan, Denmark and France. Of the total tanker 
tonnage under way 537,071 tons are being built 
with internal combustion engines, it was reported. 

The increase of construction of motor vessels 
was general, France and Denmark alone report- 
ing reductions in their totals, as against gains by 
Germany of 73,000 tons, Holland 41,000, Great 
Britain 26,000, Japan 20,000, Sweden 14,000 and 
United States 11,000 tons. 

Ninety per cent of the British tonnage and 70 
per cent of that of all other nations are being 
built under the supervision of Lloyd's Register of 
Shipping, the report stated. The figures as an- 
nounced, did not include building activities in 
Russia. 



RACE SUICIDE IS REAL 



Statistical data seems to make it quite clear that 
the western world is committing slow suicide by 
curtailment of the birth rate. On the other hand, 
Oriental peoples, with lower social and economic 
standards, continue to grow. 

A recent Associated Press dispatch from Tokio 
quotes the government statistcs bureau as an- 
nouncing the margin of birth over deaths for 
1935 was in excess of 1,000,000. 

In five years Japan has gained 4,801,255, her 
official census for 1935 being 69,251,260. 

More than anything else, this population gain 
accounts for the rapid rise of Japanese industry 
and the national expansion policy which threat- 
ens markets deemed secure for western nations 
for centuries. 

More than anything else, this population gain 
accounts for the rapid rise of Japanese industry 
and the national expansion policy which threatens 
markets deemed secured for western nations for 
centuries. 

Like the Japanese, Americans were until fairly 
recently a fertile people. In the years prior to 
1880 our birth rate was between 35 and 40 per 
1,000 people. Now it has dropped to about 18 
for the nation per 1,000. On the Pacific Coast 
it is but 13. 

Japan's birth rate for the last five years has 
been nearly twice ours. At the present rate our 
population will reach a stationary basis between 
1950 and 1960, while that of Japan will have 
gained between 20,000,000 and 30,000,000. 

The lesson of such a comparison is too obvious 
to require comment. 



198 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May 1, 1930 



MISSING SHIPS 



The hazards of the sea are many, but there is 
probably none so agonizing to those who have 
loved ones on board, as when a ship simply dis- 
appears. Such was the Joseph Me dill, the world's 
largest all-welded ship, which last month was an- 
nounced as lost after an 18 months' search. Thus 
she joined the ranks of many famous vessels 
whose fate has never been learned: the Cyclops, 
the Kobenliavn, the City of Boston, the City of 
London, the Tempest, the United Kingdom, the 
City of Glasgow, the Aurora, the Zanzibar, the 
Naronic, the Straits of Dover, the IVaratah, and a 
host of others which vanished, leaving no trace 
whatsoever. 

There are many interesting theories but few- 
facts about ships that disappear. The Joseph 
Medill sailed from Newcastle, England, on Au- 
gust 10, 1934, and headed for America. She was 
never seen nor heard of again. She vanished 
from the face of the ocean with her crew of 18. 
This modern tragedy was revealed when the 
owners, the Chicago Tribune, reluctantly an- 
nounced the end of the search for the vessel. She 
was designed to be used on the Great Lakes to 
freight paper for the Tribune. With the special 
permission of the British Board of Trade she 
sailed without radio equipment. Apprehension for 
the safety of the ship and her crew began to be 
felt when three or four weeks elapsed with no 
report of the ship being sighted, although she 
presumably followed the heavily traveled steam- 
ship lanes across the Atlantic. The owners 
chartered the auxiliary schooner Marie Yyonnc. 
equipped with a radio, to comb the North Atlantic 
in the possible hope of rescuing survivors who 
might be adrift in small boats. After 18 months 
the search was abandoned as hopeless. 

Not a stick, nor spar, nor splinter could be 
found which could be identified with the Joseph 
Medill. What happened to her? Some have ex- 
pressed the opinion that she struck a submerged 
iceberg. Others, that she was struck by lightning, 
or had defective navigation instruments. A few 
superstitious ones prefer to believe that some 
strange marine animal swallowed her up. In 
olden times, before explorations had opened up 
new trade routes, one of the common reasons ad- 
vanced when a ship vanished was that savage 
tribes from islands had waylaid the ship, de- 
stroyed her and devoured the crews ! Charles 



Robert Patterson, noted marine artist, when dis- 
cussing the subject of mysterious disappearanees 
of ships, quoted from an article published in the 
California Nautical Magazine of 1862 as follows: 
"Famine and drought ought never to occur in 
merchant vessels, but we hear repeatedly of mer- 
chant ships requiring supplies from passing ves- 
sels, and it is too much the practice to carry ALL 
the provision of water on deck, which is liable to 
be washed overboard at any moment." With a 
starving, thirsting crew and officers, ships are 
not properly manned and a severe gale will send 
them down to Davey Jones's locker. Mr. Patter- 
son recalled the experience of an old sea captain 
who reported having seen a large sailing ship 
stuck in an ice field (while rounding Cape Horn). 
He was unable to reach her with his own ship 
because of the ice and he carried to his dying day 
the memory of the helpless, starving crew aboard 
her resigned to their fate. 

Miss C. Fox Smith, in her book, Ocean Racers, 
describes the KobenJiazn, which disappeared in 
1928. She was a beautiful big Danish steel live- 
masted cadet auxiliary sailing ship. She left 
Montevideo, Uruguay, on December 28, bound 
for Australia, and was never heard from. She 
carried a crew of over 200 young Danish boys. 
"The Market Strand at Falmouth, when I saw 
her," wrote this observer, "looked as if the old 
days of the grain fleet had come again, with all 
those fine fair-haired lads strolling along the 
streets. ... It is hard to see why none of her small 
boats should have reached land, or why her wire- 
less should have failed to function. . . . The prob- 
ability is that the missing ship turned turtle 
through being struck by a sudden squall when she 
was under a heavy pressure of sail. There are a 
hundred and one contingencies which may result 
in the loss of even the most seaworthy and well- 
found of ships, and one of the queerest was that 
which befell a ship called the Eclipse while on 
passage from Newcastle to San Francisco. The 
ship was struck by a meteorite which crashed 
right through the deck and so into the sea. The 
crew pumped for four days and four nights but to 
no purpose and finally took to the boats just in 
time before she foundered." 

During the World War, the U. S. S. Cyclops 
left the Barbadoes, West Indies, on March 4. 
1918, with a crew of 309, bound for Baltimore, 
Md. She was never reported and her disappear- 
ance was considered a mystery until recently the 



10 



May 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



199 



Navy Department learned that a bomb had been 
placed in her engine room by German agents. 

Usually a ship's disappearance receives only 
inconspicuous notices in the daily press, for there 
is nothing that can be written. No fire, no wreck, 
no collision, no crisis to chronicle — only conjec- 
ture. 

THE MENACE OF THE ICEBERG 



SWEDEN SETS AN EXAMPLE 
By Senator Robert M. LaFollette, Jr. 



On April 15, 24 years since the Titanic sur- 
vivors were picked up, the Atlantic Ice Patrol 
issued one of its regular warnings that icebergs 
were approaching the steamer routes and ad- 
vised shipping to use a more southerly track. 
We seldom hear much about the Ice Patrol and 
its work, yet in its own way it is one of the 
really successful efforts of international cooper- 
ation. Since the Ice Patrol organization was set 
up after the Titanic disaster not a single life is 
believed to have been lost in the atlantic through 
collision with ice. Eleven maritime nations 
share the work and the expense. Every ship 
using the Atlantic is compelled to send partic- 
ulars of the position and direction of drift of any 
ice it meets to other ships and to the shore. This 
information is then collected and disseminated. 
The executive arm of the service is provided by 
two cutters of the United States Coastguards, 
whose upkeep is paid for by the several coun- 
tries according to the tonnage of their Atlantic 
merchant fleets. In April and May the sur- 
vivors of the great bergs which have "calved" 
from the Greenland glaciers begin to appear in 
numbers on the steamer lanes. The patrol ships 
try to keep track of all the major ones. Some- 
times they follow one for days ; occasionally one 
is blown up or split by explosives. But the 
essential matter is that the position and direction 
of all should be known. Every ship in the dan- 
ger area is supposed to report to the cutters 
every four hours, and the collected particulars 
are plotted on a large-scale chart, which gives 
a full picture of what obstacles any ship may 
be likely to meet. If the danger grows, shipping 
is advised to take a more southerly route. It is 
a pleasure to record that these international pre- 
cautions have been signally successful in over- 
coming an ancient peril of the se*a. 



Liberty means responsibility. That is why 
most men dread it. — Bernard Shaw. 



The Scandinavian countries have a lesson to 
teach to the rest of the world. Some nations are 
turning to fascism, Nazi-ism, Marxism, and other 
'isms, but these countries are quietly solving their 
economic problems without resort to either dogma 
or ballyhoo. 

Marquis Childs has written a book which sets 
forth in excellent style the story of their eco- 
nomic program as it has developed, particularly 
in Sweden. He calls it "Sweden the Middle 
Way." (Yale University Press, New Haven, 
Conn.) 

During the present economic crisis there has 
been a tendency to oversimplify problems and to 
assume that our economic ills will be solved au- 
tomatically if we will only adopt some new "sys- 
tem." This is not the case in Sweden. 

The Swedish people are not interested in ab- 
stract theories or "systems." Childs mentions in 
the introduction to his book that one of the ear- 
liest adjectives of praise used by the Scandina- 
vians was a word meaning practical. They are 
not attracted by quack remedies or fake shortcuts 
to Utopia. They are a practical people, primarily 
interested in results. 

Their approach to the current economic prob- 
lems is typical of their methods, and "Sweden 
the Middle Way" is an illuminating description 
of their success. 

In their struggle against predatory monopoly 
they have used a number of different weapons. 
The cooperative movement is one of the most 
effective. 

Cooperatives broke the control of such mo- 
nopolies as the flour and margarine cartels over 
Swedish markets and at the same time gave the 
consumer lower prices. The distributing cooper- 
atives could not buy from private business at a 
fair price in some instances, and this problem 
was solved by building cooperatively owned fac- 
tories which restored competition to the field. 

Today the cooperatives in Sweden handle 20 
per cent of the retail trade, do 10 per cent of all 
the manufacturing, market two-thirds of all the 
milk produced on the farms and three- fourths of 
all the butter, and have in their membership over 
one-third of all the families in Sweden. 

Where cooperatives have not succeeded in fur- 
nishing private business with the discipline of 



11 



2C0 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May 1, 1936 



competition, the government has stepped in to 
preserve the balance between public and private 
interests. Sometimes it has embarked upon a 
policy of outright public ownership and operation 
as in the case of public utilities and the railroads. 
In some other industries it has developed a com- 
bination of public and private ownership and con- 
trol. The outstanding examples of this are the 
tobacco and liquor industries. 

The government has assisted low cost housing. 
old age pensions, unemployment insurance, public 
education, and public recreation. Today Sweden 
is ranked among the leaders of the world in these 
social programs. Approximately $90,000,000 
have been spent by the government and the co- 
operatives for low-cost housing. This is a per 
capita expenditure of about $15. At this rate any 
comparable expenditure in the United States 
would be in excess of $2,000,000,000. The trans- 
portation and communication facilities are among 
the best in the world, and they are available to 
the masses of the people because of the low rates. 
Stockholm has more telephones for its size than 
any other city in the entire world. 

The powerful trade union movement has been 
another factor in the stabilization of Sweden's 
economy. It, too, has contributed greatly to the 
preservation of the balance between public and 
private interests in industry. 

The cooperative movement and the govern- 
ment's program have made Sweden's economv an 
outstanding success in a depression-weary world. 
Coupled witii a large program of public works 
called "reserve work," they have served to bring 
Sweden through the troublesome post-war years 
with a minimum of hardships. Last year there 
were only 43,000 people in the entire country who 
were unemployed. This is less than 1 per cent 
of the country's population. 

Not only has Sweden been able to maintain 
remarkable economic stability, but in doing so 
it has also provided the people with an unusually 
high standard of living. Mr. Childs is not over- 
estimating it at all when he remarks that the 
Swedish people have achieved "a measure of 
peace and decent living which will serve, and for 
a long time to come, perhaps, as a standard for 
larger nations." He concludes that the strength 
of the program lies in the ability of the Swedes 
to "adjust, to compromise, to meet what appears 
to be reality." 

The success of Sweden in solving her economic 



problems should be of interest to everyone con- 
cerned with the course of events in the United 
States. After making every allowance for dif- 
ferences in economic conditions in various coun- 
tries every nation can profit by a stndv of the 
Swedish example. 



FORD'S GREAT LAKES FLEET 



Sailing of the ore carrier. Henry Ford II. lot 
Kscanaba. Mich., marked the opening of the 
inter-lake navigation season for the Ford Motor 
Company's lake fleet which is scheduled this year 
to carry the heaviest tonnage of iron ore in the 
fleet's history. The Henry Ford II and the Ben- 
son Ford, the two ore carriers, are scheduled to 
transport 865,000 tons of iron ore to the Rouge- 
plant this season. This tonnage compares with 
560,000 tons last year, and 655,000 tons in 1930, 
the peak year up to the present. Increased blast 
furnace and steel finishing mill capacity as a re- 
sult of the company's $37,000,000 expansion and 
modernization program account for the increase in 
scheduled tonnage. The two largest motor ves- 
sels on the Great Lakes, the ore carriers will also 
transport 200,000 tons of limestone to the Rouge 
during the season. This tonnage combined with 
the iron ore will require about 97 trips by the two 
boats during the season. Besides the ore carriers, 
the Ford fleet in service this year will include 1 1 
barges, 3 tugs, 2 canal boats and 6 ocean-going 
vessels. 

GONE TO HIS REWARD 



In the death of Chas. K. McClatchy, owner and 
editor of Sacramento Bee and two other daily 
papers in California the seamen of America have 
lost a true and loyal champion. "C. K." as he 
was known to all his friends, was for several 
decades in the front rank of that vanishing type 
of American newspaper editors who could not 
be bought, bribed or bulldozed. Fearless and 
courageous, loyal and persevering to the end, he 
was a man any mortal was proud to name as a 
friend. Farewell, "C. K." — 

You have not lived in vain, 

Your name will live to the end of time ; 
Your record shines without a stain, 
Your faith -and courage is unslain 

To the heights of truth sublime! 



The produce of labor constitutes the natural 
recompense, or wages, of labor. — Adam Smith. 



12 



May 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



201 



ATLANTIC NOTES 

By Carl Lynch 



Two more veterans of the 1934 strike on the 
Pacific Coast are doing good work for the Inter- 
national Seamen's Union on the New York 
waterfront. They are A. L. Christopherson who 
is representing the Marine Firemen, Oilers and 
Watertenders Union of the Atlantic and Gulf 
on the West side; and Fred Kunce who visits 
the big I. M. M. ships as a delegate for the Eastern 
and Gulf Sailors Association. 



* * * 



Effective May 1 the new initiation fee of $10 
goes into effect in the Eastern and Gulf Sailors 
Association and the Marine Firemen, Oilers and 
Watertenders Union of the Atlantic and Gulf. 
An announcement from the Executive Board 
of the Eastern and Gulf Sailors Association 
states that agents may collect the new fee in full, 
or in two $5 half payments. All agents and 
delegates should clearly understand the procedure 
outlined by the board for the collection of the 
two half payments. Information on this subject 

may be obtained on application to headquarters- 
* * * 

Members of the International Seamen's Union 
of America who sail on the vessels of the Eastern 
Steamship Company demonstrated their contempt 
for the union wreckers, and their ability to do 
their own thinking, in Boston recently. The S. S. 
New York of that company had been delayed due 
to a misunderstanding over the renewal of the 
agreement. A meeting was held in Boston where 
representatives of the communist inspired New 
York provisional strike committee attempted to 
take charge and enlist the union men in the out- 
law strike attempt then in progress in New York. 
These provisional strikers were allowed to speak 
but after listening to them, the crew of the Eastern 
Steamship Company ship, all long time members 
of the I. S. U. of A. and well versed in trade 
unionism — literally tossed the strike representa- 
tives out of the hall ! Incidentally after a sane 
union meeting the misunderstandings were 
adjusted and the new agreement was signed and 
all is peaceful in Boston once again. 



* * * 



and Cuba. This company is now signatory to 
the new agreement with the union and the crews 
employed in this trade are all enthusiastic I. S. U. 

of A. men. 

* * * 

The Marine Firemen's Oilers and Watertenders 
Union of the Atlantic and Gulf is awaiting a 
decision by Mr. Justice Walsh of the Supreme 
Court of the State of New York as to whether it 
will be enjoined from operating under its new 
constitution. The court action, recently con- 
cluded was brought by a few members of the 
union, many of whom withdrew before the case 
was tried. One of the complainants, Paul Pokmir 
sent an affidavit to the union some weeks ago, 
in which he stated that he was misled by Com- 
munists and that he is now of the opinion that 
the new constitution is "for the better interests 
of the men, because I can see that these Com- 
munists are simply trying to get control of the 
union to work for political purposes." When 
the actual trial of the case started only one of the 
original complainants was present. This man, 
John Givney had been convicted last February 
of pasting alleged communist propaganda on 
United States mail boxes, according to evidence 
brought out at the trial. Many of the witnesses 
who appeared against the union were confused 
and did not seem to know just what the case 
was all about. Some of them stated in the corri- 
dor outside of the court room, that they wished 
that the trial would soon end so that they could 
get their union books back. They maintained 
that their union books were being held by William 
Standard, attorney for the group opposing the 
union, to prevent them from going to sea until 
the trial was over. After listening to a summation 
by both sides, Mr. Justice Walsh reserved decision. 



If we could abolish wars and armaments and 
advertisement and the waste of commercial com- 
petition, we could all subsist comfortably on about 
four hours' work a day. The rest of our time 
ought to be free, and education ought to prepare 
us for an intelligent use of the 20 hours a day 
during which we should be left to our own ini- 
tiative. — Bertrand Russell. 



Oather B. Womack, delegate in Tampa, Fla., 
reports the successful conclusion of negotiations 
with the P. & O. Line trading between Florida 



You will always find that those who are most 
apt to boast of national merit who have little or 
no merit of their own to depend upon. — Oliver 
Goldsmith. 



13 



202 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May 1, 1936 



SHIPPING NEWS 



The French Compagnie Generate Transatlan- 
tique are to start a new service between Le Havre 
and Leningrad, via Copenhagen and Gdynia. The 
first steamer will leave Le Havre on July 7. 

A barter contract has been arranged between 
Denmark and Chile, whereby Messrs. Burmeister 
and Wain, Copenhagen, are to supply three ships 
in return for two years' supply of Chilean nitrate, 
valued at approximately $2,500,000. 

Shipping traffic at the port of Copenhagen in 
1935 totaled 25,432 arrivals, of 7,452,041 tons. 
net, compared with 7,065,567 tons in the previous 
year, which was itself a record. Since 1930 the 
movement at Copenhagen has increased by over 
1,000,000 tons net. 

A compromise price for fish, which is below 
the demands of the fishermen, but considerably 
above the original offer of packers, was accepted 
by Columbia River fishermen for the commercial 
fishing season, thus averting a threatened strike 
such as those which have marred the last few 
fishing seasons on the river. 

The American-Hawaiian Steamship Company 
announced that the line and its subsidiaries had 
shown in March a net operating profit of $120,- 
913.68, as contrasted with a net loss of $33,890.01 
in March, 1935. After allowing for depreciation 
and after capital gains or losses, there was a net 
profit of $69,137.33, compared with a net loss 
of $85,090.64 in the previous March. 

Early construction of two turbine-driven tank- 
ers for the Union Oil Company of California has 
been reported. The new vessels, if built, will 
form the initial portion of a construction program 
which is calculated both for replacements of the 
present 11-ship fleet, as well as to meet rising 
traffic demands. Three other Pacific Coast oil 
companies are reported ready to begin replace- 
ment of their fleets of aging tankers. 

Orders have been received by Sir Joseph \Y. 
Isherwood & Co., Ltd., of London and New York 
for the designing of five large tankers to be built 
on the Isherwood bracketless system. One is to 
be built in the United States and four in Scan- 
dinavian yards. These orders are in addition to 
that for the large whaling factory vessel of 21,000 



deadweight, recently placed by the Kawasaki 
Dockyard Company, Kobe. 

The Hamburg- American steamer Vancouver, 
en route from San Francisco for Antwerp, ran 
aground at Punta Remedia, Sunday, April 5. 
Considerable damage was done to her bottom, 
and No. 1 and No. 2 holds began filling with 
water. Capt. G. Hine, master of the Vancouver, 
with the aid of the crew, was able to refloat the 
vessel and under her own power she proceeded to 
Acajutla. on the southern coast of Mexico. 

Hearing on the limitation of liabilities proceed- 
ings brought by the Ward Line in connection with 
the Morro Castle and Mohawk disasters has been 
postponed until next October by Federal Judge 
John C. Knox. It is said that an effort is being 
made to settle the claims out of court and the 
New York and Cuba Mail Steamship Company, 
formerly known as the Ward Line, is reported to 
have offered a settlement of 55 per cent of the 
provable claims. 

A new direct service between London and the 
Great Lakes is to be inaugurated this summer 
by the British-American Steamship Company, an 
undertaking registered three months ago. Start- 
ing in May, the service will include the company's 
present ships, the Baracoa (2,599 tons) and 
Bogota (2,627 tons), and four new ones. Sailings 
will be made between London and Windsor, On- 
tario, and Detroit. Michigan, via St. John, New 
Brunswick. 

The official registered details of the Cunard 
White Star liner Queen Mary are as follows: 
gros stonnage, 80,774; net tonnage, 34,118; 
length b.p., 975.2 ft.; beam, 118.6 ft.; depth 
(main deck to tank tops), 40.5 ft.; and depth 
(upper deck to tank tops), 68.5 ft. Comparable 
details of the French liner Normandie are : gross 
registered tonnage, 82,799; net tonnage, 36.471; 
length b.p., 981.4 ft.; beam, 117.9 ft.; and 
moulded depth, 57.6 ft. 

At a Dominion conference, to be held in Lon- 
don, subsidies to protect Britain's steamship lines 
in the Pacific will be asked. The conference will 
bring together representatives of Great Britain, 
Canada, Australia and New Zealand, who are 
spurred on by the report that unless action is soon 
taken there will be no English flag in the Pacific. 
The report that two British lines in the Pacific 
were hard hit by subsidized American lines has 
prompted the conference. 



14 



May 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



203 



The Barber Line motorship Tricolor, which 
achieved considerable comment in the daily press, 
due to fire on board which for a time threatened 
to engulf the entire vessel, is reported to have 
conquered the blaze. The vessel transferred her 
16 passengers to the British tanker Yarraville in 
mid-ocean, 1,000 miles east of Japan, when it 
was feared that the fire would destroy the ship. 
The crew of 40 extinguished the blaze after days 
of effort. 

Following the lead of New York City, Seattle 
will hold its first annual lifeboat race as a special 
feature of Foreign Trade Week to be celebrated 
the week of May 23. The race will be open to 
crews of merchant vessels of all nations in Seattle 
Harbor, and will be staged over a one-mile course. 
A standard 24- foot metal lifeboat manned by a 
crew of eight and a coxwain will be used in the 
race, and it is planned to have cash prizes for the 
winners as well as a keg of beer for each of the 
competing crews. 

Railroad workers anywhere in the United 
States who intend to make trips to Europe will 
now be able to get a 25 per cent reduction from 
regular steamship fares. Ship owners who are 
members of the North Atlantic Passenger Con- 
ference agreed to make the lower fare effective 
upon the request of any "responsible official" of 
the railroad upon which the prospective ocean 
traveler is employed. It is understood that the 
25 per cent reduction will -apply to cruises from 
Atlantic ports to the British Isles, France, Spain, 
Portugal, and the Scandinavian countries. 

According to information received by the In- 
ternational Labor Office, there are at present in 
the field of social insurance : 130 compulsory 
accident insurance workmen's compensation 
schemes in 54 countries ; 45 compulsory sickness 
and maternity insurance schemes in 31 coun- 
tries ; and 75 compulsory invalidity, old-age, and 
widows' and orphans' insurance schemes in 30 
countries. Compulsory sickness and maternity 
insurance covers about 90,000,000, and com- 
pulsory invalidity, old-age and widows' and 
orphans' insurance over 100,000,000 workers 
throughout the world. When the new United 
States legislation comes into operation (on 
January 1, 1937) the number of persons insured 
against old-age will be over 125,000,000. 



One of the finest sailing ships, the Finnish 
four-masted bark Herzogin Cecilie, 3,111 tons, 
which had just won the annual grain race from 
Australia for the eight time, is now lying on the 
rocks of the Devon coast, badly holed and being 
pounded to pieces by heavy seas. The ship left 
Falmouth, where she had arrived on April 23, 86 
days from Australia. It was the second fast- 
est passage among ships of the present grain 
fleet. She was bound for Ipswich and was car- 
rying her full spread of canvas when she struck 
the rocks in a dense fog, a swell afterward send- 
ing her over the sandy bottom to the cliffs be- 
yond, only 100 yards from the point where the 
famous tea clipper Halloween foundered in the 
1880's. 

Charles J. B. Christian, aged 10, a direct de- 
scendant of the leader of the mutiny on the 
Bounty, left San Francisco recently to seek his 
health on Pitcairn Island, where the mutineers 
found a haven five generations ago. His mother, 
Mrs. Edna Christian, is taking him to Pitcairn 
where life moves at an easy pace and luxuries 
are few, but there is good fishing and wild goats 
for him and his dog to chase. The boy's father, 
Fletcher Christian, left the island when he was 
17. He died last year, leaving to his widow a 
farm and two village lots on Pitcairn. Mrs. 
Christian, whose life has been spent in modern 
surroundings, said they would spend at least ten 
years and probably the remainder of their lives 
on the island. 

The Canadian Government is negotiating with 
Australian and New Zealand interests for the 
sale of the last 10 ships of its merchant marine 
fleet which originally numbered 63 vessels and in 
which Canada invested some $150,000,000. At 
the same time the Canadian-Australian Line, 
jointly owned by the Canadian Pacific and Union 
Steamship Companies, is discussing the discon- 
tinuance of its service between Vancouver and 
Antipodean ports. The line receives an annual 
subsidy from the Canadian Government, increased 
this year from $200,000 to $300,000, and subsidies 
from the New Zealand and Fiji Governments, but 
finds it difficult to compete with the more heavily 
subsidized Matson Line from San Francisco. Its 
discontinuance would end the only passenger and 
mail service between Canada and New Zealand. 



15 



204 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



Ma> 1. 1936 



LABOR NEWS 



Labor organizations will have a special section 
in the next issue of the Washington telephone di- 
rectory. This is very unusual. In most, if not 
practically all cities, the labor unions arc grouped 
in the classified section with "clubs, associations. 
etc." The new Washington phone directory will 
list them under the heading, "Labor Unions." 

The last financial statement of the Ford Motor 
Company showed the firm had an undivided sur- 
plus of $580,276,391. And if this sizable chunk 
were divided among the stockholders it would go 
to Ford, his wife and his son, who owns all the 
stock of the company. There are no wolves of 
poverty about the Ford doorstep. 

There is no warrant for the claim that women 
are displacing men in industry, according to the 
National Industrial Conference Board. In the 
40 years preceding 1930, the board reported this 
week, the proportion of women in manufacturing 
and mechanical trades declined from 19.7 to 13.4 
per cent. The board declared there is no evidence 
that women job-holders have increased unemploy- 
ment among men. 

By an 8-to-l majority, the Journeymen Tailors' 
Union has voted to merge with the Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers, it was announced by the ex- 
ecutive board of the tailors. Ballots in the na- 
tional referendum were counted by a committee 
composed of two representatives from each of 
the unions. The tailors' organization is the oldesl 
union in the needle trades. Its local union in Bos- 
ton dates back to 1812. 

The Committee on the Judiciary of the House 
of Representatives has submitted a favorable re- 
port on the bill sponsored by Senator James F. 
Byrnes of South Carolina and passed by the Sen- 
ate on August 22, 1935, "making it a felony to 
transport in interstate or foreign commerce per- 
sons to be employed to obstruct or interfere with 
the right of peaceful picketing during labor con- 
troversies." 

Senator Schwellenbach, in a recent address, re- 
ferred to Hearst's immense fortune, estimated by 
the magazine Fortune at $220,000,000, and de- 
scribed how the publisher squandered money to 
gratify his pride. For example, he spent $15,- 



000,000 on a "Bavarian castle" at Wyntoon, Calif. 
At the same time, Senator Schwellenbach pointed 
out, Hearst enforced "three separate and distinct 
deductions of 10 per cent in the salaries of his 
employes," and employed a "butcher" to visit 
his newspaper offices to make sweeping reduc- 
tions in personnel. 

Uncle Sam is getting ready to dump into the 
mails on June 15 many tons of crinky green 
paper, bearing the likeness of the Soldier-Presi- 
dent, Andrew Jackson, and representing $1,826,- 
213,950 of $50 bonds which will go to 2.000,000 
veterans in payment of their compensation cer- 
tificates. The average payment will be $491. The 
bonds may be cashed in at once or held, accumu- 
lating 3 per cent interest. With each remittance 
will go a gentle reminder that they are a safe in- 
vestment and a suggestion that they should go 
into the veterans' strong boxes. 

What is the chief issue before the American 
people in the Presidential campaign of 1936? Are 
American institutions in danger? If so, how may 
they be preserved? That progressive-minded men 
are agreed as to what is wrong, even if they dis- 
pute as to the immediate remedy, is revealed in 
the extracts from two notable speeches presented 
here: "Put men to work at wages sufficient to 
sustain a decent .standard of living," is the answer 
of Governor Frank 1). Fitzgerald, Republican, of 
Michigan, and of Charles M. Hay. of St. Louis, 
Missouri's most brilliant Democratic orator. And 
both leaders state their conclusions in strikingly 
similar language. 

American Labor is indeed fortunate in having 
its history written cooperatively by a syndicate of 
capable and friendly scholars. The monumental 
work of research organized by the veteran Prof. 
John K. Commons has produced two more vol- 
umes of the History of Labor in the United 
States. The third volume of the History < Mac- 
millan ) constitutes an immensely detailed study 
of working conditions and labor legislation in 
America, by Dr. Don Lescohier and Dr. Eliza- 
beth Brandeis. It takes up the story from the 
point to which Prof. Commons and his associates 
brought it in the first two volumes in 1918, and 
continues it down to the present time. 

A nation-wide campaign for the liberation of 
Thomas J. Mooney and Warren K. Billings, serv 
ing life sentences in California prisons on con- 
victions for complicity in the Preparedness Da> 



16 



May 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



205 



bomb explosion in San Francisco in 1916, has 
been started by the San Francisco Labor Council 
with the object of enlisting the entire labor move- 
ment in the work. There will be a mass meeting 
and demonstration in favor of the liberation of 
Mooney and Billings in the San Francisco Civic 
Auditorium on May 15. Unions throughout the 
nation are urged to organize similar mass meet- 
ings on the same date. The plan set up by the 
San Francisco Labor Council carries the endorse- 
ment of the California State Federation of 
Labor. 

Two thousand industrial, public utility and 
financial corporations increased their 1935 aver- 
age net profits 42 per cent over the previous year, 
figures released by the National City Bank of 
New York reveal. The profits, after deficits of 
some companies had been subtracted from the 
total, amounted to more than $2,500,000,000, 
compared with $1,789,000,000 in 1934. Particu- 
larly flashy reports were seen in half a dozen in- 
dustries; automobile profits were up 136 per cent, 
auto accessories 133 per cent, electrical equipment 
197 per cent ; machinery 302 per cent, copper min- 
ing 373 per cent, shipping 389 per cent and textile 
products 353 per cent. One hundred forty-nine 
"Class I" railroads slashed their combined deficit 
from almost $30,000,000 in 1934 to only $288,000 
last year. 

On the last of seven counts the United States 
Senate sustained the impeachment charges against 
Judge Halsted L. Ritter, of Florida, and he was 
automatically removed from the bench. The vote 
was 56 to 28, exactly the two-thirds majority re- 
quired. On the first six counts, each charging a 
specific irregularity, Ritter escaped by a narrow 
margin. The seventh was a sort of a blanket in- 
dictment, alleging that he had brought his court 
"into scandal and disrepute," and it was on this 
that he was convicted — the fourth time that any- 
thing like that has occurred in the history of the 
nation. The charges against Ritter were prepared 
by the House Judiciary Committee, of which 
Congressman Hatton Sumners of Texas is chair- 
man. Witnesses testified that Ritter had used his 
court to shield the power interests and in a re- 
ceivership case had granted a $90,000 fee to his 
law partner, A. L. Rankin. In return, it was al- 
leged, Rankin paid Ritter a bribe of $5,000. Rit- 
ter and Rankin told the Senate this was "an hon- 
est debt," but their denials were not convincing. 



The NRA was killed by the U. S. Supreme 
Court in June, 1935. Between July and Decem- 
ber of that year, according to Labor Department 
figures, the upward trend of wages ceased and 
average hourly wage rates were reduced by one 
cent. This meant a total loss of $5,354,000 a week 
for the 13,800,000 workers covered by the Labor 
Department's report. But — the work week was 
lengthened by three hours, thus eliminating more 
than 1,000,000 possible jobs. That is based on 
A. F. of L. estimates. True, the average weekly 
wage was increased from $20.36 to $21.90, a gain 
of $1.13 a week, but this gain was made entirely 
by working longer hours at lower hourly pay. To 
sum it up : The longer work-week closed the 
door of opportunity in the faces of at least a mil- 
lion idle workers. While it increased the em- 
ployed worker's purchasing power a miserable 3 
per cent, his production went up 14 per cent, and 
the employer's profits 40 per cent. It should be 
added that some corporations have not been sat- 
isfied with a modest 40 per cent increase. The 
profits of many of them have gone up from 100 
to 500 per cent. That's the sort of "progress" 
that got us into this depression, and will inevi- 
tably get us into another. 

William Green, president of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor, following a conference with 
Louis N. Morones, vice president of the Pan- 
American Federation of Labor, who was recently 
expelled from Mexico, gave to the press a state- 
ment in which he said in part : "A report of the 
existence of a serious condition of afifairs in the 
republic of Mexico was submitted to me by 
Brother Morones. This report is accepted as 
official because it was submitted through labor 
channels and is descriptive of a most destructive 
policy of government interference with the con- 
stitutional and legal rights of labor organizations 
in Mexico. Brother Morones was expelled from 
Mexico and driven into exile. He was not ac- 
corded a trial by a jury of his peers nor was he 
permitted to face his accusers. Former President 
Calles and a number of others were forcibly 
thrown out of Mexico with him. In addition, 39 
leaders of the Mexican Federation of Labor are 
in prison there, not because they have committed 
crimes against the government, but simply be- 
cause they are known to be labor leaders. All of 
this is shocking to the sense of justice and fair 
play so universally held by the officers and mem- 
bers of organized labor in the United States." 



17 



206 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May 1, 1936 



International Seamen's Union of America 

Affiliated with the American Federation of Labor and the 
International Seafarers' Federation 

EXECUTIVE BOARD 
President: Andrew Furuseth, American Federation of 
Labor Building, Washington, D. C. Vice-Presidents: Percy 
J. Prvor, 5 Rowes Wharf, Boston, Mass. ; Oscar Carlson 
70 South Street, New York City J D. E. Grange, 61 White 
hall Street, New York City ; G. H. Brown, 59 Pearl Street 
New York City; C. W. Deal, Ferry Building, San Fran 
cisco, Calif. ; Jas. Hayman, 1038 Third Street, Detroit 
Mich. ; Claude M. Goshorn, 810 N. Clark Street, Chicago, 
111. Editor and Leg'slative Representative: Paul Schar- 
renberg, American Federation of Labor Building, Wash- 
ington, D. C. Secretary Treasurer: Ivan Hunter, 666 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 



DISTRICT UNIONS AND BRANCHES 
ATLANTIC DISTRICT 

In Ports designated by an asterisk (♦) the Sailors, Firemen 
and Cooks maintain Joint Agencies. 

EASTERN AND GULF SAILORS' ASSOCIATION 
Headquarters 

BOSTON, Mass PERCY J. PRYOR, Secretary 

5 Rowes Wharf. Phone Liberty 1449 
Branches 

BOSTON, Mass MILLER JENSEN, Agent 

330 Atlantic Avenue. Phone Liberty 1336 

NEW YORK, N. Y G. H. BROWN, Agent 

59 Pearl Street. Phone Whitehall 4-3596 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa GEORGE FERGUSON, Agent 

41 South 4th Street. Phone Lombard 7543 

BALTIMORE, Md GERRITT VAN DER STAAY, Agent 

1700 Fleet Street. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHARLES THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Main 3524 

HOUSTON, Texas ROBERT J. NOVAK, Agent 

1212 75th Street. Phone Wayside 2377 

GALVESTON, Texas HARRY FLOYD, Agent 

318% 23rd Street. Phone 799 

♦PROVIDENCE, R. I M. SULLIVAN, Joint Agent 

375 Richmond Street. Phone Plantation 4281 

♦MARCUS HOOK, Pa N. DANIELS. Joint Agent 

2 West Third Street. Phone CHester 5-2371 

♦NORFOLK, Va FRED SORENSEN, Joint Agent 

54 Commercial Place. Phone Norfolk 25801 

♦SAVANNAH, Ga CHARLES WAID, Joint Agent 

107 Whitaker Street 

♦MOBILE, Ala WILLIAM ROSS, Joint Agent 

57% Government Street. Phone Dexter 1449 

♦PORT ARTHUR, Texas W. F. HILL, Joint Agent 

311% Procter Street. Phone Port Arthur 1066 

MARINE FIREMEN. OILERS AND WATERTENDERS' 

UNION OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y OSCAR CARLSON, Secretary 

70 South Street. Phone John 0975 
Branches 

BOSTON, MASS JOHN MOGAN, Agent 

132 Broad Street. Phone Liberty 5768 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa JOSEPH CONSIGLIO. Ageni 

222 Market Street. Phone Lombard 9194 

BALTIMORE. Md JOHN BLEY, Agent 

1700 Fleet Street. Phone Wolfe 5630 

NEW ORLEANS, La CHAS. THORSEN, Agent 

206 Julia Street. Phone Main 3524 

GALVESTON, Texas HARRY FLOYD. Agent 

318% 23rd Street. Phone 799 

HOUSTON, Texas JOSEPH LAKOVIC, Agent 

1212 75th Street. Phone Wayside 2377 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

ATLANTIC AND GULF 

Headquarters 

NEW YORK, N. Y D. E. GRANGE, President 

61 Whitehall Street. Phone Bowling Green 9-7670 and 9-7671 

Branches 
NEW YORK, N. Y. (West Side Branch) 

JAMES ALLEN. Agent 

72 Cortlandt Street. Phone Cortlandt 7-9192 

BOSTON, Mass JOHN MARTIN, Agent 

1 Rowes Wharf. Phone Liberty 4057 

BALTIMORE, Md BERTRAM WARN, Agent 

^st Pratt Street. Phone Calvert 0008 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa CHAS. HOUGAARD, Agent 

201 Chestnut Street. Phone Lombard 6580 

NEW ORLEANS, La R. T. KAIZER, Agent 

527 Canal Street. Phone Raymond 5666 



HOUSTON-GALVESTON, Texas 

JOSEPH W. ENGLAND, Ager.t 

1403 75th Street. Phone Wayside 8321 

ASSOCIATED MARINE WORKERS OF THE PORT OF 

NEW YORK AND VICINITY 

NEW YORK, N. Y WM. A. MAHER. Sec'y-Treas. 

119 Broad Street. Phone Bowling Green 9-8455 

UNITED BOATMEN'S UNION OF THE PORT OF 
NEW YORK AND VICINITY 

NEW YORK, N. Y MICHAEL WALL, Sec'y-Treas. 

105 Broad Street. Phone Whitehall 4-9034 



FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE ATLANTIC 

BOSTON, Mass 5 Rowes Wharf 

NOVA SCOTIA SEAMEN'S UNION 

HALIFAX, N. S SAMUEL C. CONNELL, Sec'y-Treas. 

39 John Street 

HARBOR BOATMEN'S UNION OF CAMDEN. 
PHILADELPHIA AND VICINITY 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa J. T. MORRIS. Secretary 

303-A Marine Building, Delaware Ave. and South St. 



FRANKLIN COUNTY BOATMEN'S UNION 

APALACHICOLA, Fla G. W. MELVIN, Secretary 



GREAT LAKES DISTRICT 

SAILORS* UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 
Headquarters 

CHICAGO. Ill CLAUDE M. GOSHORN. Secretary 

PATRICK O'BRIEN, Treasurer 

810% North Clark Street. Phone Superior 5175 

Branches 

BUFFALO. N. Y VINCENT MITCHELL, Agent 

71 MAIN STREET. Phone Cleveland 7391 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

1426 West Third Street. Phone Mair 1842 

DETROIT, Mich CARL UK KARD, A K ent 

1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac B170 

MILWAUKEE, WIS CHAS. BRADHERING, Agent 

730 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

MARINE FIREMEN. OILERS, WATERTENDERS. AND COAL 

PASSERS' UNION OF THE GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

DETROIT, Mich IVAN HUNTER, Secretary 

JAS. HAYMAN. Treasurer 

1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 

Branches 

BUFFALO, N. Y J. W. ELLISON. Agent 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7S91 

CLEVELAND. Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN. Agent 

211 Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. Third St.. Phone Main 1842 

MILWAUKEE, WIS FRANK SULLIVAN, Agent 

730 South Second Street. Phone Daily 0489 

CHICAGO, ILL CLAUDE M. GOSHORN. Agent 

810 VI- North Clark Street. Phone Superior 5175 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' UNION OF THE 

GREAT LAKES 

Headquarters 

BUFFALO. N. Y J. M. SECORD. Secretary 

71 Main Street. Phone Cleveland 7S91 
Branches 

CLEVELAND, Ohio E. J. SULLIVAN. Agent 

I'll Blackstone Bldg., 1426 W. Third St. Phone Main 1842 

DETROIT. Mich IVAN HUNTER, Agent 

1038 Third Street. Phone Cadillac 8170 

MILWAUKEE, Wis OTTO EDWARDS, Agent 

730 South Second Street. Phone Broadway 489 

CHICAGO, 111 S. R. LITTLE. Agent 

402 North Clark Street 



RIVER DISTRICT 

UNITED BOATMEN OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 
AND IT TRIBUTARIES 

MEMPHIS, Tenn JAMES MOORE. Secretary-Treasurer 

164 West Iowa Avenue 



PACIFIC DISTRICT 

INTERNATIONAL SEAMEN'S UNION OF AMERICA 

Pacific District Office, 64 Pine Street. San Francisco. Calif. 
Phone Garfield 0052 



PACIFIC COAST MARINE FIREMEN. OILERS. 

WATERTENDERS AND WIPERS' ASSOCIATION 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif EARL KING. Sec'y 

58 Commercial Street. Phone Kearny 3699 



18 



May 1, 1936 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



207 



Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash JAMES ENGSTROM, Agent 

King St. Dock, foot of King St. P. O. Box 196 
Phone Seneca 4320 

SAN PEDRO, Calif B. J. SULLIVAN, Agent 

111 West Sixth Street. Phone 2838 

PORTLAND, Ore J. E. FERGUSON, Agent 

111 Burnside Street. Phone Beacon 4336 

MARINE COOKS AND STEWARDS' ASSOCIATION OF THE 

PACIFIC COAST 

Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif EUGENE F. BURKE, Sec'y 

86 Commercial Street. Phone Kearny 5955 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash JACK CONNERS, Agent 

Room 203, Grand Trunk Dock. Phone Main 2233 

PORTLAND, Ore WM. McCOURT, Acting Agent 

127 South Burnside Street 

SAN PEDRO, Calif JOSEPH O'CONNOR, Agent 

5121/. South Beacon Street, P. O. Box 54 

FERRYBOATMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif C. W. DEAL, Secretary 

Room "B," Ferry Building. Phone Douglas 8664 
Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash JOHN M. FOX, Branch Secretary 

220 Maritime Building. Phone Elliott 4928 

PORTLAND, Ore R. A. HICKOX, Branch Secretary 

520 S. W. Second Avenue. Phone Beacon 1895 

SAN PEDRO, Calif PAUL R. BENSON, Branch Sec'y 

605 S. Beacon St. 

ALASKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 
Headquarters 

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif ANDREW VIGEN, Secretary 

49 Clay Street. Phone Sutter 6452 

Branches 

SEATTLE, Wash OSCAR ANDERSON, Agent 

86 Seneca Street, P. O. Box 42. Phone Elliott 3425 

PORTLAND, Ore MARTIN E. OLSEN, Agent 

520 S. W. Second Avenue. Phone Beacon 1895 

DEEP SEA FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

Headquarters 

SEATTLE, Wash P. B. GILL, Secretary 

86 Seneca Street, P. O. Box 65. Phone Elliott 6752 
Branch 

KETCHIKAN, Alaska GUST OLSEN, Agent 

P. O. Box A17 

COPPER RIVER AND PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND 
FISHERMEN'S UNION 

CORDOVA, Alaska MISS ESTHER OLSEN, Secretary 

P. O. Box 939 

SALMON PURSE SEINERS* UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

SEATTLE. Wash J. F. JURICH, Sec-Treas. 

84 Seneca Street 

HERRING FISHERMEN'S UNION OF THE PACIFIC 

SEATTLE, Wash P. DALE, Secretary 

84 Seneca Street 

COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE 
UNION 

ASTORIA. Ore ARVID M ATTSON. Secretary 

P. O. Box 281 

ROGUE RIVER FISHERMEN'S UNION 
GOLD BEACH, Ore HARRY E. BRIGGS, Sec'y-Treas. 

EUREKA FISHERMEN'S UNION 

EUREKA, Calif G. A. SVENSON, Secretary. 

P. O. Box 541 

DEEP SEA AND PURSE SEINE FISHERMEN'S UNION 

S\N PEDRO. Calif GEORGE IVANKOVICH, Sec-Treas. 

212 West Sixth Street 



INFORMATION WANTED 

John McElligott — injured on S. S. Point Lobos in Sep- 
tember, 1935 — please communicate with your attorney. If 
anyone knows of McElligott's whereabouts advise him to 
communicate with his attorney, Lucien V. Axtell, 80 
Broad Street, New York City, or Albert Michelson, Russ 
Building, San Francisco, Calif. 



NEWS AND COMMENT 

Concerning Seamen the World Over 



The German Government has created a new 
honorary title of "master of the kitchen," which 
it will confer upon the galley executives of its 
merchant marine. When the Hapag Lloyd liner 
Bremen arrived in New York three of her staff 
wore buttons in the lapels of their uniform coats 
indicating their new rank. These men must be 
qualified to train apprentices and direct the exec- 
utive duties of German ships. It is reported that 
the designation of "kuechenmeister" has already 
become the goal of German seagoing chefs. 

* * * 

A strike paralyzing Spain's entire merchant 
marine, beginning on May 1, has been an- 
nounced. The strike, independent from the ob- 
servation of May Day, resulted when six labor 
syndicates allied with Spanish shipping charged 
operators with failure to be "reasonable" about 
their demands for higher wages. The fisher- 
men's union likewise is joining the walkout, 
which has been called for an indefinite period. 
Miners of Pefiarroya announced that they were 
taking over great iron mines there and would 
work them "on a communistic basis," following 
the refusal of operators to rehire a number of 
miners discharged in connection with the revolt 

of October, 1934. 

* * * 

The London Daily Herald reports that a sea- 
man's last message, written to his family while 
his ship was sinking in the Atlantic 400 miles off 
the Irish coast more than two years ago was 
washed up on Aberavon Beach in South Wales 
within a mile of his home. The seaman, Joe 
Okane, was one of a crew of 29 aboard the Brit- 
ish steamer Saxilby, which sank during a gale in 
November, 1933. Apparently as the crew was 
proposing to abandon ship, Okane scrawled the 
message, "Steamer Saxilby sinking somewhere 
off Irish. Love to sisters, brothers and Dinah. 
Joe Okane." Fishermen digging for bait today 
discovered a cocoa tin containing the message. 
Okane's parents identified the handwriting. Dinah 
is Okane's widow. 



Men are never so likely to settle a question 
rightly as when they discuss it freely. — Macaulay. 



19 



208 



THE SEAMEN'S JOURNAL 



May 1. 1936 



RED TERMITES CHALLENGED BY BALTIMORE FEDERATION OF LABOR 



The following self-explanatory resolution was 
unanimously adopted at the regular meeting of 
the Baltimore, Md., Federation of Labor, on 
Wednesday, April 29, 1936: 

Whereas, An agreement was signed between the 
American Steamship Owners Association, and several 
other groups of shipowners, and the International Sea- 
men's Union of America and the Distriet Unions of the 
International Seamen's Union of America on the Atlantic 
and Gulf Seaboard; and 

Whereas, The above agreement does not expire until 
December 31, 1937; and 

Whereas, At present an organization has sprung up. 
calling themselves the International Seamen's Union of 
America "Provisional Strike Committee"; and 

Wherkas, In this graup are some of the former offi- 
cials and members of the now defunct Marine Workers 
Industrial Union, a well-known Communist group; and 

Whereas, There are groups of seamen calling them- 
selves the Rank and File Group of the International 
Seamen's Union of America. This group having con- 
nections and using the same office space as the above 
stated "Provisional Strike Committee" ; and 

Whereas, The above two groups in conjunction with 
the American Radio Telegraphers Association, known 
as the ARTA, are using every effort to stampede the 
members of the International Seamen's Union of Amer- 
ica, the Eastern & Gulf Sailors Association, Inc., the 
Marine Firemen's, Oilers & Watertenders Union of the 
Atlantic & Gulf, and the Marine Cooks & Stewards 
Union of the Atlantic and Gulf into a strike in viola- 
tion of their agreements and arbitration awards ; and 

Whereas, The above-named groups are distributing 
literature and pamphlets using the International Sta- 
men's Union of America name; and 

Whereas, At present the International Seamen's Union 
of America has applied for an injunction in the City of 
Baltimore Court; and 

Whereas, The Constitution of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor with which the International Seamen's 
Union of America is affiliated — article 4, section 5, reads 
as follows : "No organization or person that has seceded, 
or has been suspended or expelled by the American 
Federation of Labor or by any National or International 
Organization connected with the Federation shall, while 
under such penalty, be allowed representation or recog- 
nition in this Federation, or in any Central Body or Na- 
tional or International Union connected with the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor, under the penalty of the sus- 
pension of the body violating this section." . . . "No or- 
ganization officered or controlled by Communists, or any 
person espousing Communism or advocating the violent 
overthrow of our institutions, shall he allowed represen- 
tation or recognition in any Central Body or State Fed- 
eration of Labor" ; and 

Whereas, The Baltimore Federation of Labor, is a 
central body of organizations affiliated with the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor; and 

Whereas, At present the International Seamen's Union 
of America, through its affiliated organizations and 
branches is using every effort to clean and clear its or- 



ganizations of Communists and others that are members 
of the International Seamen's Union of America only for 
the purpose of "boring from within" ; and 

Whereas, At times State Federations of Labor and 
Central Labor Organizations are and may be approached 
by unscrupulous Communists and borer.s from within of 
the International Seamen's Union of America; and 

WHEREAS, At present certain unscrupulous persons. 
members of the International Seamen's Union of Amer- 
ica Provisional Strike Committee or directly affiliated 
with them, and also some of them who call themselves 
rank and file members of the International Seamen's 
Union of America in many instances already expelled 
from the International Seamen's Union of America are 
using gangster methods and doing bodily harm to mem- 
bers of the International Seamen's Union of America: 
Therefore he it 

Resolved. That we, the Baltimore Federation of Labor, 
in regular session assembled on April 29, 1936, recognize 
that the International Seamen's Union of America is the 
only organization affiliated with the American Federation 
oi Labor for the unlicensed personnel on sea-going ships, 
and we approve of the action and actions now taken by 
the International Seamen's Union of America and it's 
affiliated organization.-, and branches to purge their mem- 
bership of proven Red termites, who are endeavoring to 
destroy the International Seamen's Union of America and 
its affiliated unions and branches of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor; and he it further 

Resolved, That we approve of the actions now taken 
by the International Seamen's Union of America and its 
affiliated unions and branches in cleaning the gangster 
rule, apparently adopted by the so-called International 
beamens Union oi America Provisional Strike Com- 
mittee, the rank and file members of the International 
Seamen s Union of America and the American Radio 
relegraphers Association; and be it further 

Resolved, That we CONDEMN the "borers from 

within who call themselves the International Seamen's 
Union of America Provisional Strike Committee, rank 
and file members of the International Seamen's Union of 
America and the American Radio Telegraphers Associa- 
tion for their actions in attempting to stampede the mem- 
bers of the Interna